Costa, Daniel N. R., Savaris, Marcoandre, Marinoni, Luciane & Mathis, Wayne N., 2016, Two new, brachypterous Limnellia species from the Venezuelan Andes (Diptera: Ephydridae), Zootaxa 4144 (3), pp. 301-315: 302-303

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Tribe Scatellini  Wirth and Stone

Scatellini  Wirth and Stone 1956: 466. Type genus: Scatella Robineau-Desvoidy 1830  .─ Mathis and Zatwarnicki 1995: 254 –288 [world catalog].─ Mathis et al. 2014: 561 –576 [review of genera and species from Brazil]. 

Diagnosis. Specimens of Scatellini  may be distinguished from other Ephydridae  by the following combination of character states: Head: Mesofrons subquadrate, slightly wider posteriorly, appearing dull, densely microtomentose or shiny with metallic luster; lacking interfrontal setae; usually 2 lateroclinate, fronto-orbital setae (most genera) or 1 ( Limnellia Malloch  , most Scatophila Becker  ). Antenna relatively short; arista essentially bare, macropubescent (most genera) or bearing long dorsal rays ( Philotelma Becker  ). Face projected, setulose to moderately densely pilose, marginal setae usually larger; dorsum of interfoveal hump usually similar to rest of face, dark colored in a few species, not shiny; eye bare, usually as wide as high, nearly round to obliquely oval, generally oriented obliquely to plane of epistoma; gena short to high, usually bearing a genal seta (most genera) or lacking ( Haloscatella Mathis  , Lamproscatella Hendel  , Philotelma  , Thinoscatella Mathis  ); oral opening moderately large, gaping, usually concealing clypeus. Thorax: Dorsocentral setae 2–3 (0+2, 1+2), some setae sometimes weakly developed, the posteriormost seta displaced laterally from alignment of others; intrapostalar seta lacking or weakly developed; presutural supra-alar seta variable, subequal or larger than anterior notopleural seta ( Scatella (Parascatella) Cresson  ) or greatly reduced, weakly developed (most genera); postsutural supra-alar seta often reduced or lacking; 2 notopleural setae, placement of posterior seta variable, usually at same level as anterior seta; proepisternum lacking setae but often with a few setulae; prosternum bare of setae or setulae; anepisternum bearing 1 large seta just dorsad of midheight along posterior margin, several smaller setulae may also be present; anepimeron, meron, and metapleuron bare of setae. Wing hyaline to conspicuously infuscate with or without white spots; costal vein extended to vein M (most genera) or to vein R4+5 ( Scatophila  ); vein R2+3 usually long, terminating at approximately same distance from vein R4+5 as tip of vein M is from vein R4+5. Hindcoxal strap not setose; pulvilli normally developed; tarsal claws short, curved. Abdomen: Male with 5 visible abdominal tergites, tergite 5 distinctly trapezoidal or triangular; female with 6, sometimes 7, visible tergites, tergite 5 subtrapezoidal, not triangular. Male terminalia: Surstylus usually fused with ventral margin of epandrium and not evident (most genera) or evident as lobes, perhaps secondarily developed ( Lamproscatella  , Limnellia  ); aedeagus usually a sclerotized structure (apparently basiphallus) ( Amalopteryx Eaton  , Haloscatella  [other than New Zealand species], Lamproscatella  , Limnellia  , Scatella  , Scatophila  , Thinoscatella  ) or with a sclerotized basiphallus and a membranous distiphallus invested with short, sharp scales or scale-like thorns (some Haloscatella  [species from New Zealand], Philotelma  ); ejaculatory apodeme lacking ( Amalopteryx  , Haloscatella  , Lamproscatella  , Limnellia  , Philotelma  , Scatophila  , Thinoscatella  ) or present as an L-shaped, flattened (dorsoventrally) structure ( Apulvillus Malloch  , Neoscatella Malloch  , Scatella  , Synhoplos Lamb  , Teichomyza Macquart  ); phallapodeme rudimentary, rodlike, lacking a keel ( Amalopteryx  , Haloscatella  , Lamproscatella  , Limnellia  , Philotelma  , Scatophila  ) or greatly reduced or lacking ( Apulvillus  , Neoscatella  , Scatella  , Synhoplos  , Teichomyza  ); gonites and hypandrium fused forming a single structure (“gonal arch”) ( Amalopteryx  , Haloscatella  , Lamproscatella  , Thinoscatella  , Apulvillus  , Neoscatella  , Scatella  , Synhoplos  , Teichomyza  , ground plan of Limnellia  ) or separated into medial sclerite “hypandrium” and lateral structures representing gonites ( Philotelma  , New Zealand Haloscatella  , most Scatophila  ) or separated medioventrally into 2 lateral structures “gonites” (most Limnellia  ) (2 separate gonites are present also in some Scatophila  (avida group), in which the “hypandrium” is reduced.

Discussion. Olafsson (1991) suggested that the tribe Scatellini  , as characterized here, is monophyletic. We are less confident of the monophyly of this tribe, and the senior author is now re-examining and reanalyzing evidence to test this hypothesis.

Many of the eight included genera ( Amalopteryx  , Haloscatella  , Lamproscatella  , Limnellia  , Philotelma  , Scatella  [subgenera: Apulvillus  , Neoscatella  , Scatella  , Synhoplos  , Teichomyza  ], Scatophila  , Thinoscatella  ) are found throughout the world in temperate and tropical zones. Although largely undescribed, there is considerable species diversity at higher elevations associated with the Andes in South America , where we have collected specimens at localities above 5000 m ( Colombia). 

Worldwide there are over 245 species in Scatellini  ( Mathis and Zatwarnicki 1995 and electronic updates), and in the Neotropical Region there are records of four genera and nearly 70 species with a majority being classified in the genus Scatella  and its included subgenera.













Costa, Daniel N. R., Savaris, Marcoandre, Marinoni, Luciane & Mathis, Wayne N. 2016


Mathis 2014: 561
Mathis 1995: 254
Wirth 1956: 466