Megacraspedus lanceolellus (Zeller, 1850)

Huemer, Peter & Karsholt, Ole, 2018, Revision of the genus Megacraspedus Zeller, 1839, a challenging taxonomic tightrope of species delimitation (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae), ZooKeys 800, pp. 1-278: 23-30

publication ID

http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.800.26292

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:EB5EC9C8-D980-4F5A-BD9A-E48DB4158D59

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/EFEC42C4-7C56-1F92-AFFA-EB6D504B713F

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scientific name

Megacraspedus lanceolellus (Zeller, 1850)
status

 

Megacraspedus lanceolellus (Zeller, 1850) 

Ypsolophus lanceolellus  Zeller, 1850: 143.

Megacraspedus hessleriellus  Rössler, 1868: 347.

Megacraspedus subdolellus  Staudinger, 1859: 243, syn. n.

Megacraspedus tutti  Walsingham, 1897: 140, syn. n.

Megacraspedus grossisquammellus  Chrétien, 1925: 257, syn. n.

Examined material.

The examined material cannot be unequivocally attached to barcode clusters due to lack of barcode sequences from several places, or partially sympatric clusters, and is thus listed in a standardized format in the alphabetic order of countries.

Syntypes [?], 2 ♂, Ypsolophus lanceolellus  , [Italy] "Livorno Mn" "Gen. Präp. Mus. Vind. 16.653 ♂" ( NHMW). Lectotype ♂, here designated, [Spain] Megacraspedus subdolellus  , “Lecto-type” “20/8” "Granada m." “Origin.” "Lectotype ♂ Megacraspedus subdolellus  Stdgr teste K. Sattler, 1986" "ex coll. Staudinger" "GU 15/1404 ♂ P.Huemer" ( ZMHU). Paralectotypes, 5 ♂, Megacraspedus subdolellus  , all labelled “Para-lecto-type” “Origin.” "ex coll. Staudinger" ( ZMHU). Holotype ♂, Megacraspedus tutti  , [France] “Holo-type” "La Grave 5000 ft Dauphiné FRANCE VIII.1896 Tutt. 8157" “Type” "Walsingham Collection, 1910 –427.” "Megacraspedus tutti ♂ Wlsm. Ent. Rec. IX.140. (1897) TYPE ♂ ( BMNH). Paralectotypes, 2 ♂, Megacraspedus grossisquampellus  , [Spain] “TYPE” “grossisquamellus” "S. Ildef. 24.6.02" “25.6.02” "GENITALIA ♂ P. VIETTE PRÉP. NO. 3568" ( MNHN) [photographs examined]; 2 ♂ (on same polyporus), "S.[an] Ildef.[onso] 7.02" "GU 15/1451 ♂ P.Huemer" ( MNHN). Non-type material. An dorra. 1 ♂, Sant Julia, Fontaneda, 1300 m, 6.viii.2003, leg Viehmann (RCWS); 3 ♂, 1 ♀, Port de Cabús, 2290 m, 16.vii.2012, leg. P. Huemer, genitalia slides GEL 1192 ♂ Huemer, GEL 1257 ♀ Huemer ( TLMF). Croatia. 1 ♀, Krk, Misučaynica, 5.viii.1967, leg. G. Baldizzone ( ZMUC); 1 ♀, Krk, str. Krk-Vrbnik, 20.vii.1998, leg. G. Baldizzone ( TLMF); 1 ♂, Krk isl., dint. di Poljica, 10.vii.2012; 4 ♂, Krk isl., Mt. Hiam, Branušine, 20-22.vi.2013, 180 m, leg. G. Baldizzone (RCGB; ZMUC); 2 ♂, Gorne Bilišane, 6.vii.2004, leg. Z. Tokár; 1 ♂, Bilišane, 300 m, 23.vi.2006, leg. Z. Tokár (all RCZT); 2 ♂, Pag, 10.vi.2015, leg. J. Junnilainen (RCJJ). Italy. 1 ♂, prov. Alessandria, Parco NR Cappane di Marcarolo, sent. Lago Badana, 800 m, 27.vi.2002, leg. G. Baldizzone; 1 ♂, same data, but Monto Peggio, 900 m, 12.vii.2002 (all RCGB); 4 ♂, prov. Pordenone, Vivaro, Magredi di Vivaro, 110 m, 6.vi.2008, leg. P. Huemer, genitalia slide GEL 1220 Huemer; 1 ♂, same data, but 7 km SSW Vivaro, 5.vi.2005; 1 ♂, prov. Pordenone, San Quirino, Magredi di San Quirino, 100 m, 11.vi.2001, leg. P. Huemer (all TLMF); 3 ♂, Livorno, 1872, leg. J. Mann ( NHMW); 1 ♂, prov. Livorno, Antignana, 10 m, 26.vi.2004, leg. J. Liška ( NMPC); 1 ♂, prov. Roma, Bracciano, 20-22.vi.2001, leg. A. Cox ( ZMUC); 3 ♂, prov. Roma, Monti di Tolfa, dint. Manziana, 23-28.vi.1989, leg. G. Baldizzone ( TLMF, RCGB); 1 ♂, prov. Latina, Aurunci, 4 km NW Castelforte, 400 m, 1.vii.1969, leg. R. Johansson, genitalia slide 3155 Karsholt; 1 ♂, prov. Latina, Maranola, 400 m, 19.vi.1969, leg. R. Johansson; 1 ♂, prov. Torino, Torre del Colle, Villa Dora (To), 500 m, 5.vii.1991, leg. U. Parenti; 1 ♀, same data, but 9.vii.1991; 2 ♂, prov. Puglia, 5 km SW Manfredònia, 50 m, 26.v.2005, leg. P. Skou (all ZMUC); 1 ♂, prov. Albenga, Salea, 200 m, 4.vii.2012, leg. J. Skyva; 2 ♂, same data, but 8.vii.1996, leg. J. Liška (all NMPC); 4 ♂, prov. Calábria, Monte Pollino, Timpa del Demonio, 1200 m, 11.vii.1991, leg. G. Baldizzone (RCGB); 4 ♂, same data, but 3 km N Civita, 800 m, 31.v.-1.vi.2005, leg. P. Skou ( TLMF, ZMUC); 1 ♂, same data, but 2 km NNW Civita, 775 m, 26.vii.2011, leg. P. Skou & B. Skule ( ZMUC). France. 1 ♂, Dep. Alpes Maritimes, Caussols, Mgne du Cheiron, 1150 m, 12.v.2007, leg. J. Skyva ( NMPC); 1 ♂, Dep. Alpes Maritimes, Caussols, 1100 m, 22.vi.2002, leg. J. Nel; 6 ♂, same data, but 14.viii.1971, leg. F. Dujardin; 4 ♂, Dep. Alpes Maritimes, St. Barnabé, 950 m, 14.viii.1953, leg. F. Dujardin; 1 ♂, Dep. Alpes Maritimes, La Turbie, 250 m, 30.v.-2.vi.1959, leg. K. Burmann; 1 ♂, Dep. Alpes Maritimes, Coursegoules, Nougueiret, 945 m, 6.vii.1995, genitalia slide 3988 Nel; 1 ♂, Dep. Alpes-de-Haute-Provence, Col d´Allos, W, 2300 m, 25.vii.1999, leg. J. Nel, gen. slide 9390 Nel; 1 ♂, same data, but 9.vii.2005, gen. slide 19514 Nel; 1 ♂, Dep. Alpes-de-Haute-Provence, Allos, 1500 m, 30.vii.1972, leg. F. Dujardin; 1 ♂, Dep. Alpes-de-Haute-Provence, St. Etienne, St. Sebastiene, 12.v.2001, leg. J. Nel; 1 ♂, Dep. Alpes-de-Haute-Provence, Dabisse, 3.vii.2005, leg. J. Nel; 1 ♀, Dep. Alpes-de-Haute-Provence, Digne, 600 m, 2-5.vi.1959, leg. K. Burmann, genitalia prep. 3769 Z. Tokàr (in glycerin); 2 ♂, Dep. Hautes Alpes, Les Vigneaux, 1200 m, 25.vii.1990, leg. P. Huemer & G. Tarmann (all TLMF); 1 ♀, Dep. Hautes Alpes, Les Vigneaux, 1000 m, 12.vii.2002, leg. J. Junnilainen; 1 ♂, same data, but Les Vigneaux 5 km W, 1250 m, 5-6.vi.2003; 1 ♂, 1 ♀, Dep. Hautes Alpes, Embrun, 850 m, 6-7.vii.2002, leg. J. Junnilainen, genitalia slide GU 16/1472 ♀ Huemer; 1 ♂, Dep. Hautes Alpes, Col de la Cayolle, Estene, 1800 m, 25.vi.2006, leg. J. Junnilainen (all RCJJ); 1 ♂, Dep. Hautes Alpes, La Bessèe, 1100 m, 21.vii.1961, leg. K. Burmann; 1 ♂, Dep. Hautes Alpes, Ristolas, Le Brasc1640 m, 13.vii.1990, leg. R. Robineau, genitalia slide 2078 Nel; 1 ♂, Dep. Hautes Alpes, Col de Montgenèvre, 1800 m, 1.viii.1998, leg. J. Nel, genitalia slide 8536 Nel; 1 ♂, Dep. Hautes Alpes, Pelvoux, 2300 m, 29.vii.1994, leg. J. Nel, genitalia slide 2276 Nel; 1 ♂, Dep. Hautes Alpes, Villard, St. Crepin, 4.vi.2005, leg. J. Nel (all TLMF); 3 ♂, Dep. Hautes Alpes, Céreste, 8-17.vi.2010 (RCHW, ZMUC); 1 ♂, Dep. Ardèche, Lablachere, 2.vii.2004, leg. J. Procházka ( NMPC); 1 ♂, Dep. Vaucluse, Mt. Ventoux, 18-19.v.1990, leg. G. Luquet, genitalia slide 4660 Nel; 2 ♂, same data, but 30-31.v.1990, genitalia slides 4660 Nel, 4654 Nel; 1 ♂, Dep. Vaucluse, Méthamis, 1.viii.1995, leg. G. Brusseaux; 1 ♂, same data, but 30.vii.1995, genitalia slide 44165 Nel; 2 ♀, Dep. Var, Val de Purian, Rougiers, 15.vi.1994, leg. J. Nel, gen. slide 2116 Nel; 1 ♂, Dep. Var, Camillier, Montmeyan, 550 m, 13.vi.1994, leg. T. Varenne, genitalia slide 2551 Nel; 1 ♂, Dep. Var, Caramy, 15.vi.1997, leg. J. Nel, genitalia slide 6048 Nel; 1 ♂, Dep. Var, Sommet Mt. Caume, 1.vii.1995, leg. J. Nel, genitalia slide 3517 Nel; 1 ♂, Dep. Var, Pourrières, riv. de l´Arc, 27.v.2000, leg. J. Nel, genitalia slide 11372 Nel; 1 ♂, Dep. Var, Mtgne. Lachens, 1600 m, 7.vii.1994, leg. J. Nel, genitalia slide 2225 Nel; 1 ♂, same data, but 11.vii.1995; 1 ♂, Dep. Var, Plan d´Aups, Bertagne, 850 m, 24.v.1999, leg. J. Nel, genitalia slide 10708 Nel; 1 ♂, Dep. Var, Puits de Rians, 20.vi.2992, leg. J. Nel, genitalia slide GEL 1222 Huemer; 1 ♂, Dep. Var, Signes, le Camp, 24.v.1998, leg. J. Nel (all TLMF); 1 ♂, Dep. Var, Montmeyan, 10.vi.1981, leg. Hahn (RCEA); 1 ♂, Dep. Bouches-du-Rhône, La Ciotat, Roumagoua, 30.v.1995, leg. J. Nel, genitalia slide 3449 Nel ( TLMF); 1 ♂, Provence, 3 km W Cereste, 3-4.vii.1989, leg. B. Å. Bengtsson, genitalia slide Bengtsson 3266 (RCBB); 1 ♂, Rhône-Alpes, Montelimar, 27.vi.1980, leg. K. Schnack; 1 ♂, Alpes Maritimes, Col de Vence, 11-12.vi.1981, leg. Hahn ( ZMUC); 1 ♂, Dep. Ardèche, St. Laurent-du-Pape, 400 m, 20-21.vi.1999, leg. P. Skou; 1 ♀, Dep. Hautes-Alpes, Châteauvieux, 750 m, 26.vi.1996, leg. A. Cox; 1 ♂, same data, but 3.vii.1998; 2 ♂, Dep. Hautes-Alpes, Réotier, 1000 m, 23-30.vii.1990, genitalia slide 4516, 4517 Hendriksen; 1 ♂, Dep. Hautes-Alpes, 1.2 km SSW Prelles, 1200 m, 2.vii.2017, leg. P.Skou (all ZMUC); 1 ♂, Dep. Var, Pont l’Arbuty, 800 m, 5.vii.1994, leg. K. Larsen ( ZMUC); 1 ♂, Dep. Vaucluse, Vaison la Romaine, 200 m, 17.vii.1991, leg. A. Cox, genitalia slide 4518 Hendriksen ( ZMUC). Montenegro. 3 ♂, Fundina  , 15.vi.2011, leg. I. Richter. genitalia slide 5315 Karsholt (RCIR, ZMUC). Spain. 1 ♂, prov. Alicante, Sierra de Crevillente, 5 km NE Albatera 450 m, 23.v.2004, leg. P. Huemer, genitalia slide GEL 1238 Huemer ( TLMF); 1 ♂, prov. Alicante, 3.8 km NW Torremendo, 5.v.2008, leg. J. Tabell ( ZMUC); 2 ♂, prov. Almería, Sierra de los Filabres, Calar Alto, 2130 m, 5.vii.2015, leg. J. Tabell, genitalia slide GU 16/1430 Huemer ( TLMF, ZMUC); 2 ♂, same data, but 2000 m, 1-2.viii.2010, leg. J. Šumpich, genitalia slide GU 16/1436 Huemer; 1 ♂, same data, but route Purchena - Senes, 1600 m, 16.vi.2007, leg. J. Šumpich (all NMPC); 2 ♂, same data, but Calar Alto, 1900-2022 m, 17-18.vi.2007, leg. J. Šumpich ( NMPC); 1 ♂, prov. Almería, Tabernas, 380 m, 6-8.vii. 2007, leg. G. Jeppesen ( ZMUC); 1 ♂, prov. Almería, Maria, 1200 m, 18-25.vi.2008, leg. M. Delnoye ( ZMUC); 1 ♂, prov. Avila, Sierra de Villafrance, 1 km W La Herguijuela, 1650 m, 20.vii.2003, leg. B. Skule ( ZMUC); 1 ♂, prov. Avila, Sierra de Gredos, below Platforme de Gredos, 1700 m, 21.vii.2003, leg. B. Skule; 1 ♂, prov. Burgos, Espinosa de Cervera, 24.vii.1988, leg. M. Hull ( ZMUC); 1 ♂, same data, but 1650 m, 25.vi.1986, leg. P. Skou ( ZMUC); 2 ♂, prov. Castellón, 20 km SE Morella, 15.vi.1989, leg. B. Å. Bengtsson, genitalia slide Bengtsson 3264 (RCBB, ZMUC); 1 ♂, prov. Castellon, 5 km E Cuevas de Vinroma, 200 m, 13.vii.1992, leg. M. Fibiger; 1 ♂, prov. Castellon, 25 km NW Castellon, La Banderetta pass, 800 m, 17.vii.1992, leg. M. Fibiger (all ZMUC); 1 ♂, prov. Girona, Port Bou, 0-600 m, 18.vi.-1.vii.1963, leg. M. & W. Glaser ( SMNK); 2 ♂, same data, but 0-300 m, 9-24.vi.1964 ( SMNK); 3 ♂, 1 ♀, prov. Girona, Cerdanya, Colle del Moixeró, 1972 m, 18.vii.2012, leg. J. Dantart, genitalia slide GU 16/1412 ♂ Huemer (RCJD, TLMF); 4 ♂, prov. Lleida, Puente de Montanana, 15.vi.2012, leg. P. Huemer & A. Mayr ( TLMF); 3 ♂, prov. Zaragoza, Gelsa 8 km NE, 240 m, 19.v.2016, leg. J. Tabell ( ZMUC); 5 ♂, prov. Zaragoza, Caspe 7 km N, 18.v.2004 (RCJJ); 6 ♂, prov. Huesca, Los Monegros, Castejón de Monegros, 570 m, 10.vi.2007, leg. J. Šumpich; 3 ♂, same data, but 20.vi. 2007; 1 ♂, same data, but 26-27.iv.2003 (all NMPC); 1 ♂, prov. Huesca, 8 km S Candasnos, Barranco de Valcuerna, 175 m, 5.vii.2002, leg. B. Skule ( ZMUC); 2 ♂, same data, but 250 m, 28.vi.2005, leg. D. Feierabend; 1 ♂, same data, but 10 km S, 30.v.2015, leg. J. Viehmann; 1 ♂, same data, but 3.vii.2016 (all RCWS); 1 ♂, prov. Soria, El Burgo de Osma, 895 m, 14-15.vi.1995, leg. A. Cox, genitalia slide 6104 Wolf (RCHW); 2 ♂, prov. Soria, 30 km SW Soria, El Temerosa, 1080 m, 18.vii.2012, leg. T. Nupponen, genitalia slide 5015 Tabell ( ZMUC); 1 ♂, prov. Tarragona, 2 km S Miami Hospital, 0 m, 12.vii.1992, leg. M. Fibiger ( ZMUC); 2 ♂, prov. Teruel, Albarracin, 1100 m, 19.vi.2007, leg. J. Šumpich; 1 ♂, same data, but 3.v.2003; 5 ♂, 1 ♀, same data, but 28.vii.2010; 1 ♂, same data, but7.viii.2010; 1 ♂, same data, but 13.vii.2012, leg. M. Dvorak; 2 ♂, same data, but 14.vii.2012, leg. M. Dvorak (all NMPC); 26 ♂, 1 ♀, prov. Teruel, Sierra de Cucalon, Baguena 5 km E, 15.vi.2004, leg. J. Junnilainen (RCJJ); 1 ♂, prov. Teruel, Cosa, 2-13.viii.1989, leg. C. Gielis (RCHW); 1 ♂, prov. Teruel, Albarracin, 26.vi.1982, leg. C. Gielis; 1 ♂, same data, but 1000-1200 m, 4-8.viii.1989, leg. C. Gielis; 2 ♂, Teruel, 1 km E Albarracin, Valdevacar, 12.vii.2001, leg. C. Gielis (all RMNH); 6 ♂, prov. Teruel, Albarracin, 4.5 km NE, 1110 m, 7.vii.2016, leg. J. Tabell ( TLMF, ZMUC); 3 ♂, prov. Teruel, Albarracin, Val de Vacar, 1200 m, 16.vii.1992, leg. M. Fibiger; 3 ♂, same data, but 1250 m, 17-18.vii.1988, leg. M. Fibiger, genitalia slide 4544 van der Wolf ( ZMUC); 1 ♂, same data, but 5.vi.1993, leg. J. Wolschrijn ( ZMUC); 1 ♂, same data, but 1100 m, 22.v.1998, leg. P. Skou; 1 ♂, same data, but 10.vi.1999; 4 ♂, same data, but 12.vi.1999 ( ZMUC); 2 ♂, same data, but 15.vi.2004, leg. Viehmann, genitalia slide 9217 van der Wolf (RCWS); 1 ♂, same data, but 1200 m, 4.viii.2007, leg. B. Skule & P. Skou ( ZMUC); 1 ♀, prov. Teruel, Albarracin, 1100 m, 14.vi.1986, leg. P. Skou; 3 ♂, same data, but 1000 m, 7.viii.1988 ( ZMUC); 1 ♂, same data, but, 1170 m, 8-10.vi.1994, leg. A. Cox, genitalia slide 4514 Hendriksen ( ZMUC); 1 ♂, same data, but, 1170 m, 18-20.vi.1996, leg. A. Cox, genitalia slide 4513 Hendriksen ( ZMUC); 1 ♂, same data, but 2-4.vi.1999, leg. A. Cox ( ZMUC); 2 ♂, same data, but 1200 m, 11.vi.1999, leg. P. Skou ( ZMUC); 1 ♂, same data, but 3 km W, 1200 m, 1.vii.2005, leg. D. Feierabend (RCWS); 1 ♂, same data, but 3.5 km SWW, 1200 m, 13.vi.2010, leg. J. Tabel, genitalia in tube ( ZMUC); 1 ♂, same data, but 2 km NW, 1100 m, 4.vii.2010, leg. Z. Tokár (RCZT); 7 ♂, same data, but 4.5 km N, 1110 m, 7.vii.2016, leg. J. Tabel ( ZMUC); 1 ♂, prov. Teruel, Pozondon, 1500 m, 21.vii.1984, leg. W. O. De Prins ( ZMUC); 2 ♂, prov. Teruel, 5 km NW Montalban, 950 m, 17.vii.2003, leg. B. Skule ( TLMF, ZMUC); 2 ♂, same data, but 5.viii.2007, genitalia slide 6491 Hendriksen ( ZMUC);1 ♂, prov. Teruel, 1 km E Tramacastillo, 1250 m, 3.ix.2001, leg. B. Skule & BC. Hviid ( ZMUC); 13 ♂, prov. Teruel, Moscardon, 1500 m, 3.vii.2016, leg. J. Viehmann (RCWS); 1 ♂, 1 ♀ prov. Granada, Sierra de Alfacar, 1500 m, 27.vi.1968, leg. K. Sattler & D.J. Carter, gen. slides 33657 ♂, 33658 ♀ ( BMNH); 4 ♂, prov. Granada, Sierra Nevada, El Pardor Nat, 2500 m, 21.vii.1980, leg. E. Traugot-Olsen; 1 ♂, same data, but 23.vii.1983, genitalia slide 5777 Traugott-Olsen; 1 ♂, prov. Granada, Sierra Nevada, Camino de Valeta, 2300 m, 23.vii.1983, leg. G. Baldizzone & P. Triberti; 1 ♂, same data, but 2250 m, 2.viii.1984, leg. E. Traugott-Olsen; 1 ♂, same data, but 17.viii.1984; 1 ♂, same data, but 2300 m, 19.viii.1984; 1 ♂, same data, but 2050 m, 6.viii.1986; 3 ♂, same data, but 2250 m, 21.vii.1985, leg. G. Baldizzone & E. Traugott-Olsen, genitalia slide 6534 Hendriksen; 1 ♂, same data, but 23.vii.1985 (all ZMUC); 1 ♂, same data, but 1.viii.1984, leg. E. Traugott-Olsen, genitalia prep. 4128 Z. Tokár (in glycerin) ( NHMW); 1 ♂, Granada, Puerto de la Ragua, 1800 m, 23.vii.2003, leg. P. Skou; 1 ♂, Granada, Puerto de la Ragua, 2200 m, 3.viii.1982, leg. W.O. De Prins (all ZMUC); 1 ♂, Granada, Cam. Baza-Benamaurel, 15 km de Baza, 16.vii.1987, leg. G. Baldizzone & E. Traugott-Olsen; 3 ♂, same data, but 19.vii.1987; 2 ♂, same data, but 20.vii.1987 (all TLMF); 1 ♂, Segovia, San Ildefonso 26.vii.1884, coll Staudinger ( ZMHU); 2 ♂, prov. Zaragoza, Tosos, 600 m, 16.vi.1999, leg. P. Skou ( ZMUC); 1 ♂, prov. Zaragoza, Nuévalos, 1200 m, 9.vi.2003, leg. H. van der Wolf (RCHW); 5 ♂, prov. Zaragoza, 6 km W Bujaraloz, 300 m, 29.v.2015, leg. J. Viehmann (RCWS, ZMUC). Without locality: 2 ♂, [San Ildefonso?] 26.vi.[year unknown], coll. Staudinger; 1 ♂, same data, but 13.vii.; 1 ♂, same data, but 26.vii. (all ZMHU).

Redescription.

Adult. Male (Figs 7-8, 10-16). Wingspan 12-17 mm. Segment 2 of labial palpus with long scale brush, brownish at outer and inner surface, white at lower and upper surface; segment 3 about half length of segment 2, white with black tip. Antennal scape without pecten; flagellum ringed black and whitish brown. Head, thorax and tegula whitish brown. Forewing light yellow, mottled with brown-tipped scales, forming a darker area in costal part of wing; costa white; veins indistinctly white; a small black dot at end of cell; a dark streak towards apex; fringes whitish grey. Hindwing light grey with cream-white fringes.

Female (Figure 9). Wingspan 12-17 mm. Forewing ellipsoid with elongate apex; same colour as male, but apex with more black scales. Hindwing distinctly reduced in width; apex produced. Otherwise similar to male.

Variation. Megacraspedus lanceolellus  shows both individual and also a tendency to geographical variation. The nominotypical form has light yellowish forewings with a dark shadow or streak towards the apex, but such individuals also occur elsewhere, e.g., in Spain. Specimens from south-western France and northern and central Spain (described as M. tutti  and M. grossisquammellus  , respectively) have a more or less pronounced white costa and can moreover often be recognized by the light yellow forewings with darker veins. Specimens from the Sierra Nevada in southern Spain (described as M. subdolellus  ) are larger on average (wingspan 14-20 mm) and are characterised by their more clear yellow forewings that almost lack black dots, and the whitish costa. Specimens from Montenegro have a black dot at 2/5 in the fold.

Male genitalia (Figs 153-156). Uncus moderately slender, nearly twice as long as maximum basal width, sub-triangular, gradually tapered to weakly rounded apex; gnathos hook stout, slightly longer than uncus, with curved and pointed apex; anterior margin of tegumen with broad, medially deep V-shaped emargination; pedunculi small; valva straight, slender, extending to about base of gnathos, apex weakly contorted, rounded, saccular area densely covered with setae, without separated sacculus; posterior margin of vinculum with moderately deep medial emargination, broadly rounded lateral humps, vincular sclerites broadly sub-rectangular, tapered towards valva, with sclerotised posterior edge; saccus long and moderately broad, almost V-shaped, with abruptly tapered distal part and pointed apex, ratio maximum width to length 0.75, posterior margin strongly bulged, with rounded mediolateral projections, separated by moderately shallow incision, medial part with elongated ridge from posterior edge to middle, lateral sclerites of variable length, slightly shorter to longer than maximum width of saccus; phallus about length of tegumen, stout, straight, with bulbous coecum, sclerotised band in anterior part of coecum, distal two-thirds stout, with rod-like ventral and lobed dorsal sclerotisations, ductus ejaculatorius with two linear interior sclerotisations.

Female genitalia (Figs 267-268). Papilla analis small, apically rounded; apophysis posterior slender rod-like, about 4 mm long, with short, bifurcate posterior end, bordered by minute sclerotised field, apex widened and rounded; segment VIII approximately 1.5 mm long, membranous; subgenital plate with sub-triangular subostial sclerotisation, posteriorly extended into shortly pointed sclerites, delimiting trapezoidal ostium bursae, anterior margin with rod-like edge connected with apophysis anterior, medially with long sinusoid projection; apophysis anterior slender, rod-like, at most one-third length of segment VIII, posteriorly becoming rod-like venula of segment VIII, extending to posterior margin; colliculum short, sclerotised; ductus bursae short, moderately broad; corpus bursae, moderately short and broad, weakly delimited from ductus bursae, entire length of ductus and corpus bursae nearly 2 mm; signum small, rounded spiny plate.

Diagnosis.

Due to its variation M. lanceolellus  is difficult to characterise. It is a medium-sized species with light yellowish forewings, mottled with brown and black-tipped scales, a lighter costa, and sometimes one or two black dots in the middle of the wing and/or a black streak towards apex. See also M. bengtssoni  sp. n. (p 37) and M. andreneli  (p 96). The male genitalia are characterised by several structures such as the sub-triangular shape of the uncus, the slender and apically weakly contorted valva, the shape of the saccus with a long medial ridge, and particularly the massive distal part of the phallus with a broadly lobed dorsal and a slender ventral sclerotisation, as well as the two linear sclerotisations of the ductus ejaculatorius. They are somewhat similar to M. bengtssoni  sp. n. but differ e.g., by the longer uncus, the medially strongly emarginated anterior margin of the tegumen, the longer and more slender valva, and the broader phallus.

The female genitalia are characterised by the long sinusoid anteriomedial projection of segment VIII, but in the absence of females of closely related species such as M. bengtssoni  sp. n., these features may not be specifically diagnostic.

Molecular data.

The extraordinary DNA barcode divergence is reflected by 19 BINs! The mean and maximum intraspecific divergence of the barcode region in this species is 7.6% and 12.5% respectively, largely reflecting a geographic pattern with several distinct clusters and a remarkable divergence of 4.3 to 8.1% to the nearest cluster. However, even within these clusters intraspecific variation of the barcode region is considerable with e.g., mean divergence of 2.5% in south-western alpine populations. Four specimens collected in the same microhabitat at Sierra de los Filabres (prov. Almería, Spain) form two distinct clusters with a variation of maximum 0.2% within clusters but minimum 8.6% between these clusters. Similarly diverging sympatric clusters are reported from prov. Teruel, and from Prov. Lleida.

The following 19 clusters are defined (based on sequenced material):

BIN lanc01 (Italy: Pordenone, Calabria; Croatia): BOLD:AAU2834 (n = 4).

BIN lanc02 (Italy: Calabria): BOLD:ACZ3381 (n = 1).

BIN lanc03 (Croatia): BOLD:ACZ2933 (n = 1).

BIN lanc04 (Italy: Livorno): BOLD:ACZ2657 (n = 1).

BIN lanc05 (Spain: Almeria): BOLD:ACZ9024 (n = 2).

BIN lanc06 (Andorra): BOLD:ACA9759 (n = 2)

BIN lanc07 (Spain: Barcelona): BOLD:ACZ8656 (n = 2).

BIN lanc08 (France: Alpes Maritimes): BOLD:ABA3648 (n = 1).

BIN lanc09 (Italy: Savona): BOLD:ACZ2656 (n = 1).

BIN lanc10 (France: Alpes Maritimes, Hautes Alpes, Var): BOLD:ABA3649 (n = 2).

BIN lanc11 (Spain: Almeria): BOLD:ACZ2607 (n = 2).

BIN lanc12 (Spain: Teruel, Valencia): BOLD:AAU1829 (n = 5).

BIN lanc13 (Spain: Soria): BOLD:ACZ8269 (n = 1).

BIN lanc14 (Spain: Teruel): BOLD:ADF2256 (n = 2).

BIN lanc15 (Spain: Teruel): BOLD:ACM1006 (n = 1).

BIN lanc16 (Spain: Zaragoza): BOLD:ADB7571 (n = 1).

BIN lanc17 (Spain: Zaragoza): BOLD:ADF2263 (n = 3).

BIN lanc18 (Spain: Lleida): BOLD:ADF2194 (n = 1).

BIN lanc19 (Spain: Lleida): BOLD:ADF1916 (n = 1).

The minimum distance to the nearest congeneric neighbour M. dolosellus  is 9.9% (p-dist).

Distribution.

Southern parts of Europe, from the Balkan Peninsula to Italy, France, and Spain, also known from Germany (northwards to Rheinland-Pfalz ( Hausenblas 2006: 10)). According to Mariani (1943: 174) also in Sicily and Corsica.

Biology.

Early stages are undescribed. According to Lhomme (1946: 538 as M. tutti  ) the larva feeds within the stem of Festuca  L. The adults have been collected from late April until the middle of August, from low altitudes to 2300 m in the Alps and 2500 m in the Sierra Nevada. There is probably only one generation each year, and the flight period seems to at least partly depend on the altitude of the collecting site.

Remarks.

Ypsolophus lanceolellus  was described from an unstated number of males collected by J. Mann at Ardenza and Salviano, Italy (Zeller 1850).

Megacraspedus hessleriellus  was described from two males collected at Biebrich and Mombach in Nassau, S Germany ( Rössler 1866: 348). It was synonymised with M. lanceolellus  by Heinemann (1870: 349).

Megacraspedus subdolellus  was described from an unspecified number of both sexes collected in August at high altitudes (ca. 2700 m) in the Sierra Nevada, Spain ( Staudinger 1859). Despite the slightly differing phenotypic appearance (see above) we found no sign of diagnostic characters in genitalia structures and thus consider M. subdolellus  to be conspecific with M. lanceolellus  (syn. n.). DNA barcodes are not yet known from the type locality. A lectotype, already labelled as such by K Sattler, is here designated in order to fix the identity of the species and conserve stability of nomenclature.

Megacraspedus tutti  was described from a single male collected in August at La Grave, SE France by JW Tutt ( Walsingham 1897). Despite of the slightly differing phenotypic appearance compared to nominotypic M. lanceolellus  (see above) we found no sign of diagnostic characters in genitalia structures and thus consider M. tutti  to be conspecific with M. lanceolellus  (syn. n.). Megacraspedus grossisquammellus  was described from an unstated number of specimens collected in Spain, Segovia, San Ildefonso, in June and July 1902. A lectotype was designated by Agenjo (1962: 161, pl. 2-3) and figured together with its genitalia. Two paralectotypes and numerous additional material from Spain examined by us show a considerable individual variation but cannot be reliably separated from M. lanceolellus  in other areas, particularly in genitalia characters. We therefore consider M. grossisquampellus  to be conspecific with M. lanceolellus  (syn. n.).

Megacraspedus lanceolellus  shows a remarkable morphological and genetic variation. Barcode data clearly support several putative taxa, but the morphology gives a different and less straightforward picture. Though the phenotypic appearance partly depends on geography it is frequently impossible to reliably assign specimens to a barcode cluster. Male genitalia morphology is comparatively uniform and alleged diagnostic characters show intraspecific variation. Considering the intrapopulational barcode variation which exceeds 8% on one occasion we conclude that M. lanceolellus  is a widespread, mainly western-Mediterranean species. The exceptional DNA barcode divergence may be explained by weak dispersal ability, particularly of the slightly brachypterous females, leading to several genetically isolated populations which are mainly restricted to various mountain systems. However, it seems unlikely that this is the sole cause for the observed intraspecific variation (see Discussion).