MYSMENINAE PETRUNKEVITCH, 1928

Lopardo, Lara & Hormiga, Gustavo, 2015, Out of the twilight zone: phylogeny and evolutionary morphology of the orb-weaving spider family Mysmenidae, with a focus on spinneret spigot morphology in symphytognathoids (Araneae, Araneoidea), Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 173 (3), pp. 527-786 : 782

publication ID

https://doi.org/ 10.1111/zoj.12199

persistent identifier

https://treatment.plazi.org/id/03832D77-10B9-9260-FEC7-E245FDD05B24

treatment provided by

Felipe

scientific name

MYSMENINAE PETRUNKEVITCH, 1928
status

 

MYSMENINAE PETRUNKEVITCH, 1928   (CLADE C133)

Composition

This morphologically distinct subfamily is circumscribed here to comprise the following genera: Anjouanella   , Brasilionata   , Calodipoena   , Calomyspoena   , Itapua, Kekenboschiella   , Microdipoena   , Mysmena   , Mysmenella   , Mysmeniola   , and Tamasesia   [ Fig. 160, see below and refer to Fig. 161B View Figure 161 for synonymies, see below for comments on recently erected Chinese genera not included in the analyses; see main text for the removal and suggested new familial status of Crassignatha   , Iardinis   , Leviola   , and Phricotelus   ; see Miller et al. (2009) for the removal of Crassignatha   based on morphology; and see Rix & Harvey (2010) for the transfer of Taphiassa   to Micropholcommatinae   and its synonymy with Parapua   ]. In our phylogenetic analyses, Mysmeninae   included the following taxa: Microdipoena   , Mysmeniola   , Brasilionata   , Mysmena   (see below for total number of species and generic composition), and the following undescribed species (regarded here as Mysmeninae   incertae sedis): MYSM-001-MAD, MYSM- 006-MAD, MYSM-008-ARG, MYSM-009-MAD, MYSM- 012-MAD, MYSM-019-MAD, MYSM-020-MAD, MYSM-021-MAD, MYSM-023-MAD, MYSM-026- MAD, MYSM-027-MAD, MYSM-029-MAD, MYSM- 031-MAD, MYSM-032-MAD, and MYSM-033-MAD.

Monophyly

Relationships within Mysmeninae   are unstable, except for a few taxa (see below). The following synapomorphies support Mysmeninae   as we have circumscribed it: respiratory system with anterior tracheae restricted to opisthosoma ( Fig. 37A View Figure 37 ; extending into pro- soma in MYSM-005-ARG, MYSM-007- MEX, and Microdipoena   s.s.); advanced and wide posterior spiracular opening located midway between the spinnerets and epigastric groove ( Fig. 24A, E View Figure 24 ), connected to branched posterior lateral tracheae extending into prosoma ( Fig. 22A, B View Figure 22 ); aciniform gland spigots of posterior spinnerets with two different outlines ( Figs 19F View Figure 19 , 33D View Figure 33 , 37 View Figure 37 ,B E); posterior lateral spinnerets with an anterior flat spatulate modified seta [ Figs 23B, E View Figure 23 , 33G, H View Figure 33 , 52C View Figure 52 ; secondarily absent in Mysmena   (= Tamasesia   ) rotunda   ], and slim cylindrical spigots ( Figs 23B View Figure 23 , 37B, E View Figure 37 ); palpal tibial trichobothria of females lacking ( Figs 38E View Figure 38 , 52E View Figure 52 ); female copulatory openings within the epigastric furrow ( Fig. 24A View Figure 24 ; secondarily external in MYSM-023-MAD), membranous atrium ( Figs 129A, E, G View Figure 129 , 130B View Figure 130 ), and irregular membranous copulatory ducts ( Figs 18G View Figure 18 , 27D View Figure 27 , 129A–C, E, H View Figure 129 , 130A– G View Figure 130 ; distally sclerotized independently in two clades); males with coiled embolus ( Figs 27A View Figure 27 , 47A, B View Figure 47 , 132D, E View Figure 132 , 134G View Figure 134 ) and secondary (external) cymbial conductor ( Figs 31C View Figure 31 , 40A View Figure 40 , 43C View Figure 43 ; secondarily absent in clade C128: Microdipoena   , Brasilionata   , Mysmeniola   , and MYSM- 019-MAD; Fig. 22F View Figure 22 ). Other synapomorphies include: abdomen with a whitish ventral ring surrounding the spinnerets ( Figs 142J, L View Figure 142 , 143A, B, G, I, L View Figure 143 ), trichobothria on tibia III and IV between two and three tibia diameters in length ( Figs 26G View Figure 26 , 29E View Figure 29 , 39G View Figure 39 ; short trichobothria occurs independently within the group), and strongly serrated distal promarginal curved seta ( Figs 19E View Figure 19 , 38H View Figure 38 , 42E View Figure 42 , 48B View Figure 48 ). Ambiguously optimized synapomorphies for this clade include: a posterior tracheal arrangement consisting of lateral tracheae surrounding the minute median apodemes ( Fig. 29B View Figure 29 ); fingerprint cuticular pattern on the piriform field ( Figs 23A, C View Figure 23 , 33E View Figure 33 ); flagelliform spigots absent in males ( Fig. 23E View Figure 23 ; secondarily present in Mysmena leichhardti   and MYSM-005-ARG); orb webs with a proliferation of out-of-plane radii both above and below the orb plane ( Fig. 147A, B View Figure 147 ); males with prolateral row of slim setae occupying only distal half of tarsus I ( Figs 16H View Figure 16 , 26A View Figure 26 , 34D View Figure 34 , 45I View Figure 45 , 50F View Figure 50 ; all along tarsus in Mysmeniola spinifera   ); cymbial prolateral basal expansion ( Figs 27A View Figure 27 , 30B, C View Figure 30 , 36C View Figure 36 , 47B View Figure 47 ); embolus with pars pendula ( Figs 32H View Figure 32 , 36B View Figure 36 , 132C–F View Figure 132 , 133C View Figure 133 , secondarily absent in MYSM-005- ARG); palpal tibial rim setae longer and arranged distally in a row or two [ Figs 18A View Figure 18 , 32E View Figure 32 , 36D View Figure 36 , 42B View Figure 42 , 45C View Figure 45 ; secondarily irregular in Mysmeniola spinifera   and Microdipoena   (= Mysmenella   ) jobi   ]; and females with weakly modified epigynal area (i.e. epigynum absent; Figs 14C View Figure 14 , 37A View Figure 37 , 52F View Figure 52 ; modified copulatory area in MYSM- 023-MAD, Fig. 49D, E View Figure 49 ). A total of 163 molecular synapomorphies support this subfamily.

Diagnosis

Mysmeninae   differs from all other mysmenid genera and subfamilies by the following unique combination of features: the characteristic architecture of their orb webs with a proliferation of out-of-plane radii both above and below the orb plane; anterior tracheae restricted to opisthosoma (extending into prosoma in MYSM- 005-ARG, MYSM-007- MEX, and Microdipoena   s.s.), and an advanced and wide posterior spiracular opening located midway between the spinnerets and epigastric groove, connected to branched posterior lateral tracheae extending into prosoma and surrounding the minute median apodemes; anterior lateral spinnerets with fingerprint cuticular pattern on the piriform field, posterior spinnerets with aciniform gland spigots of two different outlines, and posterior lateral spinnerets with an anterior flat spatulate modified seta [as in Maymena   , secondarily absent in Mysmena   (= Tamasesia   ) rotunda   ], slim cylindrical spigots, and flagelliform spigots absent in males (secondarily present in males of Mysmena leichhardti   and MYSM-005-ARG); females without epigynum and with the copulatory openings within the epigastric furrow (secondarily external in MYSM-023- MAD), a membranous internal atrium and irregular membranous copulatory ducts (distally sclerotized independently in two clades); males with secondary (external) cymbial conductor (secondarily absent in clade C128: Microdipoena   , Brasilionata   , Mysmeniola   , and MYSM-019-MAD), cymbial prolateral basal expansion, coiled embolus with pars pendula (secondarily absent in MYSM-005-ARG), palpal tibial rim setae long and arranged distally in a row or two [secondarily irregular in Mysmeniola spinifera   and Microdipoena   (= Mysmenella   ) jobi   ], a prolateral row of slim setae occupying only distal half of tarsus I (all along tarsus in Mysmeniola spinifera   ); and also a strongly serrat- ed distal promarginal curved seta, abdomen with a whitish ventral ring around the spinnerets, trichobothria on tibia III and IV of medium length.