MYSMENOPSINAE

Lopardo, Lara & Hormiga, Gustavo, 2015, Out of the twilight zone: phylogeny and evolutionary morphology of the orb-weaving spider family Mysmenidae, with a focus on spinneret spigot morphology in symphytognathoids (Araneae, Araneoidea), Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 173 (3), pp. 527-786 : 779-780

publication ID

https://doi.org/ 10.1111/zoj.12199

persistent identifier

https://treatment.plazi.org/id/03832D77-10BA-939D-FC74-E58DFF455941

treatment provided by

Felipe

scientific name

MYSMENOPSINAE
status

 

MYSMENOPSINAE   SUBF. NOV.

(CLADE C159)

Mysmenopsinae   comprises the kleptoparasitic genera Isela   (including Kilifina   , see below) and Mysmenopsis   . This sister-taxon relationship has been previously proposed (Griswold, 1985). Although we lacked sequence data for the representatives of this clade, this seemingly stable group is strongly supported by the morphological partition.

Monophyly

Several synapomorphies support Mysmenopsinae   : the kleptoparasitic predatory strategy; females without aggregate gland spigots on PLS ( Figs 6D View Figure 6 , 58H View Figure 58 ); with between three and five palpal tibial trichobothria ( Figs 2E View Figure 2 , 62A View Figure 62 ); and with a modified (stridulatory) field on retrolateral femur I ( Figs 3C View Figure 3 , 57B–D View Figure 57 ); both sexes also have a stridulatory field on prolateral femur IV ( Figs 9A–C View Figure 9 , 54H View Figure 54 , 59F View Figure 59 ); strong leg I ( Fig. 140A, D, G View Figure 140 ; secondary similar legs in Mysmenopsis penai   ); tarsal organ located on the middle third of tarsus ( Figs 8E View Figure 8 , 54E View Figure 54 , 56F View Figure 56 ), and with a teardrop-shaped opening distinctly smaller than setal sockets ( Figs 3F View Figure 3 , 9D View Figure 9 , 54F View Figure 54 , 62H View Figure 62 ); opisthosoma with long and thick setae interspersed among shorter and thinner setae ( Fig. 140A View Figure 140 ); cylindrical gland spigots on PLS as slim as other spigots, subequal to flagelliform gland spigot; male palpal tibia with scoop-shaped rim ( Figs 1A View Figure 1 , 4A View Figure 4 , 53B View Figure 53 , 55A, C View Figure 55 , 58A View Figure 58 ); large palpal tibia (i.e. about one-fifth the size of carapace in lateral view; Figs 1A View Figure 1 , 4A View Figure 4 , 55A, C View Figure 55 ); and cymbium as long as wide ( Figs 1A View Figure 1 , 4C View Figure 4 , 55B View Figure 55 ). Ambiguously optimized synapomorphies for this clade include: shorter but stout and straight setae comprising the tarsal prolateral row on leg I ( Figs 8F View Figure 8 , 54G View Figure 54 , 59D View Figure 59 ); strongly serrated distal promarginal curved seta on chelicerae; fingerprint cuticle on piriform field ( Fig. 61C View Figure 61 ; rugose in Kilifina- MYSM-002- KENYA); minor ampullate (mAP) gland spigot without nubbins or tartipores ( Figs 6C, G View Figure 6 , 58F View Figure 58 , 61D View Figure 61 ); males with palpal tibial bearing spinelike strong setae or spurs ( Figs 1A, B View Figure 1 , 4A, E View Figure 4 , 53E View Figure 53 , 55H View Figure 55 , 58E View Figure 58 , 60B View Figure 60 ); switchback I of spermatic duct close to fundus after passing through the distalmost wall of the bulb ( Fig. 131C, G View Figure 131 ; distal in Isela   ); and metatarsal clasping spine twisted ( Figs 3B View Figure 3 , 8B, C View Figure 8 , 140E, F View Figure 140 ) or strongly curved proximally ( Figs 54D View Figure 54 , 57I View Figure 57 , 59B View Figure 59 ).

Diagnosis

Mysmenopsinae   differs from the genera Maymena   , Trogloneta   , and the subfamily Mysmeninae   by: their kleptoparasitic lifestyle; a stridulatory field on prolateral femur IV; strong leg I; tarsal organ located on the middle third of tarsus, and with a teardrop-shaped opening distinctly smaller than setal sockets; mAP gland spigot without nubbins or tartipores; opisthosoma with long and thick setae interspersed among shorter and thinner setae; females with between three and five palpal tibial trichobothria; without aggregate gland spigots on PLS; and with a modified (stridulatory) field on retrolateral femur I; and males with large palpal tibia bearing spinelike strong setae or spurs. The following combination of features is unique for Mysmenopsinae   : females with narrow copulatory ducts of uniform diameter; males with metatarsal clasping spine twisted or strongly curved proximally; prolateral apical clasping spine on tibia I; shorter but stout and straight setae comprising the tarsal prolateral row on leg I; relatively small cymbium and bulb; palpal tibial with scoop-shaped rim; cymbium as long as wide; loss of tegular conductor; switchback I of spermatic duct close to fundus after passing through the distalmost wall of the bulb; both sexes also have femoral macrosetae; cylindrical gland spigots on PLS as slim as other spigots, subequal to flagelliform; strongly serrated distal promarginal curved seta on chelicerae; and fingerprint cuticle on piriform field.