Ischiodon scutellaris ( Fabricius, 1805 )

Ramage, Thibault, Charlat, Sylvain & Mengual, Ximo, 2018, Flower flies (Diptera, Syrphidae) of French Polynesia, with the description of two new species, European Journal of Taxonomy 448, pp. 1-37: 12-15

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2018.448

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:413AE92E-862A-4879-B72F-1C0DCF1F7240

DOI

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3815681

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/FA02BC3C-C96E-FFB6-9579-F9084C4502CC

treatment provided by

Valdenar

scientific name

Ischiodon scutellaris ( Fabricius, 1805 )
status

 

Ischiodon scutellaris ( Fabricius, 1805) 

Figs 2DView Fig, 3View Fig G–H, 6View Fig A

Scaeva scutellaris Fabricius, 1805: 252  (holotype: ♂, UZMC; type locality: India, Tamil Nadu, Tranquebar).

Syrphus coromandelensis Macquart, 1842: 149  .

Sphaerophoria annulipes Macquart, 1855: 116  .

Syrphus splendens Doleschall, 1856: 410  .

Syrphus nodalis Thomson, 1869: 497  .

Syrphus erythropygus Bigot, 1884: 87  .

Syrphus ruficauda Bigot, 1884: 96  .

Melithreptus novaeguineae Kertész, 1899: 178  .

Ischiodon trochanterica Sack, 1913: 6  .

Melithreptus ogasawarensis Matsumura, 1916: 23  .

Ischiodon boninensis Matsumura, 1919: 128  .

Epistrophe platychiroides Frey, 1946: 164  .

Ischiodon penicillatus Hardy, 1952: 363  (nomen nudum).

Epistrophe magnicornis Shiraki, 1963: 141  .

Sphaerophoria macquarti Van der Goot, 1964: 220  .

Differential diagnosis

Species with basoflagellomere elongate and subacute apically, face yellow, metasternum bare and abdominal terga 2–5 distinctly marginated ( Figs 2DView Fig, 3View Fig G–H). It differs from S. grandicornis  by having a dorsal yellow macula on the katepisternum and the male metatrochanter with a ventral spine-like process or calcar.

Material examined

FRENCH POLYNESIA: Austral Islands: 1 ♀, Rapa Iti, motu Karapoo rahi, 4 Apr. 2017, F. Jacq leg. ( ZFMK: ZFMK-DIP-00019531). – Gambier Islands: 2 ♀♀, 3 ♂♂, 2 puparia, Mangareva, Rikitéa, 6 Apr. 1966, P. Cochereau leg. ( MNHN); 1 ♀, Mangareva, 16 Apr. 1966, Malaise trap, P. Cochereau leg. ( MNHN). – Marquesas Islands: 5 ♀♀, Fatu Hiva, ‘Omoa, 6–26. Aug. 2013, Malaise trap, F. Jacq leg. (3 ♀♀: CTR; 2 ♀♀: ZFMK: ZFMK-DIP-00019714, ZFMK-DIP-00019715); 1 ♀, 1 ♂, Hiva Oa, 5 Mar. 2013, F. Jacq leg. (1 ♀: CTR; 1 ♂: ZFMK: ZFMK-DIP-00019721); 2 ♀♀, Nuku Hiva, Vallée française, Apr. 2013, Malaise trap, F. Jacq leg. ( CTR); 1 ♀, Nuku Hiva, Anaho, 13 Aug. 2014, F. Jacq leg. ( CTR); 13 ♀♀, 2 ♂♂, Tahuata, 5 Sep. 2012, Malaise trap, F. Jacq leg. (9 ♀♀, 1 ♂: CTR; 4 ♀♀, 1 ♂: ZFMK: ZFMK-DIP-00019708 to ZFMK-DIP-00019712). – Society Islands: 13 ♀♀, 3 ♂♂, Bora Bora, Vairupe, 13 Nov. 2012, Malaise trap, F. Jacq leg. (11 ♀♀, 1 ♂: CTR; 2 ♀♀, 2 ♂♂: ZFMK: ZFMK-DIP-00019719, ZFMK-DIP-00019720, ZFMK-DIP-0001971922, ZFMK- DIP-00019723); 1 ♂, Huahine, motu Maeva, 16°41′51.5″ S, 150°58′50.8″ W, 1 Jul. 2007, S. Charlat leg. ( SCL: symbiocode_07570); 1 ♀, Huahine, Pohue Rahi, 16°46′51.2″ S, 150°58′34.7″ W, 470 m a.s.l., 4 Jul. 2007, S. Charlat leg. ( SCL: symbiocode_08019); 1 ♂, same collection data as preceding ( SCL: symbiocode_08018); 1 ♂, Huahine, Pohue Rahi, 16°46′54.44″ S, 150°58′10.07″ W, 265 m a.s.l., 23 Sep. 2012, T. Ramage leg. ( CTR); 2 ♂♂, Huahine, Pointe Tiva, 16°49′17.31″ S, 150°59′4.42″ W, 5 m a.s.l., 22 Sep. 2012, T. Ramage leg. ( CTR); 1 ♀, Moorea, motu Tiahura, 17°29′15″ S, 149°54′43″ W, Malaise trap, Oct. 2006, S. Charlat leg. ( SCL: symbiocode_01632); 2 ♀♀, same collection data as preceding but Nov. 2006 ( SCL); 1♀, Moorea, Opunohu, Trois Cocotiers Trail, 17°33′00″ S, 149°50′15″W, 420 m a.s.l., 2 Dec. 2006, Malaise trap, S. Charlat leg. ( SCL: symbiocode_03845); 4 ♂♂, Moorea, 17°31′40″ S, 149°50′06″ W, 300 m a.s.l., 6 Jun. 2007, S. Charlat leg. ( SCL: symbiocode_02597); 1 ♂, Raiatea, Faaroa Bay, 16°49′00.5″ S, 151°23′58.5″ W, 300 m a.s.l., 26 Jun. 2007, S. Charlat leg. ( SCL: symbiocode_05172); 1 larva, Raiatea, marae Taputapuatea, 16°50′08″ S, 151°21′31″ W, 27 Jun. 2007, S. Charlat leg. ( SCL: symbiocode_05606); 1 ♂, Raiatea, Te Mehani Rahi, 16°45′36.1″ S, 151°29′19.4″ W, 29 Jun. 2007, S. Charlat leg. ( SCL: symbiocode_04987); 3 ♀♀, Raiatea, Avera Rahi, 16°47′42.17″ S, 151°24′48.82″ W, 10 m a.s.l., Malaise trap, 28 Sep. 2012, T. Ramage leg. ( CTR); 1 ♀, Raiatea, Opoa, Aratao, 11 Jul. 2013, F. Jacq leg. ( CTR); 1 ♂, Raiatea, Te Mehani ‘ute ‘ute, on Apetahia  , 2014, F. Jacq and T. Laroche leg. ( CTR); 1 ♀, 1 ♂, Raiatea, Opoa, 18 May 2015, Malaise trap, F. Jacq leg. ( ZFMK: ZFMK-DIP-00019716, ZFMK-DIP-00019717); 1 ♂,Taha’a, Mount Ohiri Trail, 16°36′19.81″ S, 151°31′46.48″ W, 130 m a.s.l., 30 Sep. 2012, T. Ramage leg. ( CTR); 1♂, Tahiti, 1854, Deyrolle leg. ( MNHN); 1 ♂, Tahiti, Fautaua Valley, 333 m a.s.l., 23 Aug. 1928, A.M. Adamson leg. ( NBCN); 1 ♀, Tahiti, Mount Marau, 17°36′08″ S, 149°33′42″ W, 970 m a.s.l., 4 Apr. 2006, Malaise trap, E. Claridge leg. ( SCL: symbiocode_04455); 1 ♂, Tahiti, Arue, 17°32′8.26″ S, 149°31′6.74″ W, 200 m a.s.l., 16 Sep. 2012, T. Ramage leg. ( CTR); 1 ♂, Tahiti, Vallée de la Punaruu, 17°37′43.38″ S, 149°33′47.73″ W, 170 m a.s.l., 3 Oct. 2012, T. Ramage leg. ( CTR); 1 ♂, Tahiti, Plateau Te Tamanu, 17°38′0.40″ S, 149°33′12.57″ W, 560 m a.s.l., 6 Oct. 2012, T. Ramage leg. ( ZFMK: ZFMK-DIP-00019729); 1 ♀, Tahiti, Punaauia, 11 Oct. 2012, Malaise trap, T. Ramage leg. ( CTR); 2 ♀♀, Tahiti, Mahina, 16 Nov. 2012, Malaise trap, F. Jacq leg. ( CTR); 2 ♀♀, Tahiti, Papeete, Sainte-Amélie, 2014, F. Jacq leg. ( CTR); 1 ♀, Tahiti, Papeete, Sainte-Amélie, Mar. 2015, Malaise trap, F. Jacq leg. ( CTR); 1 ♀, Tahiti, Mont Marau, 1400 m a.s.l., 27 Aug. 2017, T. Ramage and F. Jacq leg. ( ZFMK: ZFMK-DIP-00026903). – Tuamotu Islands: 1 ♀, Hao, 15 May 1966, Malaise trap, P. Cochereau leg. ( MNHN); 2 ♂♂, Moruroa, Eider, 8 May 1966, on flowers of Messerschmidia argentea, P. Cochereau  leg. ( MNHN); 1 ♂, Morane, Motu est, 1 Jun. 2012, F. Jacq leg. ( ZFMK: ZFMK-DIP-00019713); 2 ♀♀, Morane, Motu ouest, 3 Jun. 2012, F. Jacq leg. (1 ♀: CTR; 1 ♀: ZFMK: ZFMK-DIP-00019718).

Geographical distribution

Widespread species in the Oriental and Australasian Regions ( Japan west to India and south to Australia, Papua New Guinea, New Caledonia, Micronesia, Samoa and other Pacific islands, including French Polynesia).

Status in French Polynesia

Present; recorded from Marquesas Islands, Gambier Islands, Tuamotu Islands, Austral Islands and Society Islands.

Flowers visited

Ischiodon scutellaris  has been seen visiting two plant species, Hippobroma longiflora  (L.) G.Don and Apetahia raiateensis Baill.  ( Campanulaceae  ). Apetahlia raiateensis  is a shrub endemic to the three trachytic plateaus of Raiatea and it is listed as Critically Endangered by the IUCN(UICN France, MNHN & DIREN Polynésie française 2015). In terms of conservation, the identification of the pollinators of this species may be useful (F. Jacq, pers. comm.). A couple of males at the MNHN were collected on flowers of Messerschmidia argentea  (L. f.) I.M.Johnst. (= Tournefortia argentea  L. f. = Heliotropium foertherianum Diane & Hilger, 2003  ). Due to the overall similarity between females of I. scutellaris  and A. nigripilosa  in the field, some records of visited flowers cannot be confidently assigned to one of these species and they are not included.

Biology

Cochereau (1966, 1974) observed the food web of I. scutellaris  (as Xanthogramma  sp.) in Mangareva, Gambier Islands. Larvae of I. scutellaris  attacked several aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae  ) on different plants: Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch, 1856)  and Sitobion avenae ( Fabricius, 1775)  on several species of Poaceae  ; Brevicoryne brassicae (Linnaeus, 1758)  on Brassica oleracea  L., ( Brassicaceae  ); and Aphis gossypii Glover, 1877  on several plants belonging to Araceae  , Asteraceae  , Malvaceae  and Myrtaceae  . He also observed that the pupae of I. scutellaris  were parasitized by a braconid wasp ( Hymenoptera  : Braconidae  ).

Genetics

The GenBank accession numbers for this species are: 28S gene ( MF446488View Materials, specimen ZFMK- DIP-00019720), 18S gene ( MF446444View Materials, specimen ZFMK-DIP-00019720), protein-coding COI gene ( MF446540View Materials, specimen ZFMK-DIP-00019720; MF446516View Materials, specimen ZFMK-DIP-00019721). The BOLD Process IDs for the DNA barcodes (5′–COI) for this species are: SYC 1600-14 (= KX053515View Materials, specimen symbiocode_01632),SYC2519-14(= KX053518View Materials,specimen symbiocode_02597), SYC3765-14 (= KX053516View Materials,specimensymbiocode_03845),SYC4375-14(= KX053520View Materials,specimensymbiocode_04455), SYC4907-14 (= KX053519View Materials, specimen symbiocode_04987), SYC5089-14 (= KX053521View Materials, specimen symbiocode_05172), SYC5521-14 (= KX053513View Materials, specimen symbiocode_05606), SYC7453-14 (= KX053514View Materials,specimen symbiocode_07570),SYC7894-14(= KX053517View Materials,specimen symbiocode_08018) and SYC7895-14 (= KX053522View Materials, specimen symbiocode_08019). The Barcode Index Number (BIN) for these specimens is BOLD:AAE5566 (https://doi.org/10.5883/BOLD:AAE5566).

References

Macquart 1855: 116 (description, Marquesas Islands); Thomson 1869: 497 (description, Tahiti); Aubertin & Cheesman 1929: 172 (records); Hull 1937: 83 (catalogue); Thompson 1989: 16 (cit.); Thompson & Vockeroth 1989: 444 (catalogue).

Remarks

Old records of this species are not easy to verify, as some authors used S. grandicornis  and I. scutellaris  as synonyms for a long time.

ZFMK

Zoologisches Forschungsmuseum Alexander Koenig

MNHN

Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Diptera

Family

Syrphidae

Genus

Ischiodon

Loc

Ischiodon scutellaris ( Fabricius, 1805 )

Ramage, Thibault, Charlat, Sylvain & Mengual, Ximo 2018
2018
Loc

Scaeva scutellaris

Fabricius J. C. 1805: 252
Loc

Syrphus coromandelensis

Macquart P. J. M. 1842: 149
Loc

Sphaerophoria annulipes

Macquart P. J. M. 1855: 116
Loc

Syrphus splendens

Doleschall C. L. 1856: 410
Loc

Syrphus nodalis

Thomson C. G. 1869: 497
Loc

Syrphus erythropygus

Bigot J. M. F. 1884: 87
Loc

Syrphus ruficauda

Bigot J. M. F. 1884: 96
Loc

Melithreptus novaeguineae Kertész, 1899: 178

Kertesz K. 1899: 178
Loc

Ischiodon trochanterica

Sack P. 1913: 6
Loc

Melithreptus ogasawarensis

Matsumura S. & Adachi J. 1916: 23
Loc

Ischiodon boninensis

Matsumura S. & Adachi J. 1919: 128
Loc

Epistrophe platychiroides

Frey R. 1946: 164
Loc

Ischiodon penicillatus

Hardy D. E. 1952: 363
Loc

Epistrophe magnicornis

Shiraki T. 1963: 141
Loc

Sphaerophoria macquarti

Van der Goot V. S. 1964: 220