Xylocopa (Neoxylocopa) griswoldi, Mérida-Rivas & Hinojosa-Díaz & Ayala-Barajas & Pozo & Vandame, 2022

Mérida-Rivas, Jorge A., Hinojosa-Díaz, Ismael A., Ayala-Barajas, Ricardo, Pozo, Carmen & Vandame, Rémy, 2022, Revision of carpenter bees of the subgenus Neoxylocopa Michener (Hymenoptera: Apidae) from Mexico and Mesoamerica, Zootaxa 5158 (1), pp. 1-67 : 35-39

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.5158.1.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:2191B88A-2CEB-496B-A255-5800EEFAEAFA

DOI

https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.6821880

persistent identifier

https://treatment.plazi.org/id/FE1487AC-AD28-FF80-FF42-96F0FC6AFDA9

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Xylocopa (Neoxylocopa) griswoldi
status

sp. nov.

Xylocopa (Neoxylocopa) griswoldi Mérida, Hinojosa-Díaz & Ayala sp. nov.

( Figs. 56–65 View FIGURES 56–61 View FIGURES 62–65 , 117–119 View FIGURES 111–119 , 137 View FIGURES 136–140 )

ZooBank: urn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:9E033A34-BE1C-42F8-88DC-938AE3AEC9B8

Diagnosis. Body length, female, 24.48 mm (22.84–25.50; n=5); male, 25.51 mm (23.95–27.19; n=3). Female: Head without elevated ridges or prominences on frons; ocelli below tangent of the eyes; area between parapsidal line and mesoscutal disc densely punctate (puncture separation one to one and a half puncture diameters); wings dark-brown with purple iridescence, bluish toward base and papillate region ( Fig. 59 View FIGURES 56–61 ); pubescence evenly black; integument of terga evenly black; T1 densely punctate on disc (punctures separated by one or less puncture diameter), T2 to T4 sparsely punctate (punctures separated by three or four times their diameter) ( Fig. 61 View FIGURES 56–61 ); length of hairs on terga respect MOD, T2 0.22–0.54, T3 0.28–0.56, T4 0.51–0.84, T5 0.71–1.07. Male: Terga yellowish-orange, without bands; metasoma with yellowish-orange pubescence; posterior tibia internal distal extreme with prominent subapical projection, with curved distal extreme and elevated rounded margin defining a concave area; posterior margin of this process with a laminar margin on almost one third of the posterior margin of the tibia ( Fig. 65 View FIGURES 62–65 ); length of hairs on terga respect MOD, T2 0.41–0.92, T3 0.73–1.31, T4 0.89–1.31, T5 1.01–1.32; tip of the lateral process of the gonostylus ending oval-shaped (as broad as shaft of the process) ( Fig. 118 View FIGURES 111–119 ).

Description. Holotype: Female: Body length 24.48 mm (22.84–25.50; n=5), length of forewing 21.25 mm (20.40–21.62; n=5), head length 5.77 mm (5.62–5.95; n=5), intertegular distance 7.04 mm (6.38–7.48; n=5), width of T2 11.16 mm (10.43–11.84; n=5). Head: Mandibles bidentate, apical tooth longer and wider than the internal, defined by a notch ( Fig. 57 View FIGURES 56–61 ). Labrum with three tubercles, the middle narrower than the lateral ones. Ocelli located below the upper margin of the eyes; frontal anterior groove anterior to the middle ocellus well-defined unpunctate, initating with a diameter equal to the width of the ocellus, diminishing to end in a middle elevation between the antennal sockets; pits on areas sublateral to the posterior ocelli of half the diameter of the ocelli. Vertex elevated above the upper margin of the eyes. Mesosoma: Scutellum convex in lateral view. Metanotum and propodeum vertical. Posterior tibia with basitibial plate toward the middle region, with two asymetrical spiniform projections with similar width ( Fig. 60 View FIGURES 56–61 ), with a small notch between them; the anterior projection sharp, the posterior rounded, continuing along the posterior margin. Metasoma: T1 with vertical folds with foveate surface. Color: Integument usually black; holotype and some paratypes with T2 to T4 with reddish integument on the subapical margin. Antennae with distal extreme of scape and pedicel reddish. Wings with iridescence magenta, with some of bluish on the base and papillate region. S1 to S5 with reddish distal margin. Punctures: Head: Clypeus with inferior margin unpunctate; in some paratypes submargin anterior with a small depression; superior área toward subapical margin with dense punctures, a bit more separated in discal area; inferolateral areas with punctures smaller and scattered; supraclipeal area and vertex densely punctate, of similar size as those on clypeus. Genal area with densely punctate on inferior areas, separated by one and a half times or more their diameter on the middle and upper regions. Mesosoma: Scutum unpunctate on discal area; between the parapsidal line and discal area with dense punctures, separated by one to one and a half times their diameter; middle anterior region of mesoscutum with dense punctures. Scutellum with few punctures on middle region, in contrast to lateral and posterior regions densely punctate. Metanotum densely punctate, separated by two or more times their diameter, shallower than on scutellum. Mesepisternum and mesoesternal area densely punctate. Tegulae mostly unpunctate, but with dense punctures toward the anterior region. Propodeum with dense superimposed punctures. Metasoma: T1 densely punctate on discal area, separated by 1 time or less their diameter; T2 to T4 with punctures on discal area separated by three or four times their diameter; T5 and T6 densely punctate. S1 to S5 densely punctate on middle to subapical regions; apical margin unpunctate. Pubescence: Mostly black, except on antennae, on the extreme apical of surface anterior of F1 to F10, which has very short dark brown hairs, and on middle distal extreme of T6 which has simple reddish hairs. Head: Vertex and genal area with mixed of simple and branched hairs, the latter shorter than the former. Mesosoma: In general with dense pubescence, except on disc of the scutum; the hairs plumose and simple; with some long simple hairs on posterior area of scutellum. Fore legs with long hairs on posterior margin; short hairs on anterior margin of fore, middle, and hind legs. Metasoma: Discal area of T1 with plumose hairs; discal and sublateral areas of T2 to T4 with simple short hairs; T5 with long hairs on discal area; T6 with very dense pubescence; lateral regions of T1 to T6 with long dense and Plumose pubescence. Length of hairs on terga respect MOD as follows: T2 0.22–0.54, T3 0.28–0.56, T4 0.51–0.84, T5 0.71–1.07. Sternites with simple hairs on apical and subapical areas.

Male: Body length 25.51 mm (23.95–27.19; n=3), length of forewing 20.01 mm (19.29–20.42; n=3), head length 4.55 mm (4.39–4.78; n=3), intertegular distance 6.59 mm (6.23–6.91; n=3), width of T2 11.46 mm (11.10– 12.09; n=3). Head: Mandibles bidentate; apical tooth longer and wider than internal. Labrum with a tubercle on the middle region. Lateral ocelli above the ocular margin; frontal groove well defined, unpunctate, initating with diameter equal to the anterior ocellus, diminishing to end in a middle (not strong) elevation between the antennal sockets. Pits on sublateral areas posterior to the ocelli, of half the diameter of the ocelli. Vertex elevated above the upper margin of eyes. Mesosoma: Hind tibia, basitibial plate with a spiniform projection toward the middle region; tibial spur thin; internal distal extreme of posterior tibia as described in diagnosis ( Fig. 65 View FIGURES 62–65 ). Metasoma: T1 with a vertical fold with foveate surface. Genitalia: Distal angle of the ventral section of the gonostylus, obtuse ( Fig. 119 View FIGURES 111–119 ); basal angle at the base of lateral process of the gonostylus, obtuse, barely noticeble ( Fig. 118 View FIGURES 111–119 ); tip of the lateral process ending on an oval as broad as shaft of the process ( Fig. 118 View FIGURES 111–119 ). Color: Integument in general yellowish-orange. Head: Integument brown light to dark on margins of labrum, clypeus, subantenal sutures, and posterior margin of antennae. Mesosoma : yellowish on anterior and lateral areas of tegulae and sclerite of wings. Mesepisternum and mesoesternal area black. Legs, coxae, and femurs brawn light to dark. Wings light brown (or orange); veins light brown to reddish. Metasoma: T1 to T6 with yellowish-orange hairs; T7 with more light hairs than yellowish ones. Length of hairs on terga respect MOD as follows: T2 0.41–0.92, T3 0.73–1.31, T4 0.89–1.31, T5 1.01–1.32. Sternites with light brown distal margin. Punctures: Head: Labrum: With wide subtriangular middle area unpunctate; submarginal and marginal areas unpuctate; rest of labrum with scattered punctures. Clypeus: with narrow middle longitudinal line unpunctate to the discal region which has few punctures; rest of clypeus with densely punctate separated by one and a half times or more their diameter; supraclipeal, paraocular, and genal areas with dense similar sized punctures; area unpunctate on sublateral region of the posterior ocelli. Vertex with area unpunctate on middle region, the rest densely punctate. Mesosoma: Scutum unpunctate on discal area; between the parapsidal line and discal area densely punctate, separated by one to one and a half times their diameter. Scutellum with small punctures on discal area, in contrast to lateral and posterior regions which have dense punctures. Mesepisternum and mesoesternal area densely punctate. Tegulae mostly without punctures, but with dense punctures on the anterior region. Propodeum with dense shallow punctures. Metasoma: Terga with dense uniform punctures. Discal area with punctures separated by one to one and a half times their diameter. Pubescence: Hind tibia: internal surface with long somewhat sparse hairs on basal region; internal anterior margin with long hairs, denser on apical region; internal posterior margin with long and short pubescence ( Fig. 65 View FIGURES 62–65 ).

Etymology. This species is dedicated to Dr. Terry Griswold, a good friend, in recognition of his work as bee taxonomist. Also, for the comments and suggestions expressed during this study.

Distribution ( Fig. 137 View FIGURES 136–140 ). Present in the southern United States in Texas, as well as in northwestern Mexico, along the coastal slope of the Gulf of Mexico, between the states of Nuevo León, Querétaro, San Luis Potosí, Tamaulipas, and Veracruz, in the following ecoregions ( Dinerstein et al. 2017): Scrubland of the Central Mexican Plateau, Mesoamerican mangroves of the Gulf and Carribean, Humid forests of Petén-Veracruz, Pine-oak forests of the Sierra Madre Oriental, Mezquital Tamaulipeco, Humid forests of Veracruz, and Coastal grasslands of the Occidental Gulf. Altitudinal distribution from 6 to 1331 m.

Holotype (♀): Cañón de la Huasteca / Sta. Catarina N.L. Méx [Nuevo León, Mexico] / 0 4-IV-2010 / L. Ramírez Freire // Zona de disturbio / en Caesalpinia mexicana / Clave 33-Cm-2 / Xylocopa mexicanorum ♀ / Det. LRF 6-V-2011 // [Red label] HOLOTYPE / Xylocopa griswoldi / Mérida, Hinojosa-Díaz & Ayala / 2021 //. ( ECOAB) . Paratype (♀): Cam. Raíces-La Trinidad / Allende N.L. Méx [Nuevo León, Mexico] / 22-II-2009 / L. Ramírez-Freire // Zona de disturbio / en Caesalpinia mexicana / Clave S-Cm-2 / Xylocopa mexicanorum ♂, / Det. LRF 6-V-2011 // [Yellow label] PARATYPE

/ Xylocopa griswoldi / Mérida, Hinojosa-Díaz & Ayala / 2021 //. ( ECOAB). Paratype (♀): MEXICO: Nuevo Leon / 31.5 km SW Linares / 750 m / 24 March 1991 / R. Brooks, R. Leschen // Coll. No. 66 / ex. Caesalpinia mexicana // SEMC 1247659 / KUNHM-ENT [BARCODE] // [Yellow label] PARATYPE / Xylocopa griswoldi / Mérida, Hinojosa-Díaz & Ayala / 2021 //. ( SEMC). Paratype (♀): Cañón de la Huasteca / Sta. Catarina N.L. Méx [Nuevo León, Mexico] / 04-IV-2010 / L. Ramírez Freire // Zona de disturbio / en Caesalpinia mexicana / Clave 33-Cm-1 / Xylocopa mexicanorum / Det. LRF 6 V 2011 // [Yellow label] PARATYPE / Xylocopa griswoldi / Mérida, Hinojosa-Díaz & Ayala / 2021 //. ( ECOAB). Paratype (♀): Ej. El Popote [ Mexico, Nuevo León, Linares, Ejido el Popote] [handwritten] / Linares NL [handwritten] / 31.3. 87 F. Caldera [handwritten] // En Cercidium / macrum / 13 f [handwritten] // [Yellow label] PARATYPE / Xylocopa griswoldi / Mérida, Hinojosa-Díaz & Ayala / 2021 //. ( CNIN). Paratype (♀): Gral. Teran [ Mexico, Nuevo León, General Terán] / 11.VII.84 [handwritten] / Xy- locops [handwritten] // [Yellow label] PARATYPE / Xylocopa griswoldi / Mérida, Hinojosa-Díaz & Ayala / 2021 //. ( CNIN). Paratype (♀): ECOAB.38326 Mex. SLP [ Mexico, San Luis Potosí] / [QR code] / Alaquines / 1331 m / 22.02 N; 99.51 W / 15/8/2013 / Jorge Mérida // ECO-TAP-E-104642 / Méx. SLP, Alaquines / 1331 m / 22.02180 N 99.52490 W / 15/8/2013 10:00 / Col. Jorge Mérida // [Yellow label] PARATYPE / Xylocopa griswoldi / Mérida, Hinojosa-Díaz & Ayala / 2021 //. ( ECOAB). Paratype (♀): ECOAB.38327 Mex. SLP [ Mexico, San Luis Potosí] / / [QR code] / Alaquines / 1331 m / 22.02 N; 99.51 W / 15/8/2013 / Jorge Mérida // ECO-TAP-E-104641 / Méx. SLP, Alaquines / 1331 m / 22.02180 N 99.52490 W / 15/8/2013 10:00 / Col. Jorge Mérida // [Yellow label] PARATYPE / Xylocopa griswoldi / Mérida, Hinojosa-Díaz & Ayala / 2021 //. ( ECOAB). Paratype (♀): México, San Luis Potosí / Ciudad Valles / Laguna del / Mante. 28-mar-2018 13 / Col: R. García Santiago / T. Col: Alumbrado doméstico / Hora de colecta: 11:00 am // Anthophoridae / Der: C. Ramírez-Salinas y E.J. / Velázquez Cruz / 9-jul-2018 // [Yellow label] PARATYPE / Xylocopa griswoldi / Mérida, Hinojosa-Díaz & Ayala / 2021 //. ( ECOAB). Paratype (♂): Tamazunchale / San Luis Potosi / Mex / Coll. J. Adams [handwritten] // SMO444307 / KUNHM-ENT [Barcode] // [Yellow label] PARATYPE / Xylocopa griswoldi / Mérida, Hinojosa-Díaz & Ayala / 2021 //. ( SEMC). Paratype (♀): MEXICO: Veracruz / Catemaco / 16-VI-1989 / L. Cervantes / A. Cadena // Xylocopa / (Nexylocopa) mexicanorum / Cockerell 1912 / Det. I. Hinojosa 2015 // 6073 [QR code] // [Yellow label] PARATYPE / Xylocopa griswoldi / Mérida, Hinojosa-Díaz & Ayala / 2021 //. ( CNIN). TEXAS [ United States]: Kenedy Co., 5 km / N Sarita, 16 Aug. 1988 / D. Yanega // nesting in palm [handwritten] // SEMC 1231820 / KUNHM-ENT [Barcode] // [Yellow label] PARATYPE / Xylocopa griswoldi / Mérida, Hinojosa-Díaz & Ayala / 2021 //. ( SEMC). Paratype (♂): TX Hidalgo Co [ United States] / Weslaco / 1991 // E A Sugden / colr // Xylocopa / ♂ mexicanorum [handwritten] / det. K. T. Huntzinger // Xylocopa mexicanorum / ♂ det. K. T. Huntzinger / BBSL 808124 [QR code] // [Yellow label] PARA- TYPE / Xylocopa griswoldi / Mérida, Hinojosa-Díaz & Ayala / 2021 //. ( BBSL)

Additional material examined. UNITED STATES. Texas: Cameron: 13.4 mi E Brownsville , 25.96256, -97.29468; 6 m, 17-VII-1962, 1 ♀ ( SEMC) GoogleMaps . Brownsville , 25.90156, -97.49604; 10 m, 27-V-1989, D. Yanega, 2 ♀ ( SEMC) GoogleMaps . Hidalgo: 26.10035, -98.26306; 33 m, 18-VII-1954, 1 ♀ ( SEMC) GoogleMaps . Los Fresnos , 26.07174, -97.47637: 7 m, 2-IV-1957, G. R. Ferguson, 1 ♂ ( BBSL) GoogleMaps . McAllen Valley, Bot. Garden , 26.20870, -98.26650; 41 m, 12-VIII- 1980, C. C. Porter, 1 ♀ ( BBSL) GoogleMaps . Santa Ana National Wildlife Refuge , 26.0697, -98.145; 32 m, 22-IV-1989, E. A. Sugden, 1 ♀ ( BBSL) GoogleMaps . Southmost , 25.8872, -97.4359; 8 m, 13-IV-1950, 1 ♀ ( BBSL) GoogleMaps . Weslaco , 26.1592, -97.9906; 26 m, 23-III-1989, E. A. Sugden, 1 ♀ ( BBSL) GoogleMaps . MEXICO: Nuevo León: Linares: Linares , 31.5 km SW, 24.750016, -99.797853, 750 m, 24-III-1991, R. Brooks, R. Leschen, 4 ♀ ( SEMC) GoogleMaps . Querétaro: Landa de Matamoros: Hwy 120 (km 220) at La Sierrita, 21.29027, -99.22222; 1270 m, 8-VII-1990, I. Yarom, 1 ♀ ( SEMC) GoogleMaps . San Luis Potosí: Ciudad Valles: Ciudad Valles 2 km N, 22.026162, -99.013687; 157 m, 15-III-1983, A. James, 1 ♀ ( SEMC) GoogleMaps . Ciudad Valles , 20 km S, 21.85315, -98.94279: 59 m, 2-VIII-1971, D. W. Davis, 1 ♀ ( BBSL) GoogleMaps . Valles , 28 mi N, 22.38895, -99.057269; 257 m, 21-VII-1954, 1 ♀ ( SEMC) GoogleMaps . Tamaulipas: Antiguo Morelos: Antiguo Morelos, 9 km NE, 22.607978, -99.021375; 248 m, D. Yanega, 1 ♀ ( SEMC) GoogleMaps . Cruillas: Ciudad Victoria, km 164 Hwy 101, 24.51002, -98.28964; 244 m, 9-V-1989, Cameron & Whitfield, 1 ♀ ( SEMC) GoogleMaps . Gómez Farías: San Juan, Hwy 85 N of Ciudad Mante, 22.99638, -99.03166; 90 m, 26-VII-1969, Ramírez & Kamm, 2 ♀ ( SEMC) GoogleMaps . Llera: 23.31677, -99.02467; 277 m, 19-VII-1954, Univ. of Kansas Mex. Exped. , 3 ♀ ( SEMC) GoogleMaps . Nuevo Morelos: Antiguo Morelos, 9 mi W, 22.54344, -99.20254; 271, 6-IV-1953, Univ. of Kansas Mex. Exped. 1 ♀ ( SEMC) GoogleMaps . Tampico: 22.26895, - 97.8642; 16 m, 10-VI-1951, H. Evans, 2 ♀ ( SEMC) GoogleMaps . Veracruz: Alvarado: 18.78010, -95.77546; 15 m, 15-II-1954, R. Dreisbach, 1 ♀ ( SEMC) GoogleMaps . Castillo de Teayo: La Guadalupe, 4.2 km S, on Hwy 180, 20.73442, -97.60918; 153, 25-VII-1990, I. Yarom, 4 ♀ ( SEMC) GoogleMaps . Orizaba: 18.8455, -97.1029; 1235 m, 13-II-1954, R. Dreisbach, 1 ♀ ( SEMC) GoogleMaps . Panuco: 22.05041, -98.18497; 16 m, 26-II-1972, F. D. Parker, D. Miller, 2 ♀ ( BBSL) GoogleMaps .

Commentaries. Several studies ( Ayala 1996; Minckley 1988; Mawdsley 2017) have erroneously identified specimens of this species as belonging to X. mexicanorum . It may be distinguished from X. mexicanorum by its convex and rounded scutellum in lateral view as well as its wing color, with magenta iridescence, bluish toward the base and papillate region throughout its distribution. According to our study X. griswoldi and X. gualanensis females differ in the punctation density on the discal area of T 2 ( Fig. 61 View FIGURES 56–61 ) while males differ in the clypeal mid-line and the distal process of the inner surface of the hind tibia ( Fig. 65 View FIGURES 62–65 ).

R

Departamento de Geologia, Universidad de Chile

SEMC

University of Kansas - Biodiversity Institute

V

Royal British Columbia Museum - Herbarium

CNIN

Coleccion Nacional de Insectos, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico

T

Tavera, Department of Geology and Geophysics

BBSL

USDA, Agriculture Research Service, Pollinating Insects-- Biology, Management and Systematics Research

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Hymenoptera

Family

Apidae

Genus

Xylocopa