Trogloneta, SIMON 1922

Lopardo, Lara & Hormiga, Gustavo, 2015, Out of the twilight zone: phylogeny and evolutionary morphology of the orb-weaving spider family Mysmenidae, with a focus on spinneret spigot morphology in symphytognathoids (Araneae, Araneoidea), Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 173 (3), pp. 527-786 : 778-779

publication ID

https://doi.org/ 10.1111/zoj.12199

DOI

https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5399130

persistent identifier

https://treatment.plazi.org/id/03832D77-10BD-939C-FC1A-E41FFAA95A81

treatment provided by

Felipe

scientific name

Trogloneta
status

 

TROGLONETA SIMON 1922  

( FIGS 63 View Figure 63 , 64 View Figure 64 , 65B–H View Figure 65 , 66–68 View Figure 66 View Figure 67 View Figure 68 , 128F View Figure 128 , 131E, F View Figure 131 , 142C View Figure 142 : CLADE C192)

Trogloneta Simon, 1922: 200   ( Troglonata   , lapsus calami). Simon, 1926: 313. Fage, 1931: 143. Gertsch, 1960a: 12. Levi & Levi, 1962: 64. Brignoli, 1970: 1409. Thaler, 1975: 284. Wunderlich, 1980b: 267. Brignoli, 1983: 380. Wunderlich, 1987: 139–140. Heimer & Nentwig, 1991: 306. Breuss, 2001: 187. Brescovit & Lopardo, 2008: 94–104.

Parogulnius Archer, 1953: 20   . Gertsch, 1960a: 10 (synonymized with Trogloneta   ). Brignoli, 1970: 1410 (rejected synonymy, transfer to Theridiosomatidae   ). Coddington, 1986a: 6 (placed in Theridiosomatidae   as incertae sedis). Lopardo & Coddington, 2005: 176 (suggested placement within Mysmenidae   , no formal taxonomic action).

Type species

Trogloneta granulum Simon 1922   by original designation, type material in MNHN, examined.

Familial placement and composition

Transferred to Symphytognathidae   from Theridiidae   by Gertsch (1960a), and to Mysmenidae   from Symphytognathidae   by Forster & Platnick (1977). In the working phylogenetic hypothesis ( Fig. 161B View Figure 161 ), Trogloneta   is sister to the clade comprising Maymena   plus Mysmenopsinae   . Currently, Trogloneta   includes nine described species (Platnick, 2014), and it is here represented by two described plus four undescribed species (the latter species have been scored for molecular data only): T. granulum   , T. cantareira   , Trogloneta   sp-Rix-AUST, Trogloneta   - MYSM- 022- ARG, Trogloneta   - MYSM- 024- CHILE, and Trogloneta   - MYSM- 025- CHILE).

Monophyly

Morphological synapomorphies of Trogloneta   include: a third additional anterior field on ALS ( Figs 64C View Figure 64 , 66F View Figure 66 ); minute colulus ( Figs 64D View Figure 64 , 67F View Figure 67 , 68C View Figure 68 ); minute AME ( Fig. 67G View Figure 67 ); posterior median eyes separated ( Fig. 67H View Figure 67 ); triangular labium, not swollen ( Figs 63I View Figure 63 , 66H View Figure 66 ); uniform coloration on dorsal abdomen, but distinctly lighter ventral abdomen, with whitish extended coloration posteriorly; no abdominal supra-pedicellate nubbins; lateral copulatory ducts–spermathecae junction; two spermstorage compartments per spermatheca ( Fig. 128F View Figure 128 ); accessory glands on vulva ( Fig. 64A View Figure 64 ); female distal ventral sclerotized spot only on femur I; males with all eyes on tubercle ( Figs 63G, H View Figure 63 , 66A View Figure 66 ); carapace height dimorphism (i.e. male carapace higher than female, compare Figs 63G View Figure 63 and 64E View Figure 64 ); bifid embolus ( Figs 63E View Figure 63 , 66E View Figure 66 ); tegular groove acting as conductor ( Figs 63E View Figure 63 , 66C View Figure 66 ); no switchbacks I and II on the spermatic duct ( Fig. 131E, F View Figure 131 ); a flat and blunt primary cymbial conductor with a particular half circle shape ( Fig. 63B, C View Figure 63 ), and particular cymbial shape, flat and tapering ( Fig. 63C View Figure 63 ), with basal paracymbium ( Fig. 63A View Figure 63 ), and with internal cymbial tarsal organ ( Fig. 63B, F View Figure 63 ). Ambiguously optimized synapomorphies for Trogloneta   include: anterior reduced booklungs ( Fig. 67C View Figure 67 ); posterior respiratory system, with single median apodemal structure ( Fig. 64B View Figure 64 ); epigynal area elevated ventrally and smooth uniform proximal copulatory ducts of increased diameter ( Figs 64A View Figure 64 , 128F View Figure 128 ); males with sclerotized femoral spot on femur I; shorter, but stout and straight setae comprising the tarsal prolateral row on leg I ( Figs 65D View Figure 65 , 68A View Figure 68 ); and tegular conductor neither with a proximal groove nor associated with embolus, and with a surface covered with small ridges ( Fig. 63A, B, D View Figure 63 ). Trogloneta   is also supported by 160 molecular synapomorphies.

Diagnosis

Trogloneta   differs from all other mysmenid genera by the presence of a third additional anterior field on ALS; minute colulus (although it has been described as ‘large’ on the type species T. granulum   by Thaler, 1975: but see figs 67F, 68C); minute AME; PME separated; posterior respiratory system with single median apodemal structure; triangular labium; two sperm-storage compartments per spermatheca; males with all eyes on tubercle; a basal paracymbium; a particular cymbial shape, flat and tapering, with a flat and blunt primary cymbial conductor with a particular half-circle shape; tegular conductor neither with a proximal groove nor associated with embolus, and with a surface covered with small ridges; and no switchbacks I and II on the spermatic duct. Although shared with a few other mysmenids, the following combination of features is unique for Trogloneta   : distinctly lighter ventral abdomen, with whitish extended coloration posteriorly; carapace height dimorphism (male carapace higher than female); anterior booklungs reduced; females with distal ventral sclerotized spot only on femur I, epigynal area elevated ventrally, accessory glands on vulva, and smooth uniform proximal copulatory ducts of increased diameter; males with sclerotized femoral spot on femur I; shorter, but stout and straight setae comprising the tarsal prolateral row on leg I; bifid embolus; tegular groove acting as conductor; and internal cymbial tarsal organ. The taxonomic history and previous diagnostic features for Trogloneta   have recently been reviewed by Brescovit & Lopardo (2008). Their proposed combination of features diagnostic for the genus is in agreement with those proposed in our study.

MNHN

Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle

ARG

Argotti Botanic Garden