Mysmenopsis, SIMON 1897

Lopardo, Lara & Hormiga, Gustavo, 2015, Out of the twilight zone: phylogeny and evolutionary morphology of the orb-weaving spider family Mysmenidae, with a focus on spinneret spigot morphology in symphytognathoids (Araneae, Araneoidea), Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 173 (3), pp. 527-786 : 781

publication ID 10.1111/zoj.12199


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( FIGS 53–62 View Figure 53 View Figure 54 View Figure 55 View Figure 56 View Figure 57 View Figure 58 View Figure 59 View Figure 60 View Figure 61 View Figure 62 , 128G View Figure 128 , 131A–C View Figure 131 , 140G–L View Figure 140 : CLADE C190)

Lucarachne Bryant, 1940: 350   (type L. tibialis Bryant, 1940   ). Kraus, 1955: 30. Forster, 1959: 328. Gertsch, 1960a: 28–29. Platnick & Shadab, 1978: 5 (synonymized to Mysmenopsis   ). Chickering, 1960: 95 (misidentification). Wunderlich, 1978: 29.

Mysmenopsis Simon, 1897: 865   . Gertsch, 1960a: 23. Platnick & Shadab, 1978: 5–20 (revision of the genus). Müller, 1987: 185. Coyle & Meigs, 1989: 61–66. Baert, 1990: 5–17. Platnick, in Eberhard, Platnick & Schuh, 1993: 8. Jocqué & Dippenaar-Schoeman, 2006: 176.

Type species

Mysmenopsis femoralis Simon 1897   by original designation, syntype material in BMNH and MNHN, examined.

Familial placement and composition

Transferred to Symphytognathidae   from Theridiidae   by Gertsch (1960a), and to Mysmenidae   from Symphytognathidae   by Forster & Platnick (1977). Our working phylogenetic hypothesis places Mysmenopsis   as sister to Isela   within the subfamily Mysmenopsinae   ( Fig. 161B View Figure 161 ). Currently, the genus Mysmenopsis   comprises 27 described species (Platnick, 2014), and is here represented by four species: M. dipluramigo   , M. penai   , M. cidrelicola   , and M. palpalis   .


Morphological synapomorphies of Mysmenopsis   include: anterior atria connected by membranous duct ( Fig. 60H View Figure 60 ); posterior lateral tracheae branching into several tracheoles ( Fig. 60G View Figure 60 ); wide posterior spiracular opening ( Fig. 59I View Figure 59 ); distal labium concave ( Figs 54B View Figure 54 , 56G View Figure 56 , 59E View Figure 59 ); relatively higher proportion of maxillary clavate setae ( Fig. 62B View Figure 62 ); and four or more colular setae ( Fig. 56D View Figure 56 ; three or less setae in M. palpalis   , Fig. 59I View Figure 59 ); males with prolateral row of modified setae occupying only distal half of tarsus I ( Figs 54G View Figure 54 , 59D View Figure 59 ); with prolateral cymbium ( Fig. 59A, G View Figure 59 ) without internal cymbial conductor and cymbial fold (CyC1 and CyF; Figs 53D View Figure 53 , 55G View Figure 55 , 60C, D, F View Figure 60 ); short apical bifid embolus of lobed or weakly projected embolic base and with membranous (flexible) embolus–tegulum junction ( Figs 55G View Figure 55 , 58D View Figure 58 , 60D, F View Figure 60 , 131A, C View Figure 131 ); globose palpal tibia ( Figs 53A–C View Figure 53 , 55A–E View Figure 55 , 58A–B View Figure 58 , 59A View Figure 59 , 60A View Figure 60 , 131A View Figure 131 ) with apical hollow area ( Figs 53E View Figure 53 , 55H View Figure 55 , 58A, B View Figure 58 , 60B View Figure 60 , 131A–C View Figure 131 ); and females with a distal ventral femoral I projection ( Figs 57A, B, E View Figure 57 , 140G View Figure 140 ). Other Mysmenopsis species   have either a femoral spot or no structure at all (Platnick & Shadab, 1978), although it is unclear whether the presence of the spot is plesiomorphic for the family or whether it represents a secondary gain. Ambiguously optimized synapomorphies for this clade include the following characters: cheliceral retromargin without teeth; absence of median structures of posterior respiratory system ( Fig. 60G View Figure 60 ); male metatarsus I with proximal row of between five and eight spines ( Fig. 57G, H View Figure 57 ; absent in M. penai   ); epiandrous fusules in two discrete clusters ( Fig. 56E View Figure 56 ); males with flagelliform gland spigots ( Figs 53H View Figure 53 ; 58G View Figure 58 ); cymbial tip without conductor grooves, but with a distinctly shaped tip ( Fig. 58D View Figure 58 ) and with a hook-shaped paracymbium bent inwards and associated with a tegular groove ( Figs 53D, F View Figure 53 , 55F View Figure 55 , 58D View Figure 58 , 60D View Figure 60 ); male palpal tibial bearing spurs ( Figs 53E View Figure 53 , 55I View Figure 55 , 58E View Figure 58 , 60B, E View Figure 60 ) and with two retrolateral–dorsal trichobothria ( Fig. 55E View Figure 55 ).


Mysmenopsis   differs from all other mysmenid genera in the following combination of features: the respiratory system consisting of anterior tracheae connected by a membranous duct and posterior lateral tracheae branching into several tracheoles, without median structures, arising from a wide posterior spiracular opening; the typical male palpal conformation, including a globose tibia with an apical hollow area bearing spurs and with two retrolateral–dorsal trichobothria, a prolateral cymbium without internal conductor grooves or cymbial fold, but with a distinct tip, and with a hook-shaped paracymbium bent inwards and associated with a tegular groove, and a short apical bifid embolus. Also, a distal ventral projection on femur I occurs on females, males have a prolateral row of modified setae occupying the distal half of tarsus I, and a proximal row of between five and eight spines on metatarsus I (absent in M. penai   ); the epiandrous fusules are grouped into two clusters, both sexes retain only the flagelliform but not the aggregate spigots on the posterior lateral spinnerets; the labium is distally concave, a relatively higher proportion of maxillary clavate setae occurs in the mouthparts, and the colulus has four or more setae (three or less setae in M. palpalis   ). The taxonomic history and previous diagnostic features for Mysmenopsis   have been reviewed by Platnick & Shadab (1978). Some of the previous diagnostic features proposed for this genus are also recovered here (see Simon, 1897; Bryant, 1940; Gertsch, 1960a; Platnick & Shadab, 1978).


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