Trachusa pubescens (Morawitz, 1872)

Kasparek, Max, 2018, Taxonomic revision proves Trachusapubescens (Morawitz, 1872) sensu lato to be a complex of allopatric and sympatric species in South-Eastern Europe and Western Asia (Hymenoptera, Apoidea, Anth, ZooKeys 764, pp. 111-144: 111

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Trachusa pubescens (Morawitz, 1872)


Trachusa pubescens (Morawitz, 1872)  Figs 11, 12, 14, 15

Anthidium pubescens  Morawitz 1872: 59-60 [Note: While the date of publication is given in many publications as 1873, it has now been accepted as See Pesenko and Astafurova (2003)].

Anthidium pubescens  Morawitz (1874).


Male, Derbent, Dagestan, Russia (ZISP). Photographs provided by Yu. Astafurova.

The species was described on the basis of two males collected in "Hab. in Caucaso, Derbent" (photographs of original labels in Proshchalykinet al. 2017). There are two males in ZISP from this locality, which corresponds to the original description of Morawitz (1872, 1874). One of these males was designated as lectotype by Proshchalykin and Astafurova in 2016 ( Proshchalykin et al. 2017).

Material examined.

Females have been assigned to T. pubescens  on the basis of the location of the collection area (as long as no other species of the species group are known to occur in this region: Crimea, southern Greece, northern Iran) or because they were collected together with males which were positively identified as T. pubescens  (Turkey). GREECE: 2♀, 6♂, Alt-Korinth (ancient Corinth), Peloponnes, 03.06.1964, M. Schwarz leg. (6ex. cMS, 2ex. cMAV); 1♀, same location, 21.05.1964, 1♀, same location, 23.05.1962, M. Schwarz leg. (cMS); 1♀, same location, 01.06.1974, M. Schwarz leg. (cMAV); 1♂, Alt-Korinth (ancient Corinth), Solomos, Peloponnes, 24.05.1964, M. Schwarz leg. (cMS); 1♂, Athens, 02.06.1962, H. Hunder leg. (cMS); 2♀, Corinth, Peloponnes, 24.05.1962, M. Schwarz leg. (1 ex. cMAV, 1 ex. cMS); 1♀, Chelmos, Kalavrita, Peloponnes, 31.05.1962, H. Hamann leg. (cMS); 2♂, Chalkis (Euboea), V.1926, Holtz leg. (ZMB); 1♂, Hellas Alt-Korinth, 21.06.1996, W. Arens leg. (cWA); 1♂, ibid., 07.06.1997, W. Arens leg. (cWA). IRAN: 2♂, Elburs, Polour 22 km N Ab Ali, 13.-14.7.1965, A. G. Soika & G. A. Mavromoustakis leg. (OLL); 3♀, ibid., 11.07.1965, A. G. Soika & G. A. Mavromoustakis leg. (OLL); 1♀, Tehran, 5.-8.5.1972, H. Bytinski-Salz leg. (OLL); 3♂, Elburs, Ilekah road 4 km above Pol-e Zanguleh, 2450 m, 14.7.1967, Baker leg. (SEMC, Baker collection); 1♀, 1♂, Kakan, Yasouj, 9.07.2009 (cAM). MACEDONIA (Former Yugoslav Republic): 1♀, 1♂, Prilep, 01.06.1965, K. Warncke leg. (OLL). RUSSIA: 1♂ (paralectotype), Derbent, Dagestan (ZISP). Photographs provided by Yu. Astafurova. TURKEY: 1♀, 3♂, Turkey ("Asia Minor"), 1890 (OLL, ZMB); 1♀, 1♂, Ankara, 16.06.1934, A. Seitz leg., "Anthidium laticeps F. Mor. det. J. D. Alfken 1934" (ZMB); 1♂, ibdid., 21.06.1934, A. Seitz leg., "Archianthidium maximum Friese Pasteels det. 1967" (SMF); 1♂, ibid., 24.06.1934, A. Seitz leg., "A. pubescens Pasteels det. 1976" (SMF); 1♂, ibid., 25.06.1934, A. Seitz leg., "A. laticeps / Archianthidium pubescens J. Pasteels det. 1976" (SMF); 3♂, Ankara: 40 km W of Ayas, 26.06.1998, J. Halada leg. (cMS); 5♂, Isparta: Karakuş Dağı Centr. (38°15'N, 30°39'E), 1460 m, 11.07.2006, J. Halada leg. (cMS); 2♂, Denizli: 35 km SSE Denizli (37°37'N, 29°17'E) 970 m, 05.07.2006, J. Halada leg.; 1♀, 2♂, 28 km SSE Kütahya (39°13'N, 30°08'E) 1110 m, 12.07.2006, J. Halada leg. (cMS); 3♀, 4♂, Tatvan, Van Gölü, 01.07.2000, M. Halada leg. (cMS); 2♀, 3♂, Bitlis, Nemrut Dağı (2000 m); 28.07.1986, I. Blank leg. (OLL); 2♀, 1♂, Siirt: 10 km S, 23.-24.6.1985, M. Schwarz leg. (cMS); 2♀, 1♂, Adiyaman: Gölbaşı, 21.06.1985, M. Schwarz leg. (cMS); 1♂, Hakkâri: 16 km SE Yüksekova (1700 m), 28.06.1985, M. Schwarz leg. (cMS); 1♂, Hakkâri: Sat Mountain S Varegös (2000 m), 06.08.1982, K. Warncke leg. (OLL). TURKMENISTAN: 1♂, West Kopet Dagh [ Köpetdag], Syunt Mts., 21.06.1953, O. Kryzhanovskiy leg. (ZISP). Photographs provided by Yu. Astafurova. UKRAINE: 1♂, Crimea, 03.08.1937 (SIZK); 1♂, Crimea (exact location illegible), before 1908 (SIZK); 1♂, Crimea ( “Tauria”; exact location illegible), 22.06.1914, V. Pliginski leg., (cMAV); 2♂, Crimea (exact location illegible), without date (cMAV); 1♂, Crimea ( “Tauria”), Sevastopol, 26.06.1911, V. Pliginski leg. (cMAV); 1♂, Crimea ( “Tauria”), 21.06.1909, V. Pliginski leg. (cMAV); 1♂, Crimea, Savastopol, 26.06.1986 (SIZK); 1♂, ibid., 08.07.1912, V. Pliginski leg. (cMAV); 1♂, Karadag, Crimea, 01.07.1919 (OLL); 1♀, ibid., 17.06.1923 (OLL); 1♂, ibid., 23.06.1925, Kistjakovsky leg. (SIZK); 1♂, ibid., 22.06.1929, J. Paramonum leg. (SIZK); 1♀, 1♂, Crimea, Feodossija, 17.06.1995, C. Ivanov leg. (SIZK).

Other material.

TURKEY: The following females from Turkey are attributed to this species as "Trachusa aff. pubescens": 1♀, Ankara, 22.06.1973, K. Warncke leg. (OLL); 1♀, Ankara: Kızılcahamam; 18.06.1985, M. Schwarz leg. (cMS); 1♀, Ankara: 10 km S Ankara, 05.06.1988, K. Warncke leg. (OLL); 1♀, Konya: 10 km S Karaman, 19.06.1985, M. Schwarz leg. (cMS); 1♀, Konya: Sille; 08.06.1972, J. Heinrich leg. (SMF); 1♀, Akşehir, 07.1934, (OLL), "A. interruptum Pasteels det. 1967 / A. pubescens det. Warncke"; 2♀, Akşehir ( “Ak-Chehir“), 1900, Korb leg. (OLL); 3♀, Hakkâri: 19 km S Beyetüşşebap (1200 m), 26.06.1985, M. Schwarz leg. (cMS); 1♀, Malatya: Erkenek 60 km SW Malatya (1300 m), 26.06.2000, M. Halada leg. (cMS); 1♀, Hakkâri: 16 km SE Yüksekova (1700 m), 28.06.1985, M. Schwarz leg. (cMS); 1♀, Hakkâri, Suvari-Halil-Paß östl. Beytüşşebap (2300 m), 03.08.1982, K. Warncke leg. (OLL).

Differential diagnosis.

The male is characterised by the following morphological features: Apical margin of clypeus straight or only slightly curved inwards and shallowly crenulated, usually without individually discernible tubercles; lateral projections of T6 subacute, apex of median projection emarginate (variable between a shallowly emarginate and a narrow V-shaped incision); punctation of T6 dense and coarse; median projection of T7 broadened toward apex. In some specimens in which the median emargination of T6 is inconspicuous or absent, the median projection of T7 is widened. For identification at least one of these two characters should hold true. Margins of yellow maculations on abdominal terga normally irregularly ragged.


Four OUs were distinguished: Greece (including one from FYR of Macedonia), Crimea, Anatolia, and northern Iran. Members of the Greek and Crimean OUs are characterised by yellow maculation in the genal area and a dark vertex. The genal maculation usually extends from the top of the eye to the lower end of the eye but is sometimes irregular (margins ragged or maculations broken). Only one specimen from the Crimea has yellow on the vertex. In the Anatolian OU, however, the yellow maculation of the genal area usually extends up to the middle of the vertex and merges, or at least the lateral bands are contiguous. There is, however, some variation within populations and, for example, specimens with merged maculation and with widely separated maculations can be found together. The colour pattern of northern Iranian specimens is in general close to the Greek and Crimean OUs but one specimen with subcontiguous bands is available.

The yellow colouration on T2 in the Crimean, Greek and northern Iranian OUs is confined to lateral bands far apart from each other, whereas in the Anatolian OU the gap between the lateral bands is narrower and two small yellow spots are normally situated between them.

Specimens of the northern Iranian OU are smaller than those in the other populations. Despite a small sample size (N = 5), the Iranian specimens proved to be significantly smaller than Anatolian specimens in 22 of 27 morphological features (at least p < 0.05; t-test). Anatolian specimens in turn do not differ in size from Crimean and Greek specimens.

A Discriminant Analysis (DA) was carried out to find out whether the OUs attributed to T. pubescens  s. str. are different from each other in morphometric characters. Fig. 4 shows that the specimens from Greece, Crimea, and Anatolia form three distinctive clusters. In their morphometric characters northern Iranian specimens are between the Greek and Anatolian specimens but their separation is less clear. Nevertheless, in a confusion matrix, which summarises the reclassification of the observations and enables us to see quickly the percentage of well-classified observations, all specimens (100%) of all four groups were correctly classified.

Altogether, the populations of T. pubescens  s. str. from Greece, the Crimea, Anatolia, and northern Iran can be separated based on a set of morphological features. Northern Iranian specimens are smaller than all others. The colouration pattern of the vertex and gena enables most Anatolian specimens to be distinguished from the others, but due to variation within populations this feature is not regarded here as being of taxonomic significance. The pattern of the yellow colouration on the first three terga is on average different in the Anatolian population from the other OUs. All these features could justify giving the OUs subspecies rank. However, the holotype of T. pubescens  could not be examined and, although the description is detailed enough to allow unambiguous species attribution within the T. pubescens  species group, it is not detailed enough to decide whether the colouration and/or morphometric features agree with one of the OUs described here.

Flower preference.

No information available.


The distribution area extends from Crimea and southern Greece over Anatolia and the Caucasus to the Kopet Dagh Mountain in Turkmenistan. In the south, the distribution area extends into the Zagross Mountains of Iran. Possible hybridisation with T. balcanica  sp. n. takes place in the F.Y.R. Macedonia.

Mocsáry (1879, 1884) describes material from Hungary with an emarginate T6. While this character alone does not allow unambiguous species identification, it may be interpreted as an indication that the distribution of T. pubescens  may extend further north than indicated by the records presented in this paper.