Haploblepharus kistnasamyi Human & Compagno 2006
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|Haploblepharus kistnasamyi Human & Compagno 2006|
(Figs. 10-12, Table 4)
Haploblepharus edwardsii : Smith, 1949:54 (in part); Smith, 1950:879 (in part); Bass et al., 1975: 17 (in part); Compagno, 1984b: 332 (in part); Bass, 1986: 91 (in part); Compagno, 1988: 151 (in part); Compagno et al., 1989: 50 (in part).
Haploblepharus sp. A : Compagno & Human, 2003: 12; Compagno, et al, 2005: 236; Human et al., 2006: 389.
Type Series and Locality. Holotype, RUSI 39835, adolescent female 415 mm TL, from Landers Reef off Park Rynie , kwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, Station 1-92-9 Albacore , 30°19’S 30°47’E, collected by C. Buxton on 5th August, 1992, in excellent condition (Fig. 10).GoogleMaps
Paratypes, two specimens in two lots. RUSI 6075 (previously ORI 2424), mature male, 504 mm TL, from Zinkwazi , kwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, 29°17’S 31°25’E, jaws removed, otherwise in excellent condition (Fig. 11).GoogleMaps RUSI 6077 (previously ORI 2574), mature female, 481 mm TL, from Umvoti , kwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, 29°22’S 30°17’E, jaws removed, otherwise in excellent condition (Fig. 12).GoogleMaps
Diagnosis. Haploblepharus kistnasamyi is distinguished from its congeners by having a relatively stocky body at all maturity stages; abdomen width 10.6% TL for the holotype (paratypes [[male]] 9.2% TL, [[female]] 9.3% TL, mean 11.0% TL); snout acutely rounded, often coming to a point; head only slightly depressed, head width at the posterior margin of the orbit 11.1% TL for the holotype (paratypes [[male]] 10.2% TL, [[female]] 10.5% TL, mean 12.7% TL); trunk not depressed, trunk height 10.6% TL for the holotype (paratypes [[male]] 9.5% TL, [[female]] 10.4% TL, mean 9.9% TL) and trunk width 11.7% TL for the holotype (paratypes [[male]] 9.9% TL, [[female]] 10.1% TL, mean 12.2% TL); claspers of mature males stout, inner length 7.2 times the base in the male paratype (mean inner length 7.0 times base). The holotype of H. kistnasamyi has 57 rows of teeth in the upper jaw (mean 60.9) and 57 rows of teeth in the lower jaw (mean 59.1). The holotype and both paratypes of H. kistnasamyi each have a total of 133 (129.5 mean) vertebral centra. Haploblepharus kistnasamyi adults always have eight to nine distinct saddles, with spots found only on the saddles, giving a blotchy appearance laterally.
Description. Morphometric and meristic data are given in Table 4. Holotype, adolescent female 415 mm TL (paratypes, mature male 504 mm TL, mature female 481 mm TL, mean of all specimens examined in Table 4, including the type series, see Study material): H. kistnasamyi is a stocky bodied Haploblepharus ZBK shark with a relatively narrow head, often coming to a point, head width at the pectoral origin 2.60 (2.37, 2.17, 2.89) times the preoral length; head length 1.28 (1.29, 1.29, 1.24) times distance from snout tip to first gill slit; height of first gill slit 1.71 (1.72, 1.72, 2.07) times the height of the fifth gill slit; eye length 4.88 (3.09, 4.7, 5.0) times longer than spiracle length; basimandibular cartilage found at the symphysis of the Meckels cartilage in the lower jaw; mouth length 1.0 (1.04, 0.87, 0.93) times the prenarial length; mouth width 4.71 (4.81, 6.07, 6.43) times the upper labial furrow length; labial cartilages present; nasal lobes fused into a nasal flap that covers the excurrent apertures and extends to the mouth; interorbital width 1.46 (1.3, 1.6, 1.34) times the nasal flap width; head strongly depressed, head width at the posterior margin of the orbit 1.52 (1.67, 1.30, 1.74) times its height; head width 1.22 (1.30, 1.16, 1.44) times its height; trunk depressed or not, trunk width 1.10 (1.04, 0.97, 1.23) times its height; abdomen compressed to slightly depressed, abdomen width 0.91 (0.88, 0.89, 1.08) times its height; tail compressed, tail width 0.79 (0.93, 0.84, 0.90) times its height; caudal peduncle strongly compressed, caudal peduncle width 0.51 (0.65, 0.71, 0.64) times its height; precaudal length 1.74 (1.77, 1.79, 1.80) times the distance from snout to first dorsal fin; dorsal fins rounded; height of first dorsal fin 1.06 (1.05, 1.14, 1.02) times that of the second dorsal fin; first dorsal fin length equal to the length of its anterior margin; second dorsal fin length 1.05 (1.07, 1.06, 1.03) times the length of its anterior margin; pectoral fin to pelvic fin space 1.08 (1.1, 1.23, 1.19) times the interdorsal space; pectoral and pelvic fins rounded; pectoral fin height 2.33 (1.37, 2.16, 1.85) times the height of the pelvic fin; pectoral fin length 0.94 (0.97, 093, 0.98) times the length of its anterior margin; pelvic fin length 1.36 (1.60, 1.43, 1.36) times the length of its anterior margin; claspers of mature males stout, clasper inner length NA (7.2, NA, 7.0) times the base; anal fin to caudal fin space 1.47 (1.56, 1.41, 1.28) times the head height at the origin of the pectoral fin; length of anal fin base 1.15 (1.04, 1.14, 1.27) the length of the second dorsal fin base; anal fin length 1.51 (1.45, 1.46, 1.49) times the length of its anterior margin; distance from pectoral fin insertion to the midpoint of the first dorsal fin length 1.62 (1.58, 1.75, 1.45) times the caudal dorsal margin length. Vertebral counts: total 133, 133, 133 (121-133), 33, 32, 32 (32-38) monospondylous, 60, 63, 61 (50-63) precaudal diplospondylous and 40, 38, 40 (34-40) caudal diplospondylous. Spiral valve turns: 6 in the female paratype.
Size and sexual maturity. In this study, H. kistnasamyi males were found to be juvenile at 315 mm TL to 354 mm TL, and mature at 504 mm TL. Females were found to be embryonic at 58.5 mm TL and 104 mm TL, juvenile at 106 mm TL to 401 mm TL, adolescent at 415 mm TL, and mature at 481 mm TL. No adolescent males were available for examination. There is no sexual dimorphism apparent in this species.
Colouration of the Type Series. In mature H. kistnasamyi specimens (Figs. 10-12), background dorsal colouration is pale brown to brown, becoming paler laterally, with 8 or 9 saddles, two or three before first dorsal fin, one on first dorsal fin, one between dorsal fins, one on second dorsal fin, one on caudal peduncle, and two on caudal fin; saddle centres darker than background colouration, margins darker than saddle centres, with white spots present only on saddles, particularly laterally, giving a blotchy effect there; background colouration extending to dorsal surface of pectoral and pelvic fins, as well as anal fin; saddles not extending to dorsal surface of pectoral and pelvic fins. Ventral colouration usually abruptly uniform white to pale cream, or yellow to dull grey brown (probable preservation artefact), dorsal background colouration present on fin webs of pectoral and pelvic fins, or not (probable preservation artefact), pectoral and pelvic fin webs darker when the latter is true.
Colouration of putative juveniles. Immature H. kistnasamyi individuals (Fig. 13) have background colouration light brown to very dark brown, always with saddles, usually highly conspicuous, more so than in adult individuals, with centres of saddles orange brown with dark brown margin anterior and posterior, white spots either not present or inconspicuous, apparently developing as the animal grows; saddles distinct on hatchlings and embryos, except for a few individuals where the saddles were indistinct due to a very dark background colouration, however, became more distinct laterally as the background colouration became paler, giving a blotchy effect laterally. Ventral colouration as for mature specimens.
Comparison with other species. The colour pattern of mature H. kistnasamyi is superficially similar to, although distinct from, that of H. edwardsii (see Fig. 3), and the head is narrowly pointed as in H. edwardsii . Haploblepharus kistnasamyi has the least depressed head and trunk of the Haploblepharus ZBK sharks, with the trunk being weakly compressed in some individuals. Claspers of mature males are equivalent in size to H. fuscus ZBK and H. pictus , and are longer and stouter than that of H. edwardsii . Haploblepharus kistnasamyi has a dental formula about equivalent to H. edwardsii , but has fewer teeth than either H. fuscus ZBK or H. pictus . Haploblepharus kistnasamyi is most similar to H. edwardsii both morphologically and in colouration. Haploblepharus kistnasamyi can be distinguished from H. edwardsii in having a noticeably less depressed body, which is stockier than that of H. edwardsii , and the saddles of H. kistnasamyi are distinct but less defined than in H. edwardsii . Immature H. kistnasamyi have a much darker dorsal background and are easily mistaken for H. fuscus ZBK with saddles, however can be distinguished from the latter by the distinctness of the saddles in H. kistnasamyi (Fig. 13).
Remarks. Remarks are taken from Human & Compagno (2006), unless otherwise stated. Bass et al. (1975) recognised and illustrated two forms of H. edwardsii , the “Cape” form and the “Natal” form. Haploblepharus kistnasamyi is equivalent to their “Natal” form of H. edwardsii and the paratypes are the specimens used by them in their description of the “Natal” form. They also illustrated the female paratype (RUSI 6077). Bass et al. (1975) found the two forms to be morphologically identical, differing only in colour pattern, however, H. kistnasamyi can be distinguished from H. edwardsii in having a noticeably less depressed body, which is stockier than that of H. edwardsii , and is sometimes compressed. Compagno (1988) noted that H. kistnasamyi possibly had fewer monospondylous vertebrae than H. edwardsii , although this proved not to be the case in the current study, and in Human & Compagno (2006).
Although Bass et al. (1975) were the first to describe this species, Smith (1950) illustrated a juvenile under the name H. edwardsii , which agrees with the specimen RUSI 48496, an embryonic female (yolk sac still attached, although minute), 107 mm TL (Human & Compagno, 2006).
As stated in Human & Compagno (2006), the proportions given by Bass et al. (1975) are mostly referable to H. edwardsii and cannot be used as a comparison to the morphometric data of the current study. The female paratype of H. kistnasamyi has a spiral valve count of six. The biology of H. kistnasamyi is virtually unknown. The egg-cases of H. kistnasamyi are not known, but it is presumed that this species is oviparous, as with other species of Haploblepharus ZBK .
In this study, juveniles have been tentatively assigned for this species, however a genetic study is necessary to determine whether or not juveniles that fit the description given here, actually belong to this taxon.
Distribution. Haploblepharus kistnasamyi is the most northerly ranging Haploblepharus ZBK shark on the east coast. It ranges from northern kwaZulu-Natal, north of Durban, to east of Mossel Bay, Western Cape, and occurs inshore, usually close to the coastline (Fig. 14). From this study, ontogenetic segregation is apparent, with juveniles found in the southern part of the range, whereas the adults are confined to the north.
Etymology. Named in honour of Nat Kistnasamy of the Oceanographic Research Institute, Durban, in recognition for his outstanding efforts and pioneering work in the systematics and taxonomy of the chondrichthyan fauna of southern Africa (Human & Compagno, 2006).
Common name. The common name, happy chappy, has been suggested in Compagno & Human (2003), and Human & Compagno (2006). It is also known as the Natal or eastern shyshark (Compagno et al, 2005; Human & Compagno, 2006)
Study material. RUSI 6075, paratype of H. kistnasamyi , see under Type Series and Locality for details; RUSI 6077, paratype of H. kistnasamyi , see under Type Series and Locality for details; RUSI 39835, holotype of H. kistnasamyi , see under Type Series and Locality for details.
Specimens tentatively assigned as juveniles of H. kistnasamyi - MJS 970714, 2 specimens, juvenile female 334 mm TL, juvenile male, 354 mm TL ; RUSI 14005, 2 specimens, one of which is referable to H. fuscus ZBK , H. kistnasamyi specimen is a juvenile female, 401 mm TL, Cape Recife , Eastern Cape, South Africa, 34°01'S 25°42'EGoogleMaps ; RUSI 26156, embryonic female 58.5 mm TL, Boknes Beach, Alexandria Coast , Eastern Cape, South Africa, 33°43'S 26°35'EGoogleMaps ; RUSI 26934, adolescent female 400 mm TL, R.V. Africana Cruise 48, A4760 036-1051, off Plettenberg Bay , Western Cape, South Africa, 34°04'S 23°24'EGoogleMaps ; RUSI 26937, juvenile male 315 mm TL, R.V. Africana Cruise 48, A4760 036-1051, off Plettenberg Bay , Western Cape, South Africa ; RUSI 26939, juvenile female 318 mm TL, R.V. Africana Cruise 48, A4760 036-1051, off Plettenberg Bay , Western Cape, South Africa ; RUSI 26964, juvenile female 226 mm TL, R.V. Africana Cruise 48, A4752 030-1039, Plettenberg Bay , Western Cape, South Africa, 34°15'S 23°04'EGoogleMaps ; RUSI 26965, juvenile female 218 mm TL, RV. Africana Cruise 48, A4752 030-1039, Plettenberg Bay , Western Cape, South Africa ; RUSI 48494, embryonic female 104 mm TL, Algoa Bay , Eastern Cape, South Africa, 34°02'S 25°42'EGoogleMaps ; RUSI 48496, previously ORI 7227, juvenile female 106 mm TL, East London , Eastern Cape, South Africa, 33°00'S 27°55'EGoogleMaps ; SAM 29884, 2 specimens, juvenile males 121 mm TL & 183 mm TL, reef 2 km off Bird Rock, Algoa Bay , Eastern Cape, South Africa, 33°51.5'S 26°16.6'EGoogleMaps ; SAM 32527, 4 specimens, juvenile females, Storms River Mouth , Eastern Cape, South Africa, 34°01.3'S 23°54.7'EGoogleMaps ; SAM 32553, 2 specimens, juvenile males, Storms River Mouth , Eastern Cape, South Africa ; SAM 32554, juvenile male 332 mm TL, Storms River Mouth , Eastern Cape, South Africa.
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