Glyptapanteles billbrowni Arias-Penna, sp. nov.

Arias-Penna, Diana Carolina, Whitfield, James B., Janzen, Daniel H., Winifred Hallwachs,, Dyer, Lee A., Smith, M. Alex, Hebert, Paul D. N. & Fernandez-Triana, Jose L., 2019, A species-level taxonomic review and host associations of Glyptapanteles (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Microgastrinae) with an emphasis on 136 new reared species from Costa Rica and Ecuador, ZooKeys 890, pp. 1-685 : 1

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Glyptapanteles billbrowni Arias-Penna, sp. nov.


Glyptapanteles billbrowni Arias-Penna, sp. nov. Figs 29 View Figure 29 , 30 View Figure 30


Body length 2.78 mm, antenna length 2.78 mm, fore wing length 2.53 mm.

Type material.

Holotype: COSTA RICA • 1♀; 06-SRNP-65722, DHJPAR0012678; Área de Conservación Guanacaste, Guanacaste, Sector Pitilla, Sendero Carica ; rain forest; 660 m; 10.99284, -85.42936; 20.xii.2006; Manuel Rios leg.; caterpillar collected in fourth instar; single cocoons not adhered to each other, adhered to the larval cuticle and formed on 21.xii.2006; adult parasitoids emerged on 30.xii.2006; ( CNC) GoogleMaps . Paratypes. • 185 (5♀, 5♂) (160♀, 15♂); 06-SRNP-65722, DHJPAR0012678; same data as for holotype; ( CNC) GoogleMaps .

Other material.

Reared material. COSTA RICA: Área de Conservación Guanacaste, Guanacaste, Sector Cacao, Estacion Cacao : • 44 (4♀, 3♂) (28♀, 9♂); 99-SRNP-669, DHJPAR0001484; cloud forest; 1,150 m; 10.92691, -85.46822; 21.v.1999; Harry Ramirez leg. GoogleMaps ; caterpillar collected in third instar; single white ovoid small cocoons not adhered together, adhered to the larval cuticle and formed on 27.v.1999; adult parasitoids emerged on

Área de Conservación Guanacaste, Guanacaste, Sector Del Oro, Guacimos : • 8 (2♀, 2♂) (4♀, 0 ♂); 08-SRNP-21695, DHJPAR0031029; rain forest; 380 m; 11.01454, -85.47492;; Roster Moraga leg.; caterpillar collected in fourth instar; white scattered cocoons adhered to the leaf substrate GoogleMaps .


Antenna as same length as body, scutellum in profile slightly convex, but on same plane as mesoscutum ( Figs 29I View Figure 29 , 30G View Figure 30 ), in dorsal view, proximal half of propodeum weakly curved ( Figs 29F View Figure 29 , 30F View Figure 30 ). petiole on T1 evenly narrowing distally ( Figs 29H View Figure 29 , 30H View Figure 30 ), dorsal outer depression on hind coxa present ( Figs 29A View Figure 29 , 30A View Figure 30 ), edges of median area on T2 obscured by little sculpture ( Figs 29H View Figure 29 , 30H View Figure 30 ), and fore wing with r vein curved, outer side of junction of r and 2RS veins forming a distinct stub ( Figs 29M View Figure 29 , 30K View Figure 30 ).


( Fig. 29A View Figure 29 ). General body coloration brown-black except labrum, glossa, mandibles, maxillary and labial palps, and tegulae yellow; scape, pedicel and clypeus yellow-brown. Eyes and ocelli silver. Fore and middle legs yellow with claws brown; hind legs yellow except coxae brown-black with apex yellow/yellow-brown, ventrally yellow-brown coloration covers the distal half, femora with a brown dot at the tip, tibiae with both ends brown, and tarsomeres brown. Petiole on T1 brown and sublateral areas yellow-brown; T2 with median and adjacent areas brown, and lateral ends narrow and yellow-brown; T3 and beyond completely brown; distally each tergum with a wide yellowish transparent band. In lateral view, T1-3 completely yellow; T4 and beyond yellow-brown, but dorsally brown, extent of brown area remains constant. All sterna completely yellow, although hypopygium medially brown; ovipositor sheaths brown.


Head ( Fig. 29 A–C, E View Figure 29 ). Head rounded with pubescence long and dense. Proximal three antennal flagellomeres longer than wide (0.22:0.07, 0.24:0.07, 0.23:0.07), distal antennal flagellomere longer than penultimate (0.13:0.06, 0.11:0.06), antenna as same length as body (2.78, 2.78); antennal scrobes-frons shallow. Face flat or nearly so, finely punctate-lacunose, interspaces smooth and longitudinal median carina present. Frons smooth. Temple wide, punctate and interspaces clearly smooth. Inner margin of eyes straight throughout; in lateral view, eye anteriorly convex and posteriorly straight. POL shorter than OOL (0.10, 0.13). Malar suture present. Median area between lateral ocelli without depression. Vertex laterally rounded and dorsally wide.

Mesosoma ( Fig. 29A, F, G, I View Figure 29 ). Mesosoma dorsoventrally convex. Mesoscutum proximally convex and distally flat with punctation distinct throughout, and interspaces wavy/lacunose. Scutellum triangular, apex sloped and fused with BS, in profile slightly convex, but on same plane as mesoscutum, phragma of the scutellum completely concealed, scutellar punctation distinct throughout; BS only very partially overlapping the MPM; ATS demilune with a little, complete parallel carinae; dorsal ATS groove with semicircular/parallel carinae. Transscutal articulation with small and heterogeneous foveae; area just behind transscutal articulation with a smooth, shiny and sloped transverse strip. Metanotum with BM wider than PFM (clearly differentiated); MPM circular without median longitudinal carina; AFM without setiferous lobes and not as well delineated as PFM; PFM thick and smooth; ATM proximally with semircular/undulate carina and distally smooth. Propodeum without median longitudinal carina, proximal half weakly curved with fine sculpture and distal half relatively polished and with a shallow dent at each side of nucha; distal edge of propodeum with a flange at each side and short stubs; propodeal spiracle without distal carina; nucha surrounded by very short radiating carinae. Pronotum with a distinct dorsal furrow, dorsally with a well-defined smooth band; central area of pronotum and dorsal furrow smooth, but ventral furrow with short parallel carinae. Propleuron finely sculptured only ventrally and dorsally without a carina. Metasternum flat or nearly so. Contour of mesopleuron convex; precoxal groove smooth, shiny and shallow, but visible; epicnemial ridge elongated more fusiform (tapering at both ends).

Legs ( Fig. 29A, K View Figure 29 ). Ventral margin of fore telotarsus entire without seta, fore telotarsus proximally narrow and distally wide and longer than fourth tarsomere (0.12, 0.06). Hind coxa with dorsal half sparsely punctate, ventral half densely punctate, and dorsal outer depression present. Inner spur of hind tibia longer than outer spur (0.25, 0.19). Entire surface of hind tibia with dense strong spines clearly differentiated by color and length. Hind telotarsus longer than fourth tarsomere (0.14, 0.11).

Wings ( Fig. 29M, N View Figure 29 ). Fore wing with r vein slightly curved; 2RS vein straight; r and 2RS veins forming a weak, even curve at their junction and outer side of junction forming a slight stub; 2M vein slightly curved/swollen; distally fore wing [where spectral veins are] with microtrichiae more densely concentrated than the rest of the wing; anal cell 1/3 proximally lacking microtrichiae; subbasal cell proximal half smooth; veins 2CUa and 2CUb completely spectral; vein 2 cu-a present as spectral vein, sometimes difficult to see; vein 2-1A proximally tubular and distally spectral, although sometimes difficult to see; tubular vein 1 cu-a curved, incomplete/broken, and not reaching the edge of 1-1A vein. Hind wing with vannal lobe narrow, subdistally evenly convex, subproximally straightened, and setae evenly scattered in the margin.

Metasoma ( Fig. 29A, H, J, L View Figure 29 ). Metasoma cylindrical . Petiole on T1 finely sculptured only laterally, petiole evenly narrowing distally, apex truncate (length 0.34, maximum width 0.21, minimum width 0.12), with scattered pubescence concentrated in the first distal third. Lateral grooves delimiting the median area on T2 clearly defined and reaching the distal edge of T2 (length median area 0.15, length T2 0.15), edges of median area with little sculpture, median area broader than long (length 0.15, maximum width 0.17, minimum width 0.07); T2 with a distinctive row of pubescence only at the distal margin. T3 longer than T2 (0.23, 0.15) and with scattered pubescence throughout. Pubescence on hypopygium dense.

Cocoons ( Fig. 29D View Figure 29 ). White oval cocoons with silk fibers evenly smooth. Single small cocoons not adhered to each other, adhered to the larval cuticle or to the leaf substrate.


The AFM on metanotum has a small lobe, but without setae. The flange at each distal side of propodeum with a distinctive curvature and long stubs.


( Fig. 30 A–L View Figure 30 ). The coloration on terga and sterna is darker than in females.


William (Bill) L. Brown, Jr. (1 June 1922 - 30 March 1997) was a well-known American myrmecologist; his research was focused mainly on the ant subfamily Ponerinae.


The parasitized caterpillars were collected in Costa Rica, ACG, Sector Cacao ( Estación Cacao), Sector Del Oro (Guacimos), and Sector Pitilla (Sendero Carica), during May 1995, June 2008, and December 2006 at 380 m, 660 m, and 1,150 m in rain forest and cloud forest.


The lifestyle of this parasitoid species is gregarious.


Xylophanes porcus ( Hübner) ( Sphingidae : Macroglossinae) feeding on Hamelia patens and Psychotria berteriana ( Rubiaceae ). Caterpillars were collected in third and fourth instar.


Canadian National Collection of Insects, Arachnids, and Nematodes


Milwaukee Public Museum


Bristol Museum