Orthopagus splendens (Germar, 1830)

Song, Zhi-Shun, Malenovsky, Igor, Chen, Jian-Qin, Deckert, Juergen & Liang, Ai-Ping, 2018, Taxonomic review of the planthopper genus Orthopagus (Hemiptera, Fulgoromorpha, Dictyopharidae), with descriptions of two new species, Zoosystematics and Evolution 2, pp. 369-391: 377-379

publication ID


publication LSID


persistent identifier


treatment provided by

Zoosystematics and Evolution by Pensoft

scientific name

Orthopagus splendens (Germar, 1830)


Orthopagus splendens (Germar, 1830)  Figs 1B, 2 K–L, 3F, 10 A–I

Flata splendens  Germar, 1830: 48. Syntype(s) (number of specimens and sex unknown), Java, Indonesia (not examined).

Pseudophana splendens  : Westwood 1839: 151.

Dictyophora  [sic] splendens  : Walker 1851: 310.

Anagnia splendens  : Stål 1861: 149.

Udugama splendens  : Distant 1906): 249.

Udugama flavocarinata  Bierman, 1907: 161; Bierman (1908): 151, Pl. 3, fig. 1. Syntypes 2 males, 1 female, Semarang, Java, Indonesia (not examined). Synonymized under Orthopagus splendens  (Germar) by Melichar 1912: 59.

Orthopagus splendens  : Oshanin 1908: 444; Melichar 1912: 59; Yang and Yeh 1994: 108, 116, figs 71, 76.

Orthopagus splendens var. tibialis  Kirkaldy in Kirkaldy & Muir, 1913: 12. Syntypes (number of specimens and sex unknown), Macao, China (not examined).

Material examined.

CHINA: Hainan island: 1 male, Hainan, 5.v.1934, C. Ho leg.; 2 females, Shuiman, 640 m, 25.v.1960, C. Q. Li leg.; 2 males, 5 females, Tongshi, 340 m, 23. and 25.vi.1960, C. Q. Li leg.; 1 female, Yinggen, 200 m, 6.vii.1960, S. F. Li leg.; Yunnan province: 1 male, 1 female, Hekou, 80 m, 7.vi.1956, K. R. Huang leg.; 3 females, Hekou, Xioananxi, 200 m, 8.vi.1956, K. R. Huang leg.; 1 male, Gaoligong Mountain, 1000 m, 20.viii.1958, C. L. Li leg.; 1 male, Malipo, 20.vii.1958; 1 female, Xishuangbanna, Menga, 1050 m, 18.ix.1957, F. J. Pu leg.; 1 male, 1 female, Xishuangbanna, Menglun, 600 m, 9.ix.1993, H. L. Xu & L. L. Yang leg.; 1 male, Xishuangbanna, Menglun, 10.ix.1993, X. Y. Cheng leg. (all IZCAS). VIETNAM: 1 female, Lao Kay, 31.v.1960, at light, K. Galewski leg. ( MZPW); 1 male, 1 female, Ninh Binh, Cuo-phuong, 5., 7, and 8.vi.1966, R. Bielawski & B. Pisarski leg. ( MZPW); 2 males, 22 km S of Nha Trang, 20-26.xi.1960, C. M. Yoshimoto leg. ( BPBM); 1 male, DaiLanh, N of Nha Trang, 30.xi.-5.xii.1960, C. M. Yoshimoto leg. ( BPBM). THAILAND: Trang province: 1 male, Khaophappha Khaochang, 200-400 m, 3.i.1964, G. A. Samuelson leg. ( BPBM). INDIA: Assam: 1 female, Mazbat near Mangaldai, 11-15.x.1910 (coll. Distant, BMNH). MALAYSIA: Penang: 1 male, Island of Penang, Baker leg. ( USNM). INDONESIA: Java: 1 male, Java (West), Djasinga, 5.i.1966, J. Stusak ( BPBM); 1 female, Samarang, iv.1909, E. Jacobson; 1 female, same but vi.1909 (both coll. Melichar, MMBC); 1 female, Wied. in CW. Java, GW [handwriting] (coll. Zool. Mus. Leipzig Übernahme 1971, SNSD); 1 male, Java [handwriting] ( MFNB).


Measurements (3 males, 11 females). Body length (from apex of head to tip of forewings): male 10.3-11.8 mm, female 12.7-13.6 mm; head length (from apex of cephalic process to base of eyes): male 1.28-1.36 mm, female 1.35-1.48 mm; head width (including eyes): male 1.30-1.49 mm, female 1.50-1.59 mm; forewing length: male 8.5-9.1 mm, female 10.4-11.3 mm.

Coloration. General coloration as in generic description (Figs 1B, 2 K–L). Vertex predominantly dark brown, lateral margins with a pale greenish or ochraceous S-shaped streak in posterior three quarters, median ca rina anteriorly light in some specimens (Figs 1B, 10A). Frons light ochraceous with small dark brown spots along intermediate and lateral carinae and indistinct infuscation at base (Fig. 10C). Forewing membrane pattern as in Fig. 3F. Hind wing membrane with a narrow dark brown infuscation along the apical portion of CuA1 vein, extending into a narrow infuscation along hind wing apical margin.

Structure. Head with cephalic process relatively short (Fig. 10 A–B). Vertex (Fig. 10A) with ratio of length at midline to width between eyes 1.5-1.6. Transition of vertex to frons narrowly rounded in lateral view, cephalic process not inflated apically (Fig. 10B). Frons relatively narrow, with ratio of length at midline to maximum width 2.8-3.1.

Male genitalia. Pygofer, in lateral view, similar to O. philippinus  , with dorso-posterior margin with a large and relatively narrow, tooth-like, apically obtuse process (Fig. 10E); pygofer with ratio of ventral to dorsal width about 2.6 (Fig. 10D, F). Gonostyles (Fig. 10E) large, broad medially, with dorsal margin weakly sinuate. Aedeagus (Fig. 10 G–I) with endosomal processes very long, extended posteriad and strongly curved dorso-anteriad, reaching the base of phallobase; phallobase with one pair of relatively small, inflated dorsolateral lobes, their apex elongate, thumb-like, directed posteriad (Fig. 10H), and one pair of relatively large ventral lobes, convergent and tapering posteriad (Fig. 10 H–I). Segment X, in lateral view, narrow basally, widening to apex beyond middle (Fig. 10E); in dorsal view, elongate, widest at apical third, ratio of length to maximum width 1.5-1.6 (Fig. 10D).

Female genitalia as in generic description.


Confirmed records are from Indonesia (Java), West Malaysia, Vietnam, Thailand, southern China (Hainan, Yunnnan) and north-eastern India (Assam). Based on the description and illustrations in Yang and Yeh (1994), O. splendens  probably also occurs in Taiwan (see also Tsaur 2005). Published records from the Philippines (Luzon; Stål 1861, Distant 1906) probably refer to O. philippinus  , while the records from Sri Lanka ( Melichar 1903, 1912; Distant 1906) concern O. exoletus  and the ones from Japan ( Matsumura 1905a, b, 1910) refer to O. lunulifer  . Records from western India ( Stål 1861), Myanmar ( Distant 1906), Singapore, and Indonesia: Sumatra ( Bierman 1908) still need to be checked.


Flata splendens  was described by Germar (1830) from Java, and was designated as the type species of Anagnia  by Stål (1861). Udugama flavocarinata  Bierman, 1907 from Java was considered as a junior synonym of O. splendens  by Melichar (1912). Orthopagus splendens var. tibialis  Kirkaldy was differentiated from the typical form by having "the fore and middle tibiae distinctly bi- or tri-angulate with brownish" ( Kirkaldy and Muir 1913). However, this pattern is typical for all Orthopagus  species.

The synonymy of Dictyophara indiana  Walker, 1851 with Orthopagus splendens  proposed by Stål (1861) is considered doubtful (see above).

Orthopagus splendens  has been frequently confused in literature and museum collections with other species of the genus. It can be differentiated from them by the combination of the following characters: a relatively small body size, a moderately short head, an extensive dark pattern on vertex, the pygofer with dorso-posterior margin bearing a relatively large but narrow, simply tooth-like process, the endosomal processes of the aedeagus relatively long and robust, covered with minute superficial spines and phallotheca bearing two pairs of membranous lobes.