Chamaecrista viscosa (Kunth) Irwin & Barneby (1982: 660)

Souza, Alessandro Oliveira De, Cavalcante, Raphael Guarda & Silva, Marcos José Da, 2022, Taxonomic revision of Chamaecrista sect. Absus subsect. Absus (Leguminosae, Caesalpinioideae) with adjustments in the new classification, Phytotaxa 565 (1), pp. 1-82 : 73-80

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Chamaecrista viscosa (Kunth) Irwin & Barneby (1982: 660)


18. Chamaecrista viscosa (Kunth) Irwin & Barneby (1982: 660) View in CoL Cassia viscosa Kunth (1823: 360) Grimaldia viscosa (Kunth) Britton & Killip (1936: 187) . Type:— COLOMBIA. “ Crescit in Mesa de Cuello, juxta Contreras et Ibague (Regno Novo- Granatensi)”, s. dat., (fl., fr.), A.J.A. Bonpland & F.W.H.A. von Humboldt 1805 (holotype P00679252!). (Figs. 35 and 36)

= Grimaldia standleyi Britton & Rose (1930a: 300) View in CoL . Type:—”Dry hills near Acaponeta, Tepic [Nayarit]”, 10 April 1910, (fl., fr.), Rose, Standley & Russell 14356 (holotype US 00002181!, Isotype ; NY00004397 !).

= Grimaldia colombiana Britton & Killip (1936: 187) View in CoL . Type:— COLOMBIA. Northern slope of Mesa de los Santos, Santander, 1000-1500 m, 15 December 1926, (fl.), Killip & Smith 15419 (holotype NY00004400 !, isotypes A00066157 !, GH00053960 !, US 00002183!) .

= Cassia glutinosa Mutis (1958: 393) View in CoL nom. nud.

=Cassiaparaguensis Micheli (1883: 45). Type:— PARAGUAI. “ Mbatobi prope Paraguari, In locis arboribus vaculs et rupestrlbus silvae ”, 20 December 1876, (fl.), B. Balansa 1401 (holotype G, isotypes F0057635 F!, K000555605 !, P02436089 !, P02436090 !) .

= Chamaecrista viscosa var. paraguayensis (Chodat & Hassler) Irwin & Barneby (1982: 660) View in CoL Cassia barbata var. paraguayensis Chodat & Hassler (1904: 825) View in CoL Cassia viscosa var. paraguayensis (Chodat & Hassler) Irwin & Barneby (1978: 262) View in CoL . Type:— PARAGUAI. “ in campo prope flumen Carimbatay Rfo Caplbary on way to Sierra de Maracajij ”, s. dat. (fl.), E. Hassler 5909 (lectotype G00302682! Designaded by Irwin & Barneby (1978: 262), isolectotype A00053106!, BM000952171!, F!, K000555606!, MPU023770!, MO, NY!, P00836162!, S-R-8780!, UC940692!) Syn. nov.

Subshrubs or shrubs perennial, 1–2 m tall, erect, few or densely branched. Root nodules absent. Branches brown when mature and green when young, both setulose-viscous and puberulent, including the stipules, petiole and rachis; nonexfoliating bark. Stipules 1.5–1.8 × 0.4–0.5 mm, lanceolate, persistent.Leaves alternatespiral, regularly distributed on the stem and only on the ends of the branches when in the bushes, plagiotropic; petiole 2–4.2 cm long; rachis 8–18 mm long; leaflets 2 pairs, 1.5–4 × 2–3.5 cm, distal pair slightly larger than proximal pair, elliptical, oboval, largely elliptical or suborbicular, apex obtuse or rounded, mucronate or not, base strongly asymmetric in pair distal and wedged or rounded on the proximal pair, papyraceous, concolorous, opaque green, puberulent and sparsely setulose-viscous on both sides, margin entire, revolute and ciliated; secondary veins 3–6 pairs, conspicuous and imprinted on both sides. Leafy appendix inter-petiolule absent. Racemes 5–13 cm long, peduncle 1.3–3 cm long, 7–18 flowers, congested or lax, mostly axillary but also terminal, erect with straight axis, setulose-viscous and villous, including pedicel, external surface of the bracts, bracteoles and sepals. Bracts 1.5 × 0.5 mm, oval-lanceolate, persistent. Bracteoles 1– × 0.5 mm, triangular, persistent. Buds 5–7 × 4–5 mm, globoid or ellipsoid, apex obtuse or acute. Flowers 1.3–3 × 1–1.5 cm; pedicel 1–1.5 cm long, straight even when fruited; sepals 10–11 × 3–4 mm, oblong-elliptic, apex obtuse, yellow-green or with vinaceous macules externally; 4 flat, oboval or oboval-elliptic petals and 1 falcate-curled inner petal, 13–15 × 6–10 mm, yellow; stamens 10, 4–5 mm long, anthers not barbulate; ovary 3–4.5 × 0.8 mm, setulose and villous; style 1.1–1.3 cm long, curved in upper third, glabrous. Legumes 2.5–3.8 × 0.6–0.7 cm, oblong, setulose-viscous and sparsely puberulent, dark brown. Seeds 5–6, 3–6.5 × 4–6.5 mm, obovoid, blackened.

Etymology: —in reference to plant viscosity.

Geographical distribution and habitat:— Species distributed from Mexico to Paraguay. In Brazil it can be found in the states of Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul and southwest of Goiás and Minas Gerais (Fig. 39D) growing on the edges of gallery or dry forests or in typical savannas between 300–1050 m altitude .

Flowering and fruiting:—It flowers and bears fruit throughout the year, but mainly between February and July.

Conservation status: —Species with an Occurrence Extension greater than 100 thousand km 2, and therefore classified as Least Concern (LC). It forms populations with numerous mature individuals (more than 30) and inhabits different environments, which demonstrates its efficient capacity for colonization.

Taxonomic history and adjustments:— Cassia viscosa was described by Kunth in 1823 based on the collection “ A.J.A. Bonpland & F.W.H.A. von Humboldt 1805 ” from Colombia. Bentham (1870) described the variety C. viscosa var. major from a collection from Maranhão (Lund 292) and placed it in C. sect. Absus ser. Absoideae by leaves with two pairs of membranous leaflets.

Irwin & Barneby (1978) admitted three varieties for C. viscosa : C. viscosa var. viscosa , C. viscosa var. major and C. viscosa var. paraguayensis , the latter first described as C. barbata var. paraguayensis by Chodat & Hassl in 1904. Irwin & Barneby (1978) still admitted as synonyms of C. viscosa var. viscosa , the species: Grimaldia standleyi , G. columbiana and C. glutinosa , and C. paraguensis as a synonym of C. viscosa var. paraguayensis , without justifying anything. In 1982, C. viscosa and its varieties were transferred to the genus Chamaecrista by Irwin & Barneby and maintained in Ch. sect. Absus subsect Absus ser. Absoideae . Finally, Souza et al. (2021) positioned Ch. viscosa with its three varieties in Ch. sect. Absus subsect Absus .

During this review, collecting and observing in the field all taxa under the name Ch. viscosa , and analyzing collections from its distribution area and from the NY, K, L and XAL Herbariums, we decided to rank Ch. viscosa var. major , to species status, as previously cited in the commentary by Ch. major , and we found that Ch. viscosa var. viscosa and Ch. viscosa var. paraguayensis , differentiated by Irwin & Barneby (1982) by the “peculiar” distribution and characters of the fruits (hispid with trichomes up to 5 mm long in Ch. viscosa var. viscosa and villosule and setulose with trichomes up to 0.5 mm long in Ch. viscosa var. paraguayensis ), should not be considered distinct taxa, as the previously mentioned characters are superimposed and vary in the same population. Such decisions are also supported by the geographic distribution shares between Ch. viscosa var. viscosa and Ch. viscosa var. paraguayensis which is different from Ch. viscosa var. major , in addition the taxa appear phylogenetically unrelated according to Souza et al. (2021). With this, we are considering Ch. viscosa var. paraguayensis as a synonym of Ch. viscosa , and we confirmed the veracity of all previous synonyms of these taxa.

Characterization and morphological relationships: — Chamaecrista viscosa resembles Ch. major (see comment on the latter) and can be recognized by its subshrub or shrubby habit with little or unbranched stem, the shortened branches not giving it a “paniculiform” or “thyrsiform” aspect, due to the leaves at the base of the plant, usually with petioles and leaflets. larger than those at the apex, as well as axillary racemes on the terminal leaves of the branches.

Specimens examined:— BOLIVIA. Santa Cruz: Chiquitos, 6 km W de Santiago, camino a Roboré , 23 April 1980, (fl., fr.), A . Krapovickas et al. 36440 ( NY); Santiago , cerrado near airstrip, 18°20’00”S, 59°35’00”W, 600m, 01 November 1991, (fl.), A. H GoogleMaps . Gentry & R . Foster 75463 ( NY) . BRAZIL. Goiás: Ponte Alta, BR070 km 405 sentido Aragarças , 26 June 2014, (fl., fr.), A. O . Souza et al. 1092, 1093, 1094 ( UB, UFG); ib., BR070 km 405 sentido Aragarças perto da Fazenda Pouse Alegre , 15°51’40.3”S, 51°37’41.3”W, 1050m, 26 September 2016, (fl., fr.), A. O GoogleMaps . Souza et al. 1875, 1876 ( UB, UFG); Serranópolis, Santuário da Vida Silvestre Pousada das Araras – RPPN , Fazenda Pedraria , ca. de 39 km da cidade, 18°36’26”S, 51°59’20”W, 21 August 1998, (fl., fr.), M. L GoogleMaps . Fonseca et al. 2036 ( NY); ib., RPPN Pousada das Araras , 18°26’22”S, 51°59’43”W, 620m, 26 March 2005, (fl., fr.), L. F GoogleMaps . Souza 2068 ( HJ); ib., 27 April 2005, (fl., fr.), L. F . Souza 2187 ( HJ); ib., 28 May 2005, (fl., fr.), L. F . Souza 2327 ( HJ); ib., 27 June 2005, (fl., fr.), L. F . Souza 2395 ( HJ); ib., 29 August 2005, (fl., fr.), L. F . Souza 2530 ( HJ); ib., 26 March 2006, (fl., fr.), L. F . Souza 2965 ( HJ); ib., 26 April 2006, (fl., fr.), L. F . Souza 3067 ( HJ) . Mato Grosso: Alto Paraguari, 9km WSW de Alto Paraguari, estrada para Tira Sentido, arredores da Serra da Bocaina , 14°36’S, 56°35’’ W , 20 May 1997, (fl.), V. C . Souza et al. 16641 ( ESA, UEC); Campo Novo do Parecis , Chapada dos Parecis, 14°32’00”S, 56°33’00”W, 26 April 1978, (fl.), E GoogleMaps . Mileski 93 ( UBGE); Itiquira, margem rio Correntes , a jusantes do sumidouro, 17°36’02.2”S, 54°54’04.4”W, 01 November 2000, (fr.), G. F GoogleMaps . Árbocz 7169 ( CGMS); Nova Marilândia , estrada entre a BR-364 e Nova Marilândia, cerca de 52 km da BR- 364 (cerca de 12 km N, em linha reta de Nova Marilândia), 14°14’00”S, 56°55’00”W, 18 May 1997, (fl.), V. C GoogleMaps . Souza et al. 16368 ( ESA, HUEFS, MT, MBM, SPF, UEC); Nova Mutum, MT-249 ca. 10 km após o trevo da MT-010 de São José do Rio Claro em direção a Nova Mutum , 13°48’41.3”S, 56°21’5.8”W, 336m, 02April 2018, (fl.), A. O GoogleMaps . Souza & R. C . Sodré 2018 ( UB, UFG); Nova Xavantina, By Rio das Mortes , just above Ferry , 14°38’00”S, 52°14’00”W, 12 September 1967, (fr.), G. C. G GoogleMaps . Argent et al. 6356 ( UB); ib., 10 km S of the Base Campo f the Expedition , 01 June 1968, (fl.), J. A . Ratter et al. 1620 ( IAN, NY, UB); Ribeirão Cascalheira, 6 km S of Base Campo of the Expedition , 06 May 1968, (fl.), J. A . Ratter et al. 1298 ( IAN, UB); ib., 8 km NE of the Base Campo f the Expedition , 25 June 1968, (fl.), J. A . Ratter et al. 1948 ( IAN, UB); Rondonópolis, estrada para Parque Ecológico João Basso , Faz. Verde ( RPPN), ca. 3km da BR 162 , 12 April 2001, (fl., fr.), R. S . Rodrigues & A . Flores 1144 ( UEC); São José do Rio Claro, Fazenda Arinos , 13°51’00”S, 56°29’00”W, 14 June 1997, (fl., fr.), V. C GoogleMaps . Souza et al. 18021 ( HUEFS, SP); ib., Fazenda Cachoeira de Pau , 13°52’00”S, 56°31’00”W, 14 June 1997, (fl.), V. C GoogleMaps . Souza et al. 18194 ( BHCB, ESA. HUEFS, MBM, MT, SP, SPF, UEC); ib., 13°52’00”S, 56°32’00”W, 14 June 1997, (fl.), V. C GoogleMaps . Souza et al. 18158 ( ESA); Vila Bela da Santíssima Trindade , ao longo da MT-246 24 km W de Vila Bela, 15°02’59”S, 59°43’44”W, 218m, 25 March 2014, (fl.), M. F GoogleMaps . Simon et al. 2360 ( CEN) . MATO GROSSO DO SUL, Bataguassu, dense cerrado near higway BR-257, ca. 58km W of São Paulo, 500m, 06 February 1975, (fl.), W. R . Anderson 11211 ( F, NY); Dourados , some 20km E . of Itaúni, or road to Dourados , 19 February 1975, (fl.), T. M . Pedersen 11106 ( L, NY); Sonora , 04 August 2001, (fr.), A. L. B . Sartori et al. 684, 686 ( CGMS); Três Lagoas , BR 262 , 10km, após centro da cidade em direção a Campo Grande , 09 April 2001, (fl., fr.), A . Flores & R. S . Rodrigues 512 ( UEC) . Minas Gerais: Ituiutaba , 29 June 1944, (fl.), A . Macedo 391 ( NY, SP); ib., 25 km N da saída de Ituiutaba , 22 May 1963, (fl.), M . Magalhães 18974 ( NY); ib., 7 km West of Ituiutaba on higway BR-71, 17 July 1967, (fl., fr.), R . Goodland 3386 ( HUFU); ib., 11 km S of Ituitaba , 26 July 1967, (fl.), R . Goodland 3553 ( UB); Monte Alegre de Minas , 10 km da cidade, 18 May 1963, (fl.), M . Magalhães 18980 ( NY); Santa Vitória , próximo à cidade, 29 May 1963, (fl.), G. M . Magalhães 19065, 19069 ( NY); Uberlândia , 31 km South of Uberlândia on higway BR-106, 02 August 1967, (fl.), R . Goodland 3666 ( HUFU); ib., Rodovia Uberlândia-Araguari, rumo a Goiânia, km 675, próximo de Chapetuba , 13 July 1978, (fl.), W. N . Vidal et al. 457 ( VIC); ib., 05 June 2009, (fl.), P. K. B . Hemsing et al. 71 ( HUFU); Parque Municipal Victorio Siquierolli , 04 July 2003, (fl.), C. C . Oliveira et al. 11 ( HUFU); Vazante, Fazenda Bom Sucesso, 10 July 2008, (fl.), Lenonel & Vasconcelos s. n. ( HUFU53959 View Materials ). Colômbia. Meta : E of Villaviciencio, 02 September 1917, (fl.), F. W . Pennell 1643 ( NY). México. Guerrero: a 5 km al W de El Ocotito, caminho a Jaleaca , 24 November 1983, (fl., fr.), E . Martínez S . 5753 ( XAL). Nayarit: Acaponeta, Tiger Mine , 01 March 1927, (fl.), M. E . Jones s. n.( NY 554597). Oaxaca: Putla Villa de Guerrero. 5 km al NE de Putla de Gro, 21 September 1982, (fl.), M. S . Sánchez et al. 12514 ( NY). Sinaloa: Concordia, Sierra Madre Occidental , 13.2 rd mi NE of Concordia by Mex. Hwy 40, 07 January 1983, (fl.), R . D. Worthington et al. 9360 ( NY) . PARAGUAY. Caaguazú: Cerca y al Norte de Yhú , 21 February 1982, (fl., fr.), F. J. F . Casas 6380 ( NY) . Cordillera: Piribebuy, Salto Amambay, 13 February 1991, (fl., fr.), R . Degen 1792 ( NY) . VENEZUELA. Bolívar: Auyan-tepui, faldas bajas debajo de la primera escarpa, sector suroriental, a lo largo del río Kabak hasta el primer salto, 12 km al oeste de la misión de Camarata , 27 February 1978, (fl., fr.), J. A . Steyrmark 116065 ( NY) .


We thank CAPES for the scholarship granted to the first author (Process no. 88882.387126/2019-01); to CNPq for granting productivity to Marcos J. Silva (Process No. 307747/2019-0); and to the New York Botanical Garden for the Rupert Barneby Prize given to the first author, allowing the review of the large Chamaecrista collection in the New York herbarium. We thank Renato Galhardo for the illustrations of this work. We are also grateful to all herbarium curators who kindly sent us collections for study.


Botanischer Garten und Botanisches Museum Berlin-Dahlem, Zentraleinrichtung der Freien Universitaet


Conservatoire et Jardin botaniques de la Ville de Genève


Field Museum of Natural History, Botany Department


Naturhistorisches Museum Wien


Harvard University - Arnold Arboretum


William and Lynda Steere Herbarium of the New York Botanical Garden


University of Helsinki


Departamento de Geologia, Universidad de Chile


Botanical Museum - University of Oslo


Laboratoire de Biostratigraphie


Universidade Federal de Goiás


Botanische Staatssammlung München


Nationaal Herbarium Nederland, Leiden University branch


Royal British Columbia Museum - Herbarium


University of Copenhagen


Universidade de São Paulo


Universidade Estadual de Campinas


Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh


Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul


Nanjing University


Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana


Mus. Tinro, Vladyvostok


San Jose State University, Museum of Birds and Mammals


Universidade de São Paulo


Department of Botany, Swedish Museum of Natural History


University of the Witwatersrand


Embrapa Amazônia Oriental


University of New England


Instituto de Botânica


Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais


EMBRAPA Recursos Geneticos e Biotecnologia - CENARGEN


Tavera, Department of Geology and Geophysics


Universidade Federal de Uberlândia


Universidade Federal de Viçosa


Museum National d' Histoire Naturelle, Paris (MNHN) - Vascular Plants


Royal Botanic Gardens


Instituto de Ecología, A.C.














Chamaecrista viscosa (Kunth) Irwin & Barneby (1982: 660)

Souza, Alessandro Oliveira De, Cavalcante, Raphael Guarda & Silva, Marcos José Da 2022

Chamaecrista viscosa var. paraguayensis (Chodat & Hassler)

Irwin, H. S. & Barneby, R. C. 1982: )
Irwin, H. S. & Barneby, R. C. 1978: )
Irwin, H. S. & Barneby, R. C. 1978: 262
Chodat, R. & Hassler, E. 1904: )

Grimaldia colombiana

Britton, N. L. & Killip, E. P. 1936: )

Grimaldia standleyi

Britton, N. L. & Rose, J. N. 1930: )
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