Microdipoena, BANKS 1895

Lopardo, Lara & Hormiga, Gustavo, 2015, Out of the twilight zone: phylogeny and evolutionary morphology of the orb-weaving spider family Mysmenidae, with a focus on spinneret spigot morphology in symphytognathoids (Araneae, Araneoidea), Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 173 (3), pp. 527-786 : 783-784

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https://doi.org/ 10.1111/zoj.12199

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( FIGS 17–27 View Figure 17 View Figure 18 View Figure 19 View Figure 20 View Figure 21 View Figure 22 View Figure 23 View Figure 24 View Figure 25 View Figure 26 View Figure 27 , 129A, B, D–F View Figure 129 , 132 View Figure 132 , 141J–O View Figure 141 , 142A,B View Figure 142 : CLADE C125)

Mysmena Simon, 1895b: 149   . Bishop & Crosby, 1926: 177. Levi, 1956: 8. Forster, 1959: 306. Kraus, 1967: 392. Gruia, 1977: 162. Shinkai, 1977: 326. Roberts, 1978: 932. Wunderlich, 1980b: 267; 1986: 222. Kasal, 1982: 75. Heimer & Nentwig, 1991: 306.

Microdipoena Banks, 1895: 85   . Saaristo, 1978: 124–125 (rejected synonymy to Mysmena   by Bishop & Crosby, 1926: 177). Brignoli, 1980: 731 (rejected synonymy to Mysmena   by Bishop & Crosby, 1926: 177). Baert, 1984b: 608; 1985: 51; 1989: 29.

Anjouanella Baert, 1986: 265   (type species by monotypy A. comorensis Baert, 1986   , type material in MRAC, examined). New synonymy.

Mysmenella Brignoli, 1980: 731   (transfer from Mysmena   , type Mysmena illectrix Simon, 1895b   , type material in MNHN, examined). Baert, 1984a: 240 (transfer from Mysmena   ); 1989: 32. Namkung & Lee, 1987: 46. Coddington, 1990: 19. Thaler & Noflatscher, 1990: 174. Namkung, 2002: 146; 2003: 148. Wunderlich, 2004: 1073 (considered a junior synonym of Mysmena Simon, 1894   ). Yin et al., 2004: 80. Lee et al., 2004: 100. Trotta, 2005: 170. Ono, 2007: 170. New synonymy.

Type species

Microdipoena guttata Banks, 1895   by original designation, type material in MCZ, examined.

Familial placement, composition, and re-circumscription

Our working phylogenetic hypothesis places Microdipoena   sister to Brasilionata   within the mysmenine clade C128, which also comprises Mysmeniola   and MYSM- 019- MAD. Microdipoena   comprises four described species (Platnick, 2014) and under the current re-circumscription, 11 other described species are transferred here (a total of 15 described species). Microdipoena   is here represented by seven described plus two undescribed species ( Fig. 161B View Figure 161 ; the latter two species are scored only for molecular characters): M. guttata   , M. elsae   , M. nyungwe   , M. samoensis   comb. nov. (from Mysmenella   ), M. jobi   comb. nov. (from Mysmenella   ), M. illectrix   comb. nov., M. comorensis   comb. nov., Microdipoena   -AToL-DR, and MYSM- 030- MAD.

Monophyly, diagnosis, and synonymy justification The following combination of morphological synapomorphies is unique and therefore diagnostic for Microdipoena   (and are shared among all Microdipoena   representatives, unless noted): abdomen with a whitish ventral ring around the spinnerets ( Fig. 142A View Figure 142 ; except Anjouanella   , with all ventral abdominal area lighter, Fig. 141J–L View Figure 141 ); males with two prolateral apical clasping spines on tibia I ( Figs 26C View Figure 26 , 27I View Figure 27 , 141K, L, O View Figure 141 ), thick embolus with an apical switch in the coiling direction ( Figs 18C, D, F View Figure 18 , 27C View Figure 27 , 132B, D, E View Figure 132 ; also in Brasilionata   ), and with either a distal apophysis ( Fig. 18F View Figure 18 ) or a distal irregular membrane ( Fig. 27A– C View Figure 27 ; except in Anjouanella   , without modifications), spermatic duct switchback SB I parallel, with the portions of the spermatic duct before and after the switch SB I run close with each other and with one pair of extra switches (SB III and IV, Fig. 132B–E View Figure 132 ); and small paracymbium ( Figs 17C View Figure 17 , 22G View Figure 22 , 27B View Figure 27 ). As most Microdipoena   representatives in this data set were scored only for morphology, no molecular synapomorphies optimize at the node of this genus; however, its distal clade (clade C172), which includes the only sequenced species of this genus, is supported by 92 molecular synapomorphies. Previous diagnoses for Microdipoena   s.s., Mysmenella   , and Anjouanella   are in agreement with the current diagnosis of the enlarged Microdipoena   (see e.g. Banks, 1895; Brignoli, 1980; Baert, 1986).


FIGS 133G View Figure 133 , 142O View Figure 142

Brasilionata Wunderlich, 1995: 545   .

Type species

Brasilionata arborense Wunderlich, 1995   by original designation and monotypy, holotype in AMNH, examined.

Familial placement and composition

Brasilionata   is a member of the mysmeninae   clade C128 (also comprising Mysmeniola   , Microdipoena   , and MYSM- 019- MAD), and is sister to Microdipoena   ( Fig. 161B View Figure 161 ). Brasilionata   is here represented by its type and only species B. arborense   .

Monophyly and diagnosis

This Brazilian monotypic genus is only known by the male holotype specimen, and it is diagnosed by the following combination of autapomorphies: male palpal tibial rim scoop-shaped, cymbial fold with row of setae similar to surrounding setae (i.e. not minute), embolus with an apical switch in the coiling direction as in Microdipoena   ( Fig. 133G View Figure 133 ), uniform abdominal dorsal colour pattern and anterior median eyes separate ( Fig. 142O View Figure 142 ). There appears to be a subtle depression between the anterior median eyes, which could also be synapomorphic for the genus ( Fig. 142O View Figure 142 ; see Wunderlich, 1995: fig. 10), although it has not been explicitly proposed as such in previous studies. Brasilionata   has been previously diagnosed by somehow vague characters (Wunderlich, 1995), which when examined within a revisionary context can be assigned to any other mysmenid genus or are simply symplesiomorphies: lack of femoral spot on male, no trichobothrium on metatarsus IV, eight eyes equal in size, one metatarsal prolateral clasping spine, male palpal femur, patella and tibia without structures, cymbium long and distally slender, with a cymbial process, and embolus with apophysis. We could not find an embolic apophysis and instead we report a coiling switch of the distal part of the embolus.


FIGS 134D View Figure 134 , 142M, N View Figure 142

Mysmeniola Thaler, 1995: 429   .

Type species

Mysmeniola spinifera Thaler, 1995   by original designation and monotypy, holotype in MHNG, examined.

Familial placement and composition

Our working phylogenetic hypothesis places Mysmeniola   within the mysmenine clade C128 ( Brasilionata   , Mysmeniola   , Microdipoena   , and MYSM- 019- MAD), as sister to the clade including Brasilionata   and Microdipoena   (clade C126; Fig. 161B View Figure 161 ). Mysmeniola   is here represented by its type and only species M. spinifera   .

Monophyly and diagnosis

This singular Venezuelan monotypic genus, only known by males (see male palp drawing on Fig. 134D View Figure 134 ), is here diagnosed by the following combination of autapomorphies: six eyes (anterior median eyes absent; Fig. 142M View Figure 142 ); prolateral cymbium with a prolateral basal expansion surrounding the entire basal bulb and with minute setae at tip, male palpal tibia with prolateral apical process and irregular rim setal conformation, median trichobothrium on metatarsus I, tarsus I with prolateral row of setae distributed along tarsus, and minute but distinct dorsal–posterior abdominal hump ( Fig. 142M, N View Figure 142 ). The presence of a cluster of strong setae at the base of the clypeus seems to be autapomorphic for the genus (see Fig. 142M View Figure 142 ; also Thaler, 1995: figs 1, 2). Previously proposed diagnostic features for Mysmeniola   are in agreement with the diagnostic features suggested here.


Musée Royal de l’Afrique Centrale


Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle


Museum of Comparative Zoology


Madras Museum


American Museum of Natural History


Museum d'Histoire Naturelle













Lopardo, Lara & Hormiga, Gustavo 2015


Wunderlich 1995: 545


Thaler 1995: 429