Ceratomerus maculatus, Bradley J Sinclair, 2003

Bradley J Sinclair, 2003, Taxonomy, Phylogeny and Zoogeography of the Subfamily Ceratomerinae of Australia (Diptera: Empidoidea), Records of the Australian Museum 55, pp. 1-44: 29-31

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Ceratomerus maculatus


Ceratomerus maculatus   n.sp.

Figs. 59, 70, 82, 83, 90, 102–105

Type material. HOLOTYPE 3, “ AUST [ralia]: NSW[New South Wales]: 7 km E/ Robertson, Macquarie Pass / N.P., 23.xi.1993, cascading/ stream, B.J. Sinclair ”;“ HOLOTYPE / Ceratomerus   / maculatus   / Sinclair [red label]” AMS K175250   . PARATYPES: Australian Capital Territory: 13, 2♀♀, Black Mtn , MT   , xii.1987, M.Irwin; 13, Blundells Ck , 3 km E Piccadilly Circus, 35°22'S 148°50'E, 850 m, x.1985, Weir, Lawrence, Johnson GoogleMaps   ; 1♀, same locality, v.1988, DHC ( ANIC) GoogleMaps   ; 533, 1♀, Gibraltar Falls , 35°29'S 148°56'E, 8.xii.1993, BJS ( ZFMK) GoogleMaps   . New South Wales: 533, 3♀♀, same data as holotype; 933   , 7♀♀, Kosciusko NP, Leatherbarrel Ck , 1000 m, 28.xi.1994, BJS, DJB ( AMS, ZFMK)   ; 633, 2♀♀, Barrington Tops NP, upper Gloucester R   ./ Falls , 1200 m, 20–21.xii.1993, BJS ( CNC, ZFMK)   ; 2 33, Barrington Tops NP, Gloucester Tops , 1200 m, Nothofagus   , str., 21.xii.1993, BJS   ; 13, Blue Mtns NP, Blackheath , Rim Tr. at falls, 1000 m, 12.xii.1998, BJS   ; 733, 1♀, Blue Mtns NP, Grand Canyon, Greaves Ck , 27.iii.1994, 4.iv.1994, 18.vii.1994, BJS   ; 13, Belmore Falls , 2.x.1938, A.L. Tonnoir; 13, 5 mi S Monga, tree fern gully, leaf mould, 8.v.1968, DHC   & Z. Liepa ( ANIC); 433, Blue Mtns NP, Blackheath, Govett’s Ck below falls, 1.xii.1993, 25.xii.1993, 18.vii.1994, BJS   ; 233, Blue Mtns NP, Wentworth Falls , 23.x.1994, 10.vii.1994, BJS   ; 233, 27♀♀, Gloucester Tops , 1280 m, Nothofagus, MT   , 19.xi–4.xii.1988, DJB   ; 1 ♀, Kanangra-Boyd NP, Boyd R   . Cpgd , 1200 m, dry scler. veg., y.pans, 26.xi.1994, DJB   ; 833, 12♀♀, Kosciusko NP, upper Pipers Ck , 1600 m, 28–29.xi.1994, 7.xii.1994, BJS   ; 13, Oberon, Silent Ck, 34°6'S 149°45'E, 3.xi.1998, J. Potts; 13, Royal NP, Couranga Tr. , 19.iii.1995, BJS GoogleMaps   ; 13, Katoomba , 28.ix.1955, G.H. Hardy ( AMS); 433   , 1♀, Blue Mtns NP, Valley-of-the-Waters, below Vera Falls , 10.vii.1994, 23.x.1994, 9.iv.1995, BJS ( AMS, CNC)   ; 2♀♀, Kosciusko NP, nr Swamp Plain, Bogong Ck , 28.xi.1994, BJS   ; 233, Monga SF, 19– 24.i.1984, L. Masner; 13, Royal NP, Uloola Falls , 17.xii.1993, BJS ( CNC)   ; 433, 8♀♀, Styx R   . SF, George’s Ck F.Res., Cunnawarra Ck , 3.iii.1995, BJS ( USNM)   ; 1♀, Styx R   . SP, Wattle Flat, Styx R   ., 1200 m, 1.iv.1995, BJS ( ZFMK)   . Victoria: 13, Errinundra Plateau, y.pans, Bonang Ck , 1.iv.1990, DJB   ; 233, 9♀♀, Errinundra Plateau, Gap Rd, Result Ck Falls , y.pans, 6– 7.xii.1994, BJS, DJB   ; 333, 5♀♀, 45 km N Orbost, Bonang Hwy, Martins Ck , 200 m, rainfor., 6.xii.1994, BJS   ; 1♀, Otway NP, Maits Rest , rainfor., y.pans, 350 m, 4–5.xii.1994, DJB   ; 1 3, 7♀♀, 9 km N Warburton , Nothofagus, Cement Ck   , 1–3.xii.1994, BJS, DJB ( AMS)   ; 1 3, Fern Tree Gully NP, 20.viii.1967, T   . Weir ( UQIC); 433   , 7♀♀, Otway Ra. , Nothofagus, Beauchamp Falls   , 350 m, 3–5.xii.1994, BJS, DJB ( AMS, CNC)   ; 1 ♀, Sassafras , 22.x.1922, A. Tonnoir; 333   , 1♀, Warburton, Cement Ck , 670 m, Nothofagus   , 10–17.i.1980, A. Newton & M.Thayer ( ANIC); 6 33   , 6♀♀, 29 km N Warburton, Acheron Way, Acheron R   ., rainforest, y.pans, 1– 3.xii.1994, BJS, DJB ( AMS, CNC)   ; 13, Warburton Rd to Mt.Donna Buang , roadcut seep, 3.xii.1994, BJS   ( CNC)   .

Additional material (in alc.). Australian Capital Territory: 1133, 30♀♀, Blundells Ck , 3 km E Piccadilly Circus, 35°22'S 148°50'E, 850 m, iii–iv.1984, vi.1985, Weir, Lawrence, Johnson; 433, Wombat Ck, 6 km NE Piccadilly Circus, 35°19'S 148°51'E, 750 m, iv.1984, Weir, Lawrence, Johnson. New South Wales: 13, 6♀♀, New England NP, Toms Cabin, 30°30'S 152°24'E, 12–22.ii.1984, MT GoogleMaps   , I.D. Naumann (all ANIC)   .

Diagnosis. Distinguished by the unique and distinctly bizarre male wing and inwardly bowed hindlegs. Females are generally larger in size than C. falcatus   with darker wings, however they can be only confidently identified in association with males.

Description. Wing length 2.6–2.9 mm, similar to C. falcatus   except as follows:

Male. Head. Face yellowish-brown; postocellar bristle long, subequal in length to ocellar bristle. Antenna with ( Fig. 59) pedicel nearly equal in length to scape, bearing pair of dorsal setae on distal half; 1 ventral seta and apical fringe of long setae; postpedicel 1.5× height of head; apical three-fifths narrow, nearly parallel-sided, not strongly tapered; threesegmented stylus one-fifth length of postpedicel. Palpus yellow.

Thorax. Pleura yellow, dorsal margin yellowish-brown; postpronotal lobe yellowish-brown.

Wing ( Fig. 82) with posterior margin of stem bearing fringe of long dark setae; anal lobe with fringe of minute setulae. Wing venation highly modified: R 1 ending in costa before middle of wing; R 2+3 and R 4 thickened, highly undulated; base of R 4 thickened; auxiliary cross-vein between R 2+3 and R 4 absent; 3 veins arising from cell dm; Cu thickened. Costal cell darkly infuscate; cell r 1 with dark spots along margin of R 1; cell br with median streak.

Legs. Coxae and femora yellow, hind femora darker towards tip; tibiae and tarsi brown. Fore femur swollen, with av row of dark setae; pv region with 3 basal setae. Fore tibia equal in length to femur. First tarsomere half length of fore tibia; distal 4 tarsomeres dorsoventrally flattened, ventral margin with bare pale surface.

Mid femur swollen, similar to fore femur, with av row of short setae, longer at base. Mid tibia with triangular lobe subapically, with shallow ventral excavation; apex with tuft of ventral setae. First tarsomere slightly bent subbasally, with stout ventral basal seta; shorter than remaining 4 tarsomeres; fourth and fifth tarsomeres dorsoventrally flattened.

Hind femur bow-legged, with 1 preapical dorsal seta. Hind tibia bent and slightly twisted, compressed near midlength ( Fig. 90); shorter than femur, apex dilated, bearing posteroapical comb; pv surface lacking setae. Hind tarsomeres shorter than tibia, slender.

Abdomen as in C. falcatus   .

Terminalia   ( Figs. 102, 103). Hypandrium with short posterior flap-like process; 1 pair of long, sickle-shaped, articulated postgonites flanking phallus. Phallus comprising pair of long, straight, slender processes, overlapping apically. Apical corner of epandrium narrow; posterior margin with long setae along inner posterior margin. Surstylus weakly developed, with only partial subapical weakening on epandrium with row of marginal setae. Cercus thinly sclerotized, short, apex acute, expanded laterally around anus.

Female. Similar to male and female of C. falcatus   except as follows: wing ( Fig. 83) lacking modified venation; darkly infuscate, with pale median streak in cells r 1, r 2+3 and r 4; medial fork distal to radial fork; cell dm rectangular, slender; auxiliary crossvein between R 2+3 and R 4 (occasionally absent on one wing). Terminalia ( Fig. 104): T10 with anterior margin bearing stout, straight, spine-like setae; cercus with terminal cluster of 4–5 spine-like setae, similar to T10.

Spermathecal receptacle spherical ( Fig. 105).

Distribution. This species is confined to the southeastern corner of Australia (i.e., southern NSW and Victoria), and overlaps with its sister species, C. falcatus   , at Barrington Tops National Park and Styx River region in central NSW ( Fig. 70). It is found at both high and low altitudes south of Sydney, but restricted to above 1000 m north of this latitude.

Biology. A teneral specimen from the region of Monga was collected among leaf mould in a tree fern gallery. This may indicate that this species (and possibly others of this group) breed in damp soils associated with streams and is thus not truly aquatic.

Etymology. The species name is derived from the Latin maculatus   (spotted, stained) in reference to the spotted and patterned male wing.


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