Dolichandra hispida (DC.) L.H.Fonseca & L.G.Lohmann, 2015

Fonseca, Luiz Henrique M., Cabral, Simone Miranda, Agra, Maria de Fatima & Lohmann, Lucia G., 2015, Taxonomic updates in Dolichandra Cham. (Bignonieae, Bignoniaceae), PhytoKeys 46, pp. 35-43 : 37-39

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Dolichandra hispida (DC.) L.H.Fonseca & L.G.Lohmann

comb. nov.

Dolichandra hispida (DC.) L.H.Fonseca & L.G.Lohmann comb. nov. Fig. 1

Spathodea hispida DC., Prodr. 9: 205. 1845.

Macfadyena hispida (DC.) Seemann, J. Bot. 1: 227. 1863. Type: Brazil. Mato Grosso: Cuiabá, 1832, A. Silva Manso 105A (holotype: G-DC [G00133604]!).

Spathodea mollis Sond., Linnaea 22: 561. 1849.

Macfadyena mollis (Sond.) Seemann, J. Bot. 1: 227. 1863. Type: Brazil. Minas Gerais: Caldas, 1855, A.F. Regnell I-292 (lectotype, designated here: MO [2229711]!).

Macfadyena pubescens Moore, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, Bot. ser. 2, 4: 418. 1895.


Paraguay. "inter Villa Maria et Corumbá”, Dec 1891-92, S. Moore 1021 (holotype: BM image [578432]!).


Liana. Stems terete, striate, interpetiolar region with ridges and glandular fields, eglandular and glandular trichomes covering the stem surface, eglandular trichomes simple, densely distributed in a hispid indument, glandular trichomes peltate and pateliform, flaky bark absent; prophylls 1.6-3 mm long, subulate, apiculate, smooth, hispid. Leaves bifoliolate with a terminal tendril; petioles semi-terete, hispid and with peltate trichomes, 0.95-4.49 cm long; petiolules terete, hispid with simple and peltate trichomes, 0.3-2.9 cm long, with equal length; tendrils trifid and uncinate; leaflets ovate, obovate or elliptic, apex acute to short acuminate with a drip tip, base rounded, symmetric or slight asymmetric, 3.2-8.6 × 1.2-7.14 cm, margin entire, membranaceous, the abaxial surface hispid with simple trichomes more concentrated on the veins, peltate trichomes throughout and pateliform glandular trichomes concentrated at the base, the adaxial surface hispid, primary venation straight, unbranched, secondary venation brochidodromous and tertiary venation percurrent. Inflorescence an axillary 3-flowered cyme, rarely reduced to one flower; pedicels 0.5-4.3 cm long, hispid and with peltate glandular trichomes; receptacle with pateliform trichomes; bracts deciduous, floral bracts filiform, deciduous, rarely present, elliptic to obovate, 0.7-5.5 mm long, membranaceous. Calyx green, bi-lobed, spathaceous with an incurved apicule, 1.4-3.2 × 0.7-1.6 cm, membranaceous, glabrate to hispidulous, with peltate trichomes. Corolla yellow, bilabiate with the upper 2 lobes reflexed and the lower 3 lobes forward, tubular-infundibuliform, glabrate, hispidulous 5.1-9.1 cm long, 1.3-2.2 cm, 4-5.7 cm wide; lobes obcordate, 1.2-2 cm long, 1.2-2.15 cm wide, margin entire. Androecium inserted at the tube, with simple trichomes at the insertion; short filaments 1.15-1.7 cm long, longer filaments 1.74-2.4 cm long, glabrous, attached at the same height from the base of the corolla, 4.5-9.4 mm from the base; staminode 8-9 mm long; anthers pale-yellow or white, 3-3.9 mm long. Gynoecium inserted at the tube, glabrous; pistil 3.3-3.8 cm long; ovary vinaceus, linear, 7-9 × 1.4 mm long; style 2.6-3 cm long; stigma rhombic. Fruits linear, attenuate toward base and apex, 77-125.8 × 1.17-2.2 cm, smooth, with lenticels, glabrous. Seeds with hyaline wings, thin, 2.2-3.8 × 1.4-1.8 cm wide, seed body oblong to ovoid, woody, 6-9 × 8-15 mm.

Nomenclatural notes.

A single specimen was cited by Sonder for Spathodea mollis labeled 292 in Regnell’s first series of collections from Brazil. Four specimens labeled as Regnell I-292 were located, one at K [000449792], two at BR [876279] [876378] and one at MO [2229711]. The best quality material is selected here as lectotype.

Taxonomic notes.

Dolichandra hispida is easily differentiated from all other species of Dolichandra by the unique hispid indument found on the vegetative and reproductive portions of this species, as well as the presence of a vinaceus ovary. Dolichandra hispida has been treated as a synonym of Dolichandra uncata since Gentry (1973a). However, the differences in indument (hispid vs. glabrous to puberulous), ovary color (vinaceus in Dolichandra hispida vs. green in Dolichandra uncata ), and seed wing morphology (hyaline in Dolichandra hispida vs. woody in Dolichandra uncata ) are clear, making the separation of these two species necessary. In addition, the difference in fruit length is also striking, with fruits being much longer in Dolichandra hispida (77-125.8 cm) than in Dolichandra uncata (9.2-38.5 cm). In fact, Dolichandra hispida presents one of the longest fruits of Bignoniaceae , and possibly one of longest capsules within the Angiosperms (Table 1 View Table 1 ).

Dolichandra uncata occurs predominantly in riverbanks, swamps and mangroves, presenting seeds that are corky and supposedly adapted for water dispersal ( Gentry 1973b). On the other hand, Dolichandra hispida is more common in non-flooded areas, presenting seeds adapted to wind dispersal.


Dolichandra hispida occurs in southern, southwestern and central Brazil, Paraguay and Bolivia, whereas Dolichandra uncata has its northern limit in Mexico and southern limit in Argentina and Uruguay (Fig. 2).


This species was collected in flower in September, October, November, December and January and in fruit in September, November, December, January and February.

Conservation status.

Dolichandra hispida is here considered as Least Concern [LC] according to IUCN criteria ( IUCN 2012; IUCN Standards and Petitions Subcommittee 2014). The extent of occurrence estimated for the species is 2,209,625.833 km2 and the estimated area of occupancy is 875.000 km2 (cell width of 5 km). Therefore this classification was established based on the wide distribution of the taxon, since no population data is available.

Specimens examined.

Argentina. Misiones: Guarani, 03 Mar 2000, N. Deginani 1630 (MO); Bolivia. Santa Cruz: Estancia San Miguelito, 200 km al E de la ciudad de Santa Cruz, 02 Dez 1996, A. Fuentes 1342 (MO); Las Trancas, Lomerio, las parcelas de Bolfor, Las Trancas '95, 16 Nov 1994, A. Jardim 1204 (MO); Brazil. Mato Grosso: Alta Floresta, Fazenda Mogno, Ponte do 27, margem direita, mata de capoeira, solo arenoso, 18 Sep 1991, Macedo et al. 3009 (INPA); Paraná: Antonina, Rio Mergulhão, 31 Oct 1973, G. Hatschbach 29172 (MBM); Foz do Iguaçu, Parque Nacional das Cataratas do Iguaçu, 14 Oct 1962, G. Hatschbach 9378 (MBM); Guaraqueçaba, Tagaçaba de Cima, Rio Tagaçaba, orla da Floresta Atlântica, 20 Nov 2003, G. Hatschbach et al. 76720 (MBM); Irati, Riozinho, 01 Oct 1982, G. Hatschbach 45518 (MBM); Laranjeiras do Sul, Salto Santiago, 07 Mar 1991, Silva et al. 955 (UPCB, SP); Fazenda Santa Ana, 31 Oct 1985, Dias s. n. (FUEL, MO); Morretes, início da Estrada do Itupava, beira do Rio Nhumdiaquara, próximo à ponte de Morretes, 29 m elev., 25°26'1.31"S, 48° 52'26.31"W, 12 Mar 2008, L.H.M. Fonseca et al. 27 (SPF, MBM); Pinhão, Vale do Rio Iguaçu, Córrego Estreito, 22 Feb 1996, G. Hatschbach et al. 64429 (MBM); Rio Bonito do Iguaçu, Fazenda Giacomet-Marodin, Pinhal Ralo, 23 Jun 1995, Poliquesi & Cordeiro 328 (MBM, SPF); Tibagi, 696 m elev., 12 Oct 1959, G. Hatschbach 6373 (MBM); Rio Grande do Sul: Morrinhos do Sul, Morro do Forno, trepadeira em borda de Mata Atlântica de encosta, 19 Oct 1997, Jarenkow & Sobral 3204 (MBM); Santa Catarina: Apiúna, floresta ombrófila densa, 549 m elev., 27°10'27"S, 49°18'08"W, 11 Oct 2009, K. Kniess 561 (SPF); São Paulo: Iporanga, estrada entre Apiaí e Iporanga, floresta ombrófila densa, próximo ao Rio Bethary, 240 m elev., 24°32'55"S, 48°41'09"W, 23 Oct 2010, L.H.M. Fonseca & D. Tarabay 157 (SPF, SP, MBM, MO); Iporanga, estrada entre Apiaí e Iporanga, floresta ombrófila densa, próximo ao Rio Bethary, 23 Oct 2010, L.H.M. Fonseca & D. Tarabay 162 (SPF, SP, MBM, MO). Paraguay. Chaco: Bahia Negra, 13 Nov 1946, T. Rojas 13743 (MO); Itapua: Pirapo, Cerca Pirapo. Sitio de plantaciones experimentales de CEDEFO, 10 Oct 1984, D.R. Brunner & W. Buck 853 (MO); Alto Parana: Puerto Stroessner, Itaipu, Forest Reserve Noe. Pto. Puente Stroessner, 27 May 1989, A.H. Gentry 66144 (MO).














Dolichandra hispida (DC.) L.H.Fonseca & L.G.Lohmann

Fonseca, Luiz Henrique M., Cabral, Simone Miranda, Agra, Maria de Fatima & Lohmann, Lucia G. 2015

Spathodea hispida

Fonseca & Cabral & Agra & Lohmann 2015

Macfadyena hispida

Fonseca & Cabral & Agra & Lohmann 2015

Spathodea mollis

Fonseca & Cabral & Agra & Lohmann 2015

Macfadyena mollis

Fonseca & Cabral & Agra & Lohmann 2015

Macfadyena pubescens

Fonseca & Cabral & Agra & Lohmann 2015