Schausiana pharus (Druce, 1887)

Mielke, Carlos G. C., Grehan, John R. & Monzón-Sierra, José, 2020, Taxonomic revision of Schausiana Viette with two new species from Guatemala and notes on biogeography and correlated tectonics (Lepidoptera: Hepialidae), Zootaxa 4860 (1), pp. 67-91: 79-87

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4860.1.3

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:38F1E2A5-5DE0-4B95-959A-6347BC593AF0

DOI

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4413540

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/0383282C-7E2F-FFF5-4390-FABB40B01C7F

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Schausiana pharus (Druce, 1887)
status

comb. n.

Schausiana pharus (Druce, 1887)   comb. n.

( Figs 5 View FIGURES 1–5 , 17–21 View FIGURES 17–21 , 25 View FIGURES 22–27 , 32–33 View FIGURES 28–33 , 36 View FIGURES 34–36 , 39, 41 View FIGURES 37–47. 37–41 )

Hepialus pharus Druce   (1887: 232; pl. 24, fig. 12 (♂ dorsal)); Guatemala, Las Mercedes, 3000 feet, and Dueñas, Champion [leg.]; Costa Rica, Irazu, 6000–7000 feet, Rogers [leg.]; (NHMUK).— Kirby (1892: 884).— Wagner & Pfitzner (1911: 9).— Williams (1935: 292; figs. 1.1 (dorsal), 1.2 (egg), 1.3 (larva), 1.4–5 (pupa), 1.6 (resting), 1.7 (♂ hindleg), 2–3 (behaviour)).—Grehan et al. (2018: 64; fig. 23 (FW cubital patch), 29 (♂ gen.)).

Hepialus (Hepialus) pharus: Pfitzner (1937: 1291)   .

Phassus pharus: Nielsen & Robinson (1983: 18)   .— Robinson & Nielsen (1984: 16).— Maddison (1993): 564.— Nielsen et al. (2000: 841).— Mielke & Grehan (2012: 144).— Grehan (2012: 22, 29 (venation, sternum II)).

Type material. Lectotype ♂ ( Fig. 17 View FIGURES 17–21 ; here designated): Lectotype / Godman-Salvin, Coll. 98.—40./ LECTOTYPUS, Hepialus pharus C. Mielke, Grehan & Monzón   des. 2020/ ( NHMUK). Examined.

Examined material (4 ♂, 18 ♀). MEXICO. Chiapas   : 1 ♀, Hwy. 195, Jitolol-Rayon, Cabañas Sempre Verde env., 17°08′35′′N 92°53′01′′W, 1695 m, 16.V.2015, S. Naumann & B. Wenczel leg. ( CGCM 33.341 ( CGCM)) GoogleMaps   ; 1 ♀, Hwy. 199, San Cristobal-Ocosingo, 10 km E Oxchuc, Cascada Corralito , 16°49′45′′N 92°14′64′′W, 1300 m, 18.V.2015, C. Conlan, S. Naumann & B. Wenczel leg. ( CGCM 33.421 ( CGCM))   . GUATEMALA. Izabal: 3 ♀, Morales, Sierra de Caral , 930 m, 15°22′31′′N 88°41′50′′W: 30.IV.2007, J. Monzón leg. ( CGCM 23.249 [BC- GU661583 View Materials ] ( CGCM)), 16.V.2007 J. Monzón leg. ( CGCM 23.201 [BC- GU661581 View Materials ], 23.506 [BC-GU661587] ( CGCM)) GoogleMaps   . Zacapa: 1 ♀, San Lorenzo road, Sierra de las Minas , 1600 m, 20.IV.2008, J. Monzón leg. ( CGCM 24.163 ( CGCM))   ; 2 ♂, 4 ♀, San Lorenzo , El Naranjo, 1616 m, 15°04′25′′N, 89°41′11′′W, 22.V.2010. J. Monzón leg. ( CGCM 24.073 [BC-JX215853], 24.559 [BC-JX215845], 24.624 [BC-JX215854], 25.341, 25.485, 26.702 ( CGCM)) GoogleMaps   ; 1 ♂, La Unión , 850 m, E. Welling leg. ( CGCM 7.110 ( CGCM))   . Baja Verapaz: 2 ♀, Pantín, Finca Santa Rosa, 1690 m, 15°14′31′′N 90°17′06′′W: 9.V.2008, J. Monzón leg. ( CGCM 24.627 ( CGCM)) GoogleMaps   ; 2.VI.2019, J. Monzón leg. (JMS 11.011 ( CJMS))   . El Progreso: 1 ♀, Cerro Piñalon, Cabañas , 15°5′3′′N 89°56′33′′W, 2568 m, 12.-15.V.2010. J. Monzón, B. Sutton, G. Steck & P. Skelley leg. ( CGCM 5.797 ( CGCM)) GoogleMaps   . Huehuetenango: 1 ♀, Nentón, Gracias a Dios , El Quetzal, 1569 m, 16°4′10′′N 91°39′51′′W, 20.V.2010, Camposeco & J. Monzón leg. ( CGCM 25.356 ( CGCM)) GoogleMaps   . Quetzaltenango: 1 ♀, Zunil, Fuentes Georginas , 2450 m, 14°44′59′′N 91°28′48′′W, 10.V.2007, J. Monzón leg. ( CGCM 23.794 [BC-HM375845] ( CGCM)) GoogleMaps   . Sacatepéquez: 1 ♀, SE Antigua, San Cristóbal El Bajo, Finca El Pilar, Cerro Cucurucho , 2620 m, 14°31′11′′N 90°41′28W, 22.IV.2017, J. Monzón & S. Naumann leg. ( CGCM 36.194 ( CGCM)) GoogleMaps   . EL SALVADOR. Santa Ana: 1 ♂, Metapan, Hda. Montecristo, Cerro Miramundo , 2300 m, 23.II.1973, S. Steinhauser leg. ( MGCL)   . La Libertad: 1 ♀, Santa Tecla , 900 m, 19.V.1968. S. & L. Steinhauser leg. ( MGCL)   . NICARAGUA: Jinotega: 2 ♀, Cerro Kilambé, Camp. 6- Las Torres , UTM 16P- 1500100-0637100, 1000 m, 23.-30.IV.2001, J. Sunyer & Hernandez leg. ( CMNH)   . COSTA RICA. Cartago: 1 ♀, Orosi, Rio Macho , 1600 m, 19.IV.2012, Camposeco & J. Monzón leg. ( CGCM 25.006 [BOLD SampleID: BC- CGCM 25006] ( CGCM))   .

Diagnosis. Immediately recognized by the contrasting U-band where the proximal arm extends to costal wing margin, and by the lack of black markings on the anal area in both sexes.

Redescription. Male ( Figs 17, 18 View FIGURES 17–21 a–b, 25, 32, 36a–c).

Head. Frons and vertex dark greyish-brown. Antenna with ~30 antenomeres.

Thorax. Dorsally pro- and mesothorax coloured as head. Metathorax light orange-brown, dorsally. Legs ( Fig. 25 View FIGURES 22–27 ): epiphysis absent; metatibia hypertrophied with inflated thin-walled metatibial gland. FW length: 33–35 mm, width: 13–15 mm (ratio ~2.4), wingspan: 65–72 mm; elongated, tornus absent; costal margin convex, apex slightly pronounced and acute, outer margin straight from apex to Rs4, then convex. DFW ground colour dark grey with poorly contrasted concentric markings throughout; antemedial area marked by a dark brown U-band with the proximal arm reaching the costal margin and sometimes with light yellow coloured edging and the distal arm extending from the stigma to CuA 2; postdiscal band concolorous with the U-band, widening anteriorly; premarginal band grey and marginal band connected anteriorly, concolorous with the postdiscal band; stigma light yellow, oblique long, thin, whitish coloured, specialized piliform scales evenly spaced along veins. HW subtriangular. DHW veins brown, distally lighter; ground colour greyish-brown in some margins brown and base orange brown, costal margin with darker marks in distal half, outer margin slightly convex. VFW and VHW greyish-brown with margins and veins distally marked by brown.

Abdomen ( Fig. 32 View FIGURES 28–33 ). First two segments, dorsal and ventrally, concolorous with the base of DHW, segments III to VIII dorsally dark-brown, ventrally pale brown. Tergite II with weakly concave lateral ridges near lateral margins, sternite II elongate with all corners projected and the lateral and anterior margins concave; tergite VIII trapezoidal with convex posterior margin, sternite VIII subsquare and slightly more sclerotized centrally.

Male genitalia ( Figs 36 View FIGURES 34–36 a–c). Tegumen triangular, fused to pseudotegumen. Saccus V-shaped anteriorly, concave posteriorly and slightly projected mesally on the posterior margin. Tergal lobe a transverse bar, well marked, and fused to the pseudotegumen. Pseudotegumen dorso-posteriorly broad, antero-ventrally narrow to pointed apex; ventral margin smooth. Fultura inferior rectangular, hour-glass shaped, with a medial-longitudinal ridge. Fultura superior X-shaped. Valva broad, distally a curved setose blade shape; anterior margin of sacculus with short hook, serrate on the antero-ventral edge.

Description. Female ( Figs 5 View FIGURES 1–5 , 19–21 View FIGURES 17–21 , 33 View FIGURES 28–33 , 39, 41 View FIGURES 37–47. 37–41 ).

Head. Frons and vertex dark greyish-brown. Antenna with ~30 antenomeres.

Thorax. FW length: 25–55 mm, width: 11–24 mm (ratio ~2.3), wingspan: 52–106 mm.

Abdomen ( Fig. 33 View FIGURES 28–33 ). Sternum VII as a rectangular bar. Tergum VIII reduced to a rectangular spot; sternum VIII developed, rectangular.

Female genitalia ( Figs 39, 41 View FIGURES 37–47. 37–41 ). Tergum IX (dorsal plate) an inverted U-shape, setose posteriorly, and articulated with sternum IX or lamella antevaginalis; anal papillae setose forming a distinct angle along the posterior margin. Lamella antevaginalis enlarged posteriorly, notched mesally producing conspicuous postero-lateral processes that are expanded medially, apically setose and clearly more sclerotized on each side on the dorsal margin; from between these processes arises a robust inwardly curved lobe with transverse ridges over surface, apically setose. Subanal plates narrowly rectangular, tapering antero- and posteriorly. Ductus bursae about three times longer than corpus bursae, the latter with a short diverticulum tapering to a point distally ( Fig. 41 View FIGURES 37–47. 37–41 ).

Geographical distribution. Schausiana pharus   is known from a wide range of localities between southern Mexico to Costa Rica at altitudes between 900 m to 2,600 m ( Fig. 48 View FIGURE 48 ). The distribution gap between Nicaragua and Costa Rica is considered to represent a lack of collecting for this species.

Host plants. Sugar cane ( Saccharum officinarum   ) ( Williams 1935; CENGICAÑA 2007). See remarks.

Etymology. Uncertain, since Druce (1887) did not give any evidence. Likely, it refers formerly to a small island in the Nile delta.

Remarks. Though Schausiana pharus   has wing ornamentation similar to Phassus   (see Grehan et al. 2018: figs 16–25) species the specialized scales on the veins of the FW and the ♂ and ♀ genitalia (see remarks for description of the genus) leave no doubt to the placement of this species within Schausiana   .

Williams (1935) refers to S. pharus   as a pest of sugar cane plantations at Escuintla, Guatemala, nicely figuring a ♀ in black and white line drawing. He clearly shows a ♀ that bears black spots in the anal area as the ones found in other Schausiana   particularly, S. chalciope   sp. n. but with a highly contrasting U-shaped band as found in S. pharus   . At present it is not possible to confidently corroborate Williams’s (1935) taxonomic determination because we have been unable to locate any voucher material. Curiously, CENGICAÑA (2007) also records a species of Hepialidae   (referred to as Phassus   sp.) as a pest of sugar cane at the same locality.

NHMUK

Natural History Museum, London

CMNH

The Cleveland Museum of Natural History

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Lepidoptera

Family

Hepialidae

Genus

Schausiana

Loc

Schausiana pharus (Druce, 1887)

Mielke, Carlos G. C., Grehan, John R. & Monzón-Sierra, José 2020
2020
Loc

Phassus pharus:

Mielke, C. G. C. & Grehan, J. R. 2012: 144
Grehan, J. R. 2012: 22
Nielsen, E. S. & Robinson, G. S. & Wagner, D. L. 2000: 841
Maddison, P. A. 1993: 564
Robinson, G. S. & Nielsen, E. S. 1984: 16
Nielsen, E. S. & Robinson, G. S. 1983: )
1983
Loc

Hepialus (Hepialus) pharus:

Pfitzner, R. 1937: )
1937