Cis pallidus Mellie , 1849
Borlini, Paula V., Lopes-Andrade, Cristiano & Araujo, Lucimar S., 2018, Cispallidus Mellie, 1849: redescription, new synonym, geographic distribution, and host fungi records, ZooKeys 762, pp. 117-129: 117
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|Cis pallidus Mellie , 1849|
Cis pallidus Mellie, 1849 Figs 1-8, 9-14, 15-20, 21-28, 29-44, 45
Cis pallidus Mellié, 1849: 246-247, pl. 10, fig. 10.
Cis semipallidus Pic, 1916: 5, syn. n.
Distinguished from other South American ciids by the elongate body (TL/EW at least 2), reddish to dark brown head and pronotum, yellowish elytra with a black band on both sides, and pronotum projected forward, partially or completely covering head when seen from above. Among South American ciid species with light-colored elytra, Orthocis platensis Brèthes, 1922 differs in the pronotum being not projected over the head. Cis bisbidens Gorham, 1883 differs in lacking lateral elytral band, in the developed projections associated with the male head and pronotum, and the small but conspicuous sex patch on first abdominal ventrite of the male. Cis granarius Mellié, 1849 has a comparatively stouter body and the sides of pronotum are light-colored. In C. grossus Mellié, 1849 and C. validithorax Pic, 1916 only the apical portion of the elytra is light-colored. Cis steinheili Reitter, 1878 is devoid of conspicuous lateral dark longitudinal band on elytra and the male has an obvious sex patch on the first abdominal ventrite.
Description of adult males.
Body elongate, subparallel-sided; head, pronotum and scutellar shield reddish-brown (Fig. 16) to dark brown (Fig. 20); pronotum sometimes lighter on disc than on sides (Fig. 17); elytral disc mostly pale yellowish (Figs 9, 17) to yellowish brown (Fig. 1), slightly translucent, gradually darkening to sides and forming a distinct dark longitudinal band on both sides easily seen in lateral view (Figs 2, 10); ventral surface (Figs 3, 11) dark brown, with appendages usually lighter; dorsal vestiture of short decumbent (Fig. 23), goldish bristles, as long as puncture-width (Fig. 20) and up to three puncture-widths (Fig. 19), the same length or longer on elytra than on pronotum, usually sparser on elytra than on pronotum; ventral vestiture of decumbent whitish, slender setae, longest on metaventrite and abdominal ventrites. Head partially or completely covered by anterior pronotal plate when seen from above (Figs 1, 9, 16-17, 19-20); dorsal surface with small shallow punctures and microreticulate interspaces; anterocephalic edge weakly projected forward and upward, sinuous, forming two short, rounded projections (Fig. 11), separated from each other by about one-fifth the basal width of scutellar shield. Antennae (Fig. 24) bearing 10 antennomeres, with measurements as follow (n = 3, mean; in mm): 0.09, 0.05, 0.05, 0.03, 0.03, 0.03, 0.02, 0.08, 0.08, 0.09 (FL 0.16; CL 0.26; CL/FL 1.56). Eyes coarsely facetted, with approx. 100 ommatidia; GW (n = 3, mean; in mm) 0.17. Pronotum with coarse punctures, separated from each other by one puncture-width or less; interspaces of punctures, microreticulate; anterior edge produced forward overhead, broadly emarginate at apex, forming two short subtriangular plates (Figs 1, 9, 16-17, 19-20); anterior portion with concave impression before anterior plates; anterior angles produced forward and broadly rounded; lateral edges finely crenulate, barely visible when seen from above. Scutellar shield (Fig. 27) subpentagonal, with few punctures and bristles; BW (n = 3, mean; in mm) 0.11. Elytra with single sized punctation, punctures shallower, finer and sparser than those on pronotum; interspaces of punctures irregular close to anterior portion of elytra and smooth at disc. Metathoracic wings developed, apparently functional. Hypomera with shallow, inconspicuous punctation; interspaces, finely shagreened. Prosternum (Fig. 25) slightly tumid at midline; surface similar to that of hypomera. Prosternal process (Fig. 25) about as long as prosternal disc, curved, slightly enlarged close to rounded apex. Protibiae slightly expanded to apex; outer apical angle acute (Fig. 26, arrow); apical edge devoid of spines. Meso- and metatibiae comparatively less expanded than protibiae; outer apical angle rounded; apical edge with row of minute spines. Metaventrite with punctation denser than those on hypomera, more conspicuous close to sides; interspaces shagreened; discrimen shallow, about half the length of metaventrite at midline. Abdominal ventrites with punctation and surface similar to that of metaventrite; length of ventrites (measured in male from Viçosa; in mm, from base to apex at longitudinal midline) as follows: 0.3, 0.12, 0.11, 0.11, 0.13; first ventrite apparently devoid of sex patch (Figs 22, 28), but with small barely discernible mark in slide preparation (Fig. 29, arrow). Male abdominal terminalia with sternite VIII (Fig. 4) subtrapezoidal, posterior edge slightly curved inwardly and with short setae, sides rounded and bearing long slender setae. Tegmen (Figs 6, 30, 32, 34, 36, 38, 40-41, 43) subcylindrical, 2.89 –4.45× as long as wide, 1 –1.13× as long as penis; apical portion with short emargination, forming two lateral lobes; apex narrow, preceded by lateral, broadly rounded membranous flaps. Basal piece (Fig. 5) subtriangular, about as long as wide, 1/3 to 1/4 length of tegmen. Penis (Figs 7, 31, 33, 35, 37, 39, 42, 44) subcylindrical, 3.6 –4.35× as long as wide, gradually expanding from base to apex, apex subtriangular.
Females. Projections of head and pronotum more rounded and less prominent than in males. Otherwise like males, but first abdominal ventrite devoid of any discernible mark. Female abdominal terminalia (in specimen from Viçosa with everted terminalia) with paraprocts 1.25 × as long as gonocoxites; each gonocoxite with three ventral lobes; gonostyli inserted at top of gonocoxites.
Measurements and ratios.
Males, measurements in mm (n = 21): TL 1.95-3.00 (2.47 ± 0.32), PL 0.70-1.00 (0.86 ± 0.09), PW 0.80-1.20 (0.99 ± 0.12), EL 1.20-2 (1.60 ± 0.24), EW 0.85-1.30 (1.07 ± 0.13), GD 0.60-1.15 (0.83 ± 0.13), PL/PW 0.72-1.12 (0.87 ± 0.10), EL/EW 1.26-1.94 (1.49 ± 0.13), EL/PL 1.38-2.05 (1.86 ± 0.17), GD/EW 0.54-1.00 (0.77 ± 0.09), TL/EW 2.04-3.00 (2.30 ± 0.20). Females, measurements in mm (n = 20): TL 2.15-3.05 (2.53 ± 0.23), PL 0.75-1.00 (0.85 ± 0.07), PW 0.85-1.20 (1.02 ± 0.08), EL 1.40-2.05 (1.68 ± 0.17), EW 0.95-1.35 (1.11 ± 0.10), GD 0.75-1.05 (0.86 ± 0.09), PL/PW 0.75-0.89 (0.83 ± 0.03), EL/EW 1.42-1.56 (1.50 ± 0.03), EL/PL 1.76-2.20 (1.97 ± 0.11) GD/EW 0.68-0.87 (0.76 ± 0.04), TL/EW 2.16-2.36 (2.26 ± 0.04).
♀ Holotype " Cis pallidus Mel. Bahia. T. Cast. 72 [green disc, handwritten] \ Bahia. Mocquerys [handwritten] \ Cis pallidus Reiche [handwritten] \ LECTOTYPE [printed] Cis pallidus Mellié [handwritten]"; ♂ lectotype of Cis semipallidus Pic, 1916, here designated (MNHN) "Rep Argentina. Prov. Buenos Aires 9.11.1896 C. Bruch \ Cis près Cis bisbidens Gorh. [handwritten] \ Cis [handwritten] \ Type [yellow paper; handwritten] \ C. semipallidus Pic [handwritten] \ Type [red paper] \ LECTOTYPE [printed] Cis semipallidus Pic [handwritten]; 1 ♂ (MNHN, dissected) "Rep. Argentina Prov. Buenos Aires 9.11.1896 C. Bruch [handwritten] \ Type [handwritten] \ PARALECTOTYPE [printed] Cis semipallidus Pic [handwritten]".
BRASIL: 1 ♀ (MNHN) "Museum Paris Brésil Bahia (Tabacs) A. Grouvelle 1913\ Cis pallidus Mellié 1969 J. F. Lawrence"; 1 ♂ and 1 ♀ (CELC); "BRASIL: ES, Atílio Vivacqua, Mata do Zé [sic], 16.vi.2007, Furieri, K. S. & Ana Paula"; 1 ♂ and 2 ♀(MNRJ) "Saude 29.vi.14 \ MNRJ 230"; 1 ♂ (DZUP, dissected) “Coleção M. Alvarenga \ CORCOVADO Guanabara BRASIL x.1968 Alvarenga & Seabra \ Cis pallidus Mellié, 1849 C. Lopes-Andrade det. \ DZUP 273653"; 22 ♂ (CELC, 5 dissected) and 13 ♀ (CELC) "BRASIL: MG, Viçosa, “Atrás do Insetário” 18.xi.2003 legs. D. J. Souza & C. Lopes-Andrade \ ex Trametes hirsuta "; 61 specimens (CELC, in alcohol) "Brasil: MG, Viçosa, Bom Jesus, 13.vii.2006 Oliveira, C. B."; 19 specimens (CELC, in alcohol) "Brasil: MG, Viçosa, Apiário 09.vi.2010 leg. L. A. O. Campos"; 4 ♂ (CELC) and 3 ♀ (CELC) "BRASIL: MG, Viçosa, “Violeira” 17.xii.2004 leg. A. A. Zacaro"; 5 ♂ and 6 ♀ (CELC) "BRASIL: MG, Viçosa, Mata da Biologia, 03.v.2014, Lopes-Andrade et al. leg"; 2 ♀ (CELC) "BRASIL: MG, Jequeri; Piscamba 09.vi.2009 leg. D. M. da Silva"; 6 ♂ (CELC, 1 dissected) and 6 ♀ (CELC) "BRASIL: MG, São João del Rei [sic] Colônia 25.xii.2011 De Oliveira, G. A. & De Oliveira, E. H.";13 ♀ (CELC) "BRASIL: MG, Juiz de Fora Campus UFJF 11.vii.2012 Pecci-Maddalena leg."; 2 ♂ and 2 ♀ (CELC) "BRASIL: MG, Ibitipoca, 03.iii.2014. leg. Pecci-Maddalena, I. \ Trametes hirsuta "; 2 ♂ (1 DZUP; 1 CELC, dissected) "BRASIL: PR, Palotina Parque Estadual de São Camilo (coleta manual) 02.iii.2011 G. A. Oliveira, col. \ Ciidae sp. 17 C. S. Santos, det. 2011 \ Coletado no fungo: Trametes sp. ( Polyporaceae ) V. G. Cortez det. 2011 \ C342 \ Cis pallidus Mellié, 1849 C. Lopes-Andrade det."; 1 ♂ (ANIC, dissected) and 1 ♀(ANIC) "Nova Teutonia Santa Catarina BRAZIL March F. Plaumann"; 1 ♂(ANIC) "BRAZIL: Santa Catarina, Nova Teutonia Dec. F. Plaumann"; 1 ♂ (ANIC) "Brasilien [Marechal Cândido] Rondon 24° 38'B. 54° 07' L F. Plaumann"; 1 ♀(ANIC) "Santa Catarina BRAZIL xi.64 Fritz Plaumann"; 1 ♀ (DZUP) "Brasilien Nova Teutonia 27° 11' B 52° 23' L 300-500m xii.1980 Fritz Plaumann \ Cis pallidus Mellié, 1849 C. Lopes-Andrade det. \ DZUP 273657"; 1 ♂ (FMNH) "Nova Teutonia, Sta. Catarina, BRAZ. Fritz Plaumann leg. \ Cis pallidus Mell. det. J. F. Lawrence \ FMNH 261"; 3 ♀ (FMNH) "Nova Teutonia, Sta. Catarina, BRAZ. 5.viii.44 Fritz Plaumann leg. \ Cis pallidus Mell. det. J. F. Lawrence \ FMNH 259; 260; 262"; 3 ♂ (CELC, 1 dissected) and 1 ♀ (CELC) "BRASIL: SC, Urubici (Estrada para Serra do Corvo) 06.iii.2011 Grossi & Parizotto"; 1 ♂ (MCNZ) "Torres, RS 21/XI/1976 [handwritten] A. Lise leg. [p.] COL. NCN 28.253 [handwritten]"; 1 ♀ (ANIC) "Brazil J. Rick \ J. F. Lawrence Lot.1995 \ Polyporus polyzonus [= Trametes polyzona ]". ARGENTINA: 4 ♀ (FMNH) "R. Argentina La Plata Col. C. Bruch\ FMNH 263"; 1 ♂ (ANIC, dissected) and 1 ♀ (ANIC) "ARG: Tucuman Famailla vi.11.1971 \ L. A. Stange Lot 13 \ Coriolus pinistus [sic] [= Trametes hirsuta ]"; 1 ♂ and 1 ♀ (MACN) on the same card "Rep Argentina. Prov. Buenos Aires 9.11.1896 C. Bruch \ Cis près bisbidens Gorh. [handwritten]".
There was no consistent difference in the morphology of tegmen and penis between specimens with different dorsal coloration and length of dorsal bristles, and such variation occurred within the populations throughout the geographic extension of the species. Therefore, we consider that the abovementioned specimens all belong to a single species. After the description of C. pallidus , Mellié (1849: 247) wrote "Provient de Bahia; a été donné à M. Reiche par M. Mocquerys de Rouen", a statement in the singular, suggesting that he had only one specimen at the time of the description. It is important to note that Mellié, in the same work, clearly used plural in case he had examined two or more specimens. Therefore, we consider the single type specimen located in the MNHN as the holotype, even though it has a lectotype label. Two specimens from MACN, pinned at the same card, have the same locality label of the type series of C. semipallidus , but these do not have any indication whether they were examined or not by Maurice Pic. Thus we think they do not belong to the type series but they were possibly collected together. The specimen from the MNHN labeled “(…) Bahia (Tabacs) A. Grouvelle ( …)” is possibly from Recôncavo Baiano (Fig. 45, question mark), a name for the geographic area around Bay of All Saints, the biggest bay at the northeastern coast of Brazil. The collector Antoine Grouvelle was the director of the "Manufactures nationales des Tabacs" (national manufacturers of tobacco) and used to catch small insects in the tobacco leaves exported to France. These insects, mostly Coleoptera , were probably retained during their flight by the more or less abundant pubescence and viscosity which covers the tobacco leaves; it is also possible that some of them had been attracted by the rainwater which remains in the axils of the leaves, and that others came from the washing water in the country of production ( Régimbart 1895). In the 19th century, most of the tobacco production from Bahia came from Recôncavo Baiano; therefore, we consider that it is plausible that this specimen of C. pallidus has come from this area.
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