Leptohyphes zalope Traver

Baumgardner, D. E. & Mccafferty, W. P., 2010, Revision of the genus Leptohyphes Eaton (Ephemeroptera: Leptohyphidae) in North and Central America, Zootaxa 2360 (1), pp. 1-33 : 28-30

publication ID

https://doi.org/ 10.11646/zootaxa.2360.1.1

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scientific name

Leptohyphes zalope Traver


Leptohyphes zalope Traver

Leptohyphes zalope Traver 1958:85 ; Allen, 1978.

Leptohyphes zelus Allen 1978:557 ; Baumgardner and McCafferty, 2000 (syn).

Leptohyphes vulturnus Allen, 1978:557 new synonym

Diagnosis: Leptohyphes zalope larvae can be differentiated from other species of Leptohyphes in the larval stage in North and Central America by the following characters: (1) a pair of submedian elongate setae present on the posterior margin of abdominal terga 2-9; (2) the presence of numerous sublateral robust setae on the posterior margin of abdominal terga 2-9 (terga 2 and 3 each with four to six setae; terga 4 and 5 each with six to eight setae; tergum 6 with 8-14 setae; terga 7 with 10-20; tergum 8 with 12-18; tergum 9 with four to six setae; tergum 10 with zero to two) (Fig. 55); (3) more than ten robust setae present on dorsal surface of meso- and metafemora (Fig. 56); (4) vertex of head with a complex head pattern ( Fig. 21 View FIGURES 21–25 ); (5) large body size of mature larvae (5 to 8 mm in length), and dark reddish brown coloration of mature larvae (often fading in alcohol preserved material). In the adult stage, the dark reddish-brown body with grayish abdomen will tentatively distinguish this species from others in the genus in North and Central America.

Description: Male Adult: Length. Body, 3.0–5.5 mm; forewings, 4.0–6.0 mm; hind wings, 0.5–1.0 mm. General coloration highly variable from yellow or gray to light to dark reddish brown. Head: gray with extensive black maculation; antennae brownish. Thorax: pronotum gray with black shading; meso- and metathorax ranging from yellow-brown to light reddish-brown to dark brown. Legs: gray with black stippling. Forewing (Fig. 57): membrane pale brown; veins pale reddish-brown; C, Sc, and R darker grayish-brown; vein CuP not strongly curved towards A; vein ICu 2 united basally with ICu 1; ICu 1 attached basally to CuA by cross vein; MP 2 united basally to CuA and IMP by cross veins. Hind wing: membrane pale brown; three longitudinal veins present; costal process well developed; hind margin of fore- and hind wings fringed with filiform setae. Abdomen. Coloration variable; tergites with yellow to gray to reddish brown background color, overshadowed by black stippling giving gray cast. Genitalia pale reddish-brown, forceps three-segmented, penes with basal half fused, distal parts divergent, “Y” shaped; each penal lobe with single posterolateral spine; cerci and median caudal filament present, well developed.

Larva: Length. Body, 4.0–7.5 mm; caudal filaments, 3.5–7.0 mm. General coloration light brown to brown to dark reddish-brown with dark brown markings. Head: dark reddish-brown with complex black pattern on vertex ( Fig. 21 View FIGURES 21–25 ); in pre-emergent larvae, vertex often entirely reddish-brown or black without complex pattern; antennae pale. Thorax: brown to reddish-brown with irregular dark brown and black markings; without anterolateral projections and median tubercle. Legs. Proleg (Fig. 58): femur with transverse row of elongate setae along dorsal surface; anterior margin with stout setae along basally half of margin; posterior margin with elongate and stout setae along distal half of margin; tibia with one row of elongate along anterior margin, and one row of setae along anterolateral margin; posterior margin with few, scattered filiform setae; tarsus with one row of elongate setae along anterior margin; scattered filiform setae along distal inner margin. Meso- and metalegs (Fig. 56): femora with numerous (> 10) setae on dorsal surface; anterior margin with robust setae along most of margin; posterior margin with densely spaced elongate setae along most of margin; tibiae with elongate setae present along most of anterior and posterior margins; tarsus with elongate setae along anterior margin; posterior margin with few, scattered filiform setae. Claws of all legs with five to nine marginal and one submarginal denticle (Fig. 59). Abdomen: coloration variable, often depending on larval instar; more mature larvae generally dark reddish-brown; less mature larvae pale yellow to pale reddish-brown; tergites two through nine with numerous robust setae on sublateral margins (terga two and three each with four to six setae; terga four and five each with six to eight setae; tergum six with eight to fourteen setae; terga seven with ten to twenty setae; tergum eight with twelve to eighteen setae; tergum nine with four to six setae; tergum ten with zero to two); operculate gill brown to dark reddish-brown; gill formula 2/5/5/5/1.

Distribution: Leptohyphes zalope is very widely distributed, known from the southwestern United States (Arizona, Texas), Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, and Costa Rica ( Baumgardner and McCafferty, 2000). The adult was associated with the larval stage based upon reared specimens from Texas ( Baumgardner and McCafferty, 2000).

Discussion: Both L. vulturnus and L. zelus were described by Allen (1978) on the basis of a larva from Honduras ( L. vulturnus ) and a long series of larvae from Guatemala and Honduras ( L. zelus ). Theses two species were distinguished from all other species of Leptohyphes based upon the presence of distinct submedian and sublateral setae on the posterior margin of abdominal terga 2-9 (see Fig. 39 View FIGURES 37–43 , Allen, 1978), and were distinguished from each other based upon minor color differences of the abdominal terga. Examination of extensive series of larvae from throughout Central America show the abdominal color patterns of both the species, and numerous intermediate forms support the synonymy of L. vulturnus with L. zelus under L. zalope (see Baumgardner and McCafferty, 2000 for the association of L. zalope with its larval stage). The presence of numerous submedian and sublateral setae on the abdominal terga distinguish the larvae from all other known Leptohyphes larvae in North and Central America.

Some of the confusion in determining the concept of Leptohyphes zelus involves the original figures describing this species. When Allen (1978) described L. zelus , he referred to figure 39 (p. 548) to show the pattern of setae on the abdominal tergites. However, this exact same figure had been used to describe Leptohyphes consortis (figure 30, page 93) by Allen and Brusca (1973), five years earlier. Figure 30 View FIGURES 26–31 in Allen and Brusca (1973) does not resemble the holotype of L. consortis , but instead agrees with the description of L. zelus . The holotype of L. zelus was collected in 1964, and perhaps Allen confused the undescribed L. zelus with L. consortis when he was describing L. consortis .

Lugo-Ortiz and McCafferty (1995) considered L. zelus a synonym of Leptohyphes lumas Allen and Brusca based upon overall morphological similarity of the larvae. Baumgardner and McCafferty (2000) considered Leptohyphes zelus , L. apache , L. ferruginus , L. hispidus , L. lumas , L. piraticus , and L. succinus synonyms of Leptohyphes zalope , based upon overall morphological similarity of each of the species in the larval stage. Examination of the types of L. zelus and L. vulturnus , a better understanding of original description errors, and extensive studies of numerous specimens of Leptohyphes have demonstrated that they are distinct from L. apache (= L. hispidus , L. lumas , and L. succinus , see discussion of L. apache ) and L. ferruginus (= L. piraticus , see discussion of L. ferruginus ), based upon the presence of numerous submedian and sublateral setae on the posterior margin of abdominal terga 2-9, which are absent, or greatly reduced, in all other known species of Leptohyphes in North and Central America.

The holotype of L. vulturnus is faded and in overall poor condition. Its head has been removed, along with all the legs and gills on the right side of the body. There are, however, apparently no associated slides, or any indication of any associated slides. The abdominal color pattern of the terga is visible, along with the submedian and sublateral setae. The holotype of L. zelus is deposited at Florida A&M University and is in good condition.

Type material examined: Leptohyphes vulturnus Allen, 1978 . HOLOTYPE, larva; HONDURAS: Dept. Cortes, 2 mi. N. Carcol at Bridge on Hwy.#1, Rio Blance. 18-X-1964, J.S. Packer ( FSCA / FAMU E2044.1). Leptohyphes zalope Traver. PARATYPES: MEXICO: 4 mi. S. of Rio Papagayo Bridge on Río Zalope, 4.i.1948, S. Mulaik, 12 male adults (in 4 vials, 1 associated slide) [ FAMU]. Leptohyphes zelus Allen, 1978 . HOLOTYPE: Honduras, Dept. Comayagua, 3 mi. N. Taulabe on Hwy. #1, large river, 20-X-64, JS Packer, 1L [ FSCA ( FAMU) #2045.1 T]. PARATYPES: Honduras, Dept. Comayagua, 3 mi. N. Taulabe on Hwy. #1, large river, 20-X-1964, JS Packer, 5L [ CAS] (2 associated slides); Honduras, Dept. Cortes, Chamelecon, Rio Chamelecon, 18-X-1964, JS Packer, 1L [ FAMU]; Honduras, Dept. Francisco, Morazan, 10 mi. E. Guaimaca on Hwy. #3, small stream, 6-XI-1964, JS Packer, 4L [ FSCA ( FAMU) #2045. T]; Honduras, Dept. F. Morazan, stream 6.5 mi. From jct. Hwy. #3 and Hwy. #5 on hwy. #5, 7-XI-1964, JS Packer, 2L [ CAS]; Honduras, Dept. Olancho, stream 1 mi. W. Campamento, Galera turn-off on Hwy. #3, 7-XI-1964, JS Packer, 1L [ CAS]; Honduras, El Paraiso, small stream ca. 3 Km, E. Danli, 29-VIII-1964, JS Packer, 2L [ CAS]; Honduras, Dept. Comayagua, stream 5 mi. S., on Hwy. 1 at bridge, 17-X-1964, JS Packer, 1L [ CAS]; Dept. Comayagua, Rio Humuya 1 mi. N. Comayagua at bridge, 17-X-1964, JS Packer, 1L [ CAS]; Dept. Cortes, Rio Blanco 2 mi. N. Carcol at bridge on Hwy. #1, 18-X-1964, JS Packer, 3L [ CAS]; Honduras, Dept. Francisco Morazan, stream nr. La Venta at Jct. Hwy. #3 and Rio Choluteca, 7-XI-1964, JS Packer, 1L [ CAS]; Honduras, El Paraiso, stream ca. 8 Km E. Danli, 29-VIII-64, JS Packer, 1L [ CAS], 4L [ FSCA ( FAMU) E2045. T; Honduras, Rio Clarrita at San Morano on Hwy. To Escuela Agricola, 29-X-1968, RK Allen, 4L, Elev. 3000', Temp 78E F [ CAS]; Guatemala, Rio Latoma at Km. 182 on CA 2 (2,300'), 24-VII-1966, RK Allen, 44L [ CAS]; Honduras, Dept. El Paraiso, 50 km E. Danli, Trib. Rio Guayambre at Junct. Hwy. #4, 3-IX-64, JS Packer, 1L [ FAMU].

Other material examined: COSTA RICA: Alajuela: Rio Negritos at Hwy. 140, 2 Km E. Agua Zarcas (N10°22’20”; W84°19’10”, elev. 1300 ft), 09.vi.2001, 2L [ TAMU]; Chachagua , Rio Chachagua (N10°23’; W84°35’), 16.i.2000, WDS GoogleMaps , 12L [ TAMU]; Rio Guayabo at Hwy. 140, 1.8 Km E. Venicia (N10°40’45”; W84°15’13”, elev. 1400 ft), 9.vi.2001, DEB GoogleMaps , 3L [ TAMU]; N. of Bijagua, Río Bijagua (N10°43’35”; W85°04’58”), 06.vi.2000, WDS GoogleMaps , 6L [ TAMU]; 2.7 km S. La Fortuna, Río Burro (N10°27’; W84°38’), 16.i.2000, WDS GoogleMaps , 12L [ TAMU]; NE of Bijagua, nr. Las Flores, Rio Areuo (N10°21’06”; W85°21’05”), 07.vi.2000, WDS GoogleMaps , 30L [ TAMU]; 12 Km. E. Arenal , unnamed stream (N10°28’; W84°47’), 16.i.2000, WDS GoogleMaps , 6L [ TAMU]; La Fortuna, Quebrada Burio (N10°28’; W84°39’), 15.i.2000, WDS GoogleMaps , 20L [ TAMU]. Cartago: Rio Kiri ca. 10 Km SE Orosi (N09°46’05”; W83°48’04”, elev. 3980 ft), 25-26.vi.2001, DEB GoogleMaps , 5L [ TAMU]; Rio Orosi, ca. 8 Km SE Orosi (N09°45’52”; W83°47’47”, elev. 3700 ft.), 26.vi.2001, DEB GoogleMaps , 2L [ TAMU]. Guanacaste: 4.5 km N. Bagaces, Rio Piedras , 17.vi.2000, WDS , 3L [ TAMU]; Rincon de la Vieja Pk. , trail, 18.i.2000, WDS , 7L [ TAMU]; 6 km S San Miguel, Hwy. 1, Quebrada Culvert (N10°19’; W85°03’), 23.i.2000, WDS GoogleMaps , 25L [ TAMU]; 4.8 km N Canas, Hwy. 142, Rio Santa Rosa , 17.i.2000, WDS , 15L [ TAMU]; Canas, Rio Canas (N10°26’; W85°06’), 23.i.2000, WDS GoogleMaps , 20L [ TAMU]; Rincon de la Vieja Lodge , unnamed stream (N10°45’; W85°21’), 19.i.2000, WDS GoogleMaps , 20L [ TAMU]; 4 Km W. Arenal , unnamed spring run, 17.i.2000, WDS , 4L [ TAMU]. Heredia: La Selva Biological Station, SW Puerto Viejo, Sura Creek at Rio Puerto Viejo (N10°25’49”; W84°00’06”, elev. 100 ft.), 09.vi.2001, DEB GoogleMaps , 7L [ TAMU]; Rio Isla Grande at Hwy. 4, ca. 5 Km. W. of Rio Frio (N10°23’31”; W83°58’04”, elev. 200 ft.), 10.vi.2001, DEB GoogleMaps , 3L [ TAMU]. Limon: Unnamed creek at Hwy. 32, ca. 3 Km W. of Pocora (N10°10’38”; W83°37’03”, elev. 340 ft.), 10.vi.2001, DEB GoogleMaps , 20L [ TAMU]. Puntarenas: Rio Ceibo at CA Hwy. 2, SW Buenos Aries (N09°08’57”; W83°22’30”, elev. 800 ft.), 25.vi.2001, DEB GoogleMaps , 4L [ TAMU]; Río Jaba at Las Cruses Biological Station, ca. 14 Km. S. San Vito (elev. 4000 ft.), DEB , 23-24.vi.2001, 2 females (reared), 3 males (reared), 7L [ TAMU]; Quebrada Culebra at Las Cruses Biological Station, ca. 14 Km S. San Vito , 24.vi.2001, DEB , 14L [ TAMU]; Las Cruces Biological Station, Quebrada Culvert , 16.vi.2000, WDS , 7L [ TAMU]; 5 Km SE Coloradito Norte , unnamed river (N08°34’41”; W82°52’28”), 17.vi.2000, WDS GoogleMaps , 4L [ TAMU]; 1 Km S Coloradito Norte, Rio Coloradito at Hwy. 2 (N08°36’10”; W82°54’07”), 17.vi.2000, WDS GoogleMaps , 7L [ TAMU]; unnamed ck at Hwy. 34, 11.9 Km SE Dominical (N09°11’48”; W83°46’57”, elev. 80 ft.), DEB GoogleMaps , 22.vi.2001, 1L [ TAMU]; 5.8 km S. Alturus , unnamed stream (N08°54’25”; W82°50’49”, elev. 1230 m), 18.vi.2000, WDS GoogleMaps , 20L [ TAMU]; 5.4 km NW San Gerado , 25.i.2000, WDS , 11L [ TAMU]; 14.5 Km N. Ciudad Neily , unnamed stream (N08°42’44”; W82°56’05”, elev. 1069 m), WDS GoogleMaps , 17.vi.2000, 2L [ TAMU]; 4.1 Km N Dominical on Hwy. 243, unnamed river (N09°16’51”; W83°50’55”), 14.vi.2000, WDS GoogleMaps , 6L [ TAMU]. San Jose: Rio Pedregoso at Hwy. 243, ca. 4 Km S. San Isidro de El General (N09°21’15”; W83°43’35”, elev. 2000 ft.), 22.vi.2001, DEB GoogleMaps , 7L [ TAMU]. GUATEMALA: Alta Verapaz: Río Stainkreec,.8 Km E. from jct. of Hwy. 9&10, Río Hondo (N15°02’23”; W89°35’14”, elev. 600 ft), 15.vii.2001, DEB GoogleMaps , 15L [ TAMU]. Rio Cahabon at Hwy. 7E, San Julian (N15°19’09”; W90°19’06”, elev. 4700 ft), 14.vii.2001, DEB GoogleMaps , 1L [ TAMU]. Baja Verapaz: Rio San Jeronimo at San Jeronimo (N15°03’52”; W90°14’03”, elev. 3110 ft), 13.vii.2001, DEB GoogleMaps , 3L [ TAMU]. unnamed creek at CA Hwy. 14, ca. 2.6 Km S. Purulha (N15°13’34”; W90°13’80”, elev. 5100 ft), 14.vii.2001, DEB , 3L [ TAMU]. El Progreso: Rio Hato at CA Hwy. 9, ca. 5.9 Km E. from jct. with Hwy. 17, Magdalena (N14°55’11”; W89°57’56”, elev. 1040 ft), 14.vii.2001, DEB GoogleMaps , 41L [ TAMU]. Quebrada Las Pericas at Hwy. 17, 11.1 Km W. from jct. with Hwy. CA 9 , (N14°54’54”; W90°05’52”, elev. 1040 ft) GoogleMaps , 12.vii.2001, DEB , 28L [ TAMU]. Zacapa: Rio Cayo at CA Hwy. 9, 2.3 Km E. Santa Cruz (N15°00’54”; W89°39’09”, Elev. 830 ft.), 14.vii.2001, DEB GoogleMaps , 3L [ TAMU]. HONDURAS: Comayagua: Taulabe, Rio Tamalito (N14°41’; W87°55’), 13.iii.2002, R GoogleMaps . Caesar, A. Cognato, A. Harlin, J. Torres, 4L [ TAMU] . MEXICO: Nuevo Leon: Cabazones R . at Hwy. 85, 15 mi. N. Linares , 16.v.1995, DEB , 8L [ TAMU]. Pobillo R. at St. Hwy. 115, near Linares , 15.v.1995, DEB , 12L [ TAMU]. Queretaro: Bucareli, Rio Estorax (N21°02’05”; W99°37’03”), 11.vii.2000, WDS GoogleMaps , 1L [ TAMU]. San Louis Potosi : Naranjo R . at Hwy. 80, nr. Naranjo (town), 18.v.1995, DEB , 2L [ TAMU]. Rio Moctezuma at Tamazunchale on Hwy. 85 (elev. 400 ft), 18.viii.1977, RKA , 7L [ CAS]. Tamaulipas: Rio Purification on Hwy. 85, (elev. 800 ft), 16.viii.1977, RKA , 1L [ CAS]. R. Guayalejo (Tamasi), off Hwy 247 nr. San Ignacio, 26.v.1993, BC Henry, 30L [ TAMU]. Branch of Chihue R . at Hwy. 101, ca. 12 mi. S. Juamave, nr. Kilo. Marker #91, (elev. 3575 ft), 17.v.1995, DEB , 2L [ TAMU]. UNITED STATES: Arizona: Navajo Co.; North Fork White River at SR 55, Whitewater N33°49'47"; W109°57'36", elev. 5170 ft.), 23.v.2004, DEB GoogleMaps , 10L, [ TAMU]. Texas: Bastrop Co.; McKinney Roughs, Colorado River at Wilbarger Bend about 8 mi. west of Bastrop , Balconian , 23.xi.1996, NA Wiersema, 3L [ TAMU]. Bastrop Co. ; Pedernales Falls State Park , Pedernales River , 5-6.IX.1997, NA Wiersema & CR Nelson, 1L [ TAMU]. Hays Co. ; San Marcos, pool below fall at University Drive, 25.iii.1978, P. Foerster, 2L [ TAMU]. Hays Co. ; San Marcos R . at Co. Rd. 101 (Caners Crossing), 1 mi. below conf. with Blanco R ., in San Marcos City Limits, at Hays / Caldwell Co. Line , 21.ii.1997, DEB & DE Bowles, 2M (reared), 2F (reared), 6L [ TAMU]. Hays Co.; San Marcos R . at Cheatum St. in San Marcos , 22.II.1997, DEB & DE Bowles, 20L, 1 male adult (reared) [ TAMU]. Kerr Co.; Guadalupe R . just off Hwy. 27, nr. Center Point , 14.iii.2000, DEB , 5L [ TAMU]. Kimble Co.; Llano R . at Texas Tech Field Station, Junction , 14.iii.2000, DEB , 25L, 1F (reared) [ TAMU]. Kimble Co.; S. Llano River, nr. Junction , (N38°28'18"; W99°44'4”), 24.ii.1998, DE Bowles, 6L [ TAMU]. Kimble Co. ; Junction South Llano Riverat Hwy. 456, 13.X.1996, R GoogleMaps . Waugaman, 1L [ TAMU] .


Florida State Collection of Arthropods, The Museum of Entomology


Tavera, Department of Geology and Geophysics


California Academy of Sciences


Chicago Academy of Sciences


Texas A&M University


Departamento de Geologia, Universidad de Chile














Leptohyphes zalope Traver

Baumgardner, D. E. & Mccafferty, W. P. 2010

Leptohyphes zelus

Allen, R. K. 1978: 557

Leptohyphes vulturnus

Allen, R. K. 1978: 557

Leptohyphes zalope

Traver, J. R. 1958: 85