Telemiades epicalus Hübner, [1819],

Siewert, Ricardo Russo, Mielke, Olaf Hermann Hendrik & Casagrande, Mirna Martins, 2020, Taxonomic revision of the Neotropical genus Telemiades Hübner, [1819] (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae: Eudaminae), with descriptions of fourteen new species, Zootaxa 4721 (1), pp. 1-111: 50-55

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Telemiades epicalus Hübner, [1819]
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Telemiades epicalus Hübner, [1819] 

( Figs 82–85View FIGURES 78–95, 162View FIGURES 161–165, 199View FIGURES 198–200, 213View FIGURE 213)

Telemiades epicalus Hübner, [1819]  . Verz. bek. Schmett., p. 106; nom. nov. pro avitus Cramer  [recte Stoll] fig. 354E (Suri- name, van der Meulen collection).— Mabille, 1878. Ann. Soc. ent. Belg. 21: 27.— Plötz, 1882. Berl. ent. Ztschr. 26: 73; syn.: avitus  , arcturus  .— Mabille, 1903, in Wytsman. Gen. Ins. 17, p. 28; syn.: avitus  .— Draudt, 1922, in Seitz. Gross– Schmett. Erde 5, p. 869; syn.: avitus  ; Cramer, part.— Shepard, 1931. Lep. Cat. 47, p. 76; syn.: epicatus, avitus Cramer  , part.—F. Hoffmann, 1934. Ent. Rdsch., Stuttgart, 51: 27.—Shepard, 1936. Lep. Cat. 74, p. 616.—Hayward, 1947. Acta zool. Lill. 4: 257; syn.: avitus Stoll  , part., arcturus, megallus, epicatus  .—K. Brown & Mielke, 1967. Jour. Lep. Soc. 21: 164.— Steinhauser, 1975. Bull. Allyn Mus. 29: 11.—de Jong, 1983. Tijd. Ent. 126: 241.—Bridges, 1983. Lep. Hesp. 1, p. 9, 30, 35, 39, 84, 93, 96; 2, p. 36; syn.: obscurus, arcturus  , crameri  , diores  , phasias  , potomoni  .—Bridges, 1988. Cat. Hesp. 1, p. 14, 48, 55, 62, 133, 147, 152; 2, p. 60; syn.: arcturus  , crameri  , diores  , obscurus, phasias  , potomoni  .— Steinhauser, 1989. Bull. Allyn Mus. 127: 13, fig. 13 (male gen.).—J. de la Maza E.; White & R. G. de la Maza E., 1991. Rev. Soc. Mex. Lep. 14: 17.—Austin; Brock & Mielke, 1993. Trop. Lep. 4, Suppl. 2: 6, fig. 3 (d); ecol.—R. G. de la Maza E. & J. de la Maza E., 1993. Marip. Chiapas, p. 202.—Robbins et al., 1996, in Wilson & Sandoval. Manu, p. 246.—Austin et al., 1999. Trop. Lep. 9, Suppl. 2: 16.—Warren, 2000, in Llorente; González & Papavero (eds). Biodiv., Tax., Biogeogr. Art. Mex. 2, p. 551; syn.: arcturus  , crameri  , diores  , phasias  , potomoni  .—Lamas; Campos & Ramírez. 2003. Marip. Zona Res. Allpahuayo–Mishana, Iquitos, p. 9.— Mielke, 2004. Hesperioidea, p. 56, in Lamas (ed.). Checklist: Part 4A, Hesperioidea–Papilionoidea, in Heppner (ed.). Atlas Neotrop. Lep.  5A; syn.: phasias, arcturus, phassias, potomoni, epicatus  , diores, var. obscurus, potomani, crameri, epicaulis  .— Mielke, 2005. Cat. Amer. Hesperioidea 3, p. 745; syn.: phasias  , arcturus, phassias, potomoni, epicatus, diores, var. obscurus, potomani, crameri, epicaulis  .—Gareca et al., 2006, in Gareca & Reichle. Marip. diurn. Bolivia, p. 18.—Garwood et al., 2007. Butt. South. Amaz., p. 213, fig. (d).—DeVries; Austin & Martin, 2008. Biol. Jour. Linn. Soc. 94: 731.— Beccaloni et al., 2008. Monografías Tercer Milenio 8: 103; host plant.— Garwood et al., 2009. Butt. South. Amaz., 2nd ed., p. 309, figs (d).—Mielke; Carneiro & Casagrande, 2012. Acta Amaz. 42 (2): 255.—Garwood & Lehman, 2013. Butt. C. Amer. 3, Hesp., p. 63, figs (male d, v, female v).—Cock, 2014. Insecta Mundi 393: 9.—Piovesan & Orlandin, 2016, in Orlandin et al .. Borb. Marip. S. Catarina, p. 80.—Cock & Alston-Smith, 2017. Living World, J. Trin. Tob. Field Nat. Club 2017: 10.—Sambhu & Nankishore, 2018. Zootaxa 4371: 14.

Eudamus phasias Hewitson, 1867  . Descr. Hesp. 1, p. 17; Amazonas, [ Brazil]; Hewitson collection.— Kirby, 1879. Cat. Coll. Diurn. Lep. Hewitson, p. 215.

Telemiades phasias  ; Herrich–Schäffer, 1869. Corr.–Blatt zool.–min. Ver. Regensburg 23: 189.— Watson, 1893. Proc. zool. Soc. London, p. 27.— Godman & Salvin, 1893. Biol. Centr.–Amer., Lep.–Rhop. 2, p. 317; 3, pl. 78, fig. 17 (male gen.).— Lindsey, 1928. Denis. Univ. Bull., Jour. Sc. Lab. 23: 233, fig. 1 (male gen.).— Shepard, 1931. Lep. Cat. 47, p. 77; syn.: phassias  .—F. Hoffmann, 1934. Ent. Rdsch., Stuttgart, 51: 27.—Shepard, 1936. Lep. Cat. 74, p. 616.—C. Hoffmann, 1941. An. Inst. Biol., Mexico, 12: 247; syn.: phassias  .—C. Hoffmann, 1976. Publ. Esp. Soc. Mex. Lep. 1: 121; syn.: phassias  .

Telemiades arcturus Herrich–Schäffer, 1869  . Corr.–Blatt zool.–min. Ver. Regensburg 23: 189; nom. nov. pro avitus Cramer  [recte Stoll] fig. 354E.

Telegonus epicalus  ; Kirby, 1871. Syn. Cat. Diurn. Lep., p. 575; syn.: avitus Cramer  , part., arcturus  .— Godman, 1907. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (7)20: 135; syn.: phasias  .

Telegonus phasias  ; Kirby, 1871. Syn. Cat. Diurn. Lep., p. 575.—Weeks, 1901. Ill. unfig. Lep., p. 30.—Weeks, 1905. Ill. Diurn. Lep. 1, p. 30.

Telemiades phassias  [sic]; Mabille, 1903, in Wytsman. Gen. Ins. 17, p. 28.

Eumesia potomoni Ehrmann, 1907  . Can. Ent. 39: 323; female [holo] type, Suapure, Venezuela; Ehrmann collection.—Draudt, 1923, in Seitz. Gross–Schmett. Erde 5, p. 925.— Holland, 1927. Ann. Carnegie Mus. 17: 338, [pl. 28, fig. 9 (female d)].

Telemiades epicatus  [sic]; Mabille & Boullet, 1912. Ann. Sc. nat., Zool., Paris, (9)16: 117, 121; syn.: avitus  .

Telemiades diores Mabille & Boullet, 1912  . Ann. Sc. nat., Zool., Paris, (9)16: 117, 121; 1 male [holotype], America meridional; coleção Mabille.— Draudt, 1922, in Seitz. Gross–Schmett. Erde 5, p. 869.— Shepard, 1931. Lep. Cat. 47, p. 78; syn.: var. obscurus  .

Telemiades diores var. obscurus Mabille & Boullet, 1912  . Ann. Sc. nat., Zool., Paris, (9)16: 117, 121; 1 male [holotype], French Guiana; collection Mus. Paris.— Draudt, 1922, in Seitz. Gross–Schmett. Erde 5, p. 869.

Echelatus punctatus Mabille & Boullet, 1917  . Bull. Soc. ent. France (1916), p. 324; 1 male, 1 female, French Guiana; MNHN (collection Boullet).— Shepard, 1934. Lep. Cat. 64, p. 179. syn. nov.

Eumesia potomani  [sic]; Holland, 1927. Ann. Carnegie Mus. 17: [p. 338], pl. 28, fig. 9 (female d).

Echelatus potomoni  ; Shepard, 1934. Lep. Cat. 64, p. 179.— Bell, 1946. Bol. Ent. venezol. 5: 110.

Telemiades epicalus epicalus  ; Evans, 1953. Cat. Amer. Hesp. 3, p. 28, pl. 27 (male gen.); syn.: crameri, phasias, arcturus, potomoni, diores  , obscurus.—Lamas, 1983. Rev. Soc. Mex. Lep. 8: 22.—Cock, 1982. Occ. Pap. Dept. Zool. UWI 5: 11.—Mielke, 1989. Revta bras. Ent. 33: 345, figs 1, 2 (female gen.), 19, 20 (female d, v); syn.: crameri, phasias, arcturus, potomoni, diores  , obscurus.—Lamas; Robbins & Harvey, 1991. Publ. Mus. Hist. Nat., Lima, 40: 17.—Cock, 1992. Living World 1991/1992: 49, pl. 3 (female d).—Lamas, 1994, in Foster et al. RAP Working Papers 6: 174.—Maes et al., 1999, in Maes. Cat. Ins. Art. Nicaragua 3, p. 1259; syn.: crameri, phasias, arcturus, potomoni, diores  , obscurus.

Telemiades crameri Evans, 1953  . Cat. Amer. Hesp. 3, p. 28; Suriname; nom. nud. (ICZN, Art. 11.6.—synonym of Telemiades epicalus  .)

(no genus) epicalus  ; Beattie, 1976. Rhop. Direct., p. 136.

(no genus) phasias  ; Beattie, 1976. Rhop. Direct., p. 231.

(no genus) arcturus  ; Beattie, 1976. Rhop. Direct., p. 82.

(no genus) potomoni  ; Beattie, 1976. Rhop. Direct., p. 238.

(no genus) diores  ; Beattie, 1976. Rhop. Direct., p. 128.

(no genus) obscurus; Beattie, 1976. Rhop. Direct., p. 216.

(no genus) punctatus  ; Beattie, 1976. Rhop. Direct., p. 242.

Telemiades epicaulis  [sic]; Raguso & Llorente, 1997, in González; Dirzo & Vogt (eds). Hist. Nat. Tuxtlas. Inst. Biol., UNAM, p. 290; Telemiades epicaulis megallus  .

Telemiades avitus  [misidentification]; Gernaat; Beckles & Andel, 2012. Butt. Suriname, p. 157, fig. (d), p. 594; holotype (?).

Type material. Telemiades epicalus Hübner, [1819]  was described as a new name for Papilio avitus Cramer, 1781  [recte Stoll] based on an unspecified number of specimens from Suriname. Two males syntypes corresponding to T. epicalus  ( Papilio avitus Cramer  ) were found at the NBC and one of these specimens has the following labels: / Calkoen/ Museum Leiden/ Telemiades avitus Cr.  /. In order to stabilize the identity of this species, this male specimen is hereby designated lectotype of Telemiades epicalus Hübner, [1819]  and the following labels will be attached: / Lectotypus / Lectotypus Telemiades epicalus Hübner, [1819] Siewert, Mielke & Casagrande  det. 2019/. The other male specimen is hereby designated paralectotype of Telemiades epicalus Hübner, [1819]  and the following labels will be attached:/ Paralectotypus / Paralectotypus Telemiades epicalus Hübner, [1819] Siewert, Mielke & Casagrande  det. 2019/. These labels will be sent to the curator for the collection.

Eudamus phasias Hewitson, 1867  was described based on an unspecified number of specimens from “Amazon”. One male syntype was found at NHMUK with the same characteristics published in the original description, and illustrated on Butterflies of America ( Warren et al. 2018) with the following labels: / Type [verso from the same label:] phasias Hew.  / Type H T [verso from the same label:] H 310/ Amazon. Hewitson Coll. 79–69 1 Eudamus phasias  . Hew/ Amaz/ [label with genitalia attached] 55/ BMNH(E) 1236063/. In order to stabilize the identity of this species, this male specimen is hereby designated lectotype of Eudamus phasias Hewitson, 1867  and the following labels will be attached: / Lectotypus / Lectotypus Eudamus phasias Hewitson, 1867 Siewert, Mielke & Casagrande  det. 2019/. These labels will be sent to the curator for the collection.

Telemiades arcturus Herrich–Schäffer, 1869  was proposed for the same illustrated species by Stoll (1781: figura 354E) and that were described as T. epicalus Hübner, [1819]  . The same male specimen designated as lectotype of Telemiades epicalus Hübner, [1819]  deposited at the NBC is hereby designated lectotype of Telemiades arcturus Herrich–Schäffer, 1869  and the following labels will be attached: / Lectotypus / Lectotypus Telemiades arcturus Herrich–Schäffer, 1869 Siewert, Mielke & Casagrande  det. 2019/. These labels will be sent to the curator for the collection.

Eumesia potomoni Ehrmann, 1907  was described based on a female [holo]type from Suapure, Venezuela. The female holotype is deposited at the CMNH with the following labels: / Type/ Ann. Carn. Mus. Bol. 1927. Pl. XX- VIII, fig. 9. ♀ / E. potomoni Ehr.  ♀. Type E.A.K. collection/ Ehrman Coll. Carn. Mus. Acc. 7815./ GEN. PREP., MIELKE 1987/.

Telemiades diores Mabille & Boullet, 1912  was described based on a male specimen [holotype] from “América Meridional”. The male holotype is deposited at the NHMUK with the following labels: / Type/ Chiriq./ T. diores Mab e Boull  / Ex Oberthür Coll. Brit. Mus. 1927–3./ [label with genitalia attached]/ BMNH(E) 1236497/.

Telemiades diores var. obscurus Mabille & Boullet, 1912  was described based on a male specimen [holotype] from French Guiana. The male holotype is deposited at the MNHN and illustrated on Butterflies of America ( Warren et al. 2018) with the following labels: / TYPE/ Coll. BOULLET Nouveau Chautier Guyane Française XI 1908 E. Le Moult MUSEUM PARIS/ T. diores v. obscurus Mab. & Boull  / Telemiades diores var. obscurus Mab. Boull. Ann. Sci. Nat., Zool., 1912  , (9)16, p. 117/ GEN. PREP. MIELKE 1996/.

Echelatus punctatus Mabille & Boullet, 1917  was described based on one male and one female from French Guiana. However, the syntypes found at the MNHN were examined by Olaf H. H. Mielke, who atested that these specimens are both females. One female syntype is illustrated on Butterflies of America ( Warren et al. 2018) as synonym of Telemiades nicomedes  with the following labels: / TYPE/ Coll. BOULLET Nouveau Chantier MUSEUM PARIS Guyane Française IV 1909 E. Le Moult/ E. punctatus Mab. & Boull  / Echelatus punctatus Mab.  –Boullet Bull. Soc. Ent. Fr., (1916) 1917: 324/ GEN. PREP. MIELKE 1996/. In order to stabilize the identity of this species, this female specimen is hereby designated lectotype of Echelatus punctatus Mabille & Boullet, 1917  and the following labels will be attached: / Lectotypus / Lectotypus Echelatus punctatus Mabille & Boullet, 1917 Siewert, Mielke & Casagrande  det. 2019/. The other female specimen is hereby designated paralectotype of Echelatus  punc- tatus Mabille & Boullet, 1917 and the following labels will be attached: / Paralectotypus / Paralectotypus Echelatus punctatus Mabille & Boullet, 1917 Siewert, Mielke & Casagrande  det. 2019/. These labels will be sent to the curator for the collection.

Diagnosis. FW length: males 19–22 mm (n=30) and females 20–24 mm (n=10). Telemiades epicalus  is distinguished from other species of the “ epicalus  group” by the following characters: distal margin of tegumen with two pair os symmetrical lateral apophysis; aedeagus smooth; ground color of females brown with purple reflections.

Variation. The ground color and the development of wing spots varies in its color intensity.

Natural history. Several males were collected using the Ahrenholz technique ( Lamas et al. 1993) at National Park of Serra do Divisor, Mâncio Lima, Acre, Brazil.

Distribution. Telemiades epicalus  occurs in forested areas of South America, with records in Trinidad ( Trinidad and Tobago), Venezuela, Bolivia, Peru, Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, and in the Brazilian states of Amazonas, Acre, Pará, Rondônia, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Pernambuco, Bahia, and Espírito Santo.

Taxonomic discussion. Hübner ([1819]) described Telemiades  and designated Papilio avitus Stoll, 1781  as the type species of the genus. He also considered the female specimen illustrated by Stoll (1781: figure 354E) as a distinct species from Papilio avitus  and described it as Telemiades epicalus  . The species erroneously interpreted as the female of P. avitus  was described from an unknown number of specimens from Suriname, which were part of the van der Meulen collection. When France was occupied during the war (1793–1813), many biological collections were either auctioned or simply disappeared and, with them, many types described by Cramer and Stoll were lost. At that time, Joan Calkoen was able to gather a significant number of specimens from other collections, making it possible to recover many types from Cramer and Stoll. After his death, the collection was incorporated into the NBC, along with a catalog written by Calkoen himself ( Jong 2005). After examination of the material of the NBC collection, two specimens that correspond to the type series of T. epicalus  were located, making the designation of a lectotype possible.

Five names proposed later, Eudamus phasias Hewitson, 1867  , Telemiades arcturus Herrich–Schäffer, 1869  , Eumesia potomoni Ehrmann, 1907  Telemiades diores Mabille & Boullet, 1912  and Telemiades diores var. obscurus Mabille & Boullet, 1912  , have been considered synonyms of T. epicalus  since Evans (1953), except for T. arcturus  , which was synonymized by Plötz (1882). Steinhauser (1989) pointed out that E. phasias  could be a distinct species from T. epicalus  and suggested that the genitalia of the holotype of E. phasias  should be examined with the purpose of confirming its taxonomic position. The examination of the holotype of E. phasias  deposited in the NHMUK confirmed the synonymy with T. epicalus  .

Echelatus punctatus Mabille & Boullet, 1917  , syn. nov. was treated as a synonym of Telemiades nicomedes (Möschler, 1879)  by Evans (1953) and has remained in this status until the present study. Olaf H. H. Mielke, after analysis of the type material at the MNHN collection found that E. punctatus  is synonymous with T. epicalus  .

Subsequently, T. epicalus  was transferred to the genera Hesperia Fabricius, 1793  ( Latreille [1824]), Goniloba Westwood, [1852] ( Westwood 1852)  and Eudamus Swainson, 1831  (C. Felder & R. Felder 1862). Kirby (1871) transferred it back to Telemiades  and later to Eudamus ( Kirby 1879)  . Plötz (1882) returned the species to Telemiades  .

Examined material. No data: 3 males and 1 female, BMNH(E) 1236063, NHMUK 010242140, NHMUK 010242151*, NHMUK 010242138 (NHMUK).

PERU: Amazonas— Rodríguez de Mendoza, 1800 m, 30–VIII–2003, 1 male, OM 63.717 ( DZUP–OM). Chanchamayo— no specific locality, 600–2200 m, 1 male, NHMUK 010242134View Materials ( NHMUK). Cuzco— Vale Cosñipata, Quebrada Quitacalzón, 1100 m, 23–X–2010, 1 male, M. Duarte leg. ( MHNL); 1100 m, 2–XI–2016, 2 males, Mielke leg., OM 81.957, OM 81.988 ( DZUP–OM); 27–X–2018, 2 males, Mielke leg., OM 87.927, OM 87.973 ( DZUP– OM). Huánunco— Tingo Maria, 670 m, 2–IX–1970, 1 male, Büche leg., OM 35.447 * ( DZUP–OM); XI–1986, 1 male, M. Büche leg., OM 47.495 ( DZUP–OM); 5–I–1988, 1 male, M. Büche leg., OM 58.418 ( DZUP–OM); 10– VIII–1991, 1 male, Büche leg., OM  35.000 ( DZUP–OM); X–1996, 2 males, Büche leg., OM 45.823 ( DZUP–OM). Júnin— Satipo Valley, 600 m, VII–VIII–1987, 1 male, Tello leg., OM 18.715, OM 18.716 ( DZUP–OM). Loreto— Iquitos, 1 female, DZ 25.864 ( DZUP); 1895, 1 male, Michael leg. ( ZMHU); Palo Seco, Rio Itaya , VIII–2016, 2 males and 1 female, J.J. Ramírez leg., OM 80.946, OM 81.140, OM 81.235 ( DZUP–OM); Reserva Nacional Allpahuayo Mishana, 170 m, 12–II–2002, 1 male, L. Campos leg. ( MHNL); 8–III–2002, 1 male, J. J. Ramírez leg. ( MHNL). Madre de Díos— Alto Río Madre de Díos, Albergue Amazonia, 12º 5’ 25’’ S, 71º 23’ W, 500 m, 16–V–2012, 1 male, G. Lamas leg. ( MHNL)GoogleMaps  ; 17–V–2012, 1 male, G. Lamas leg. ( MHNL); Parque Nacional del Manu, Pakitza, 11° 55’ 48’’ S, 71° 15’ 18’’ W, 340 m, 5–X–1991, 1 male, Mielke leg., DZ 25.857 ( DZUP); 20–X–1991, 1 male, Mielke leg., DZ 9.670* ( DZUP); 400 m, 21–IX–1989, 1 male, R. Robbins leg. ( MHNL); Reserva Tambopata, Boca do Rio La Torre , 300 m, 23–X–1982, 1 male, G. Lamas leg. ( MHNL); 20–X–1983, 1 male, G. Lamas leg. ( MHNL); 21–X–1983, 1 male, G. Lamas leg. ( MHNL); 30–X–1983, 1 male, G. Lamas leg. ( MHNL); 19–X–1985, 1 male, G. Lamas leg. ( MHNL); Research Center, 300 m, 26–IX–2003, 1 male, C. Peña leg. ( MHNL); Shintuya, 3.6 Km NE, Albergue PantiacollaGoogleMaps  , 12°39’21’’S, 71°13’53’’W, 400 m, 26–29–X–2016, 2 males, Mielke leg., OM 81.676, OM 81.887 ( DZUP–OM); 4–8–XI–2017, 1 male, Mielke leg., OM 85.588 ( DZUP–OM); 30–X–2018, 1 male, Mielke leg., OM 87.836 ( DZUP–OM); 18–22–VI–2019, 2 males, Mielke leg., OM 88.768, OM 88.828 ( DZUP-OM). San Martín: no specific locality, V–1990, 1 male, OM 26.683 ( DZUP–OM); Juanjui, VIII–1925, 1 male, Klug leg., OM 45.360 ( DZUP–OM); Moyobamba, 1888, 1 female, M. de Mathan leg., NHMUK 010242135View Materials ( NHMUK)GoogleMaps  .

BOLÍVIA: no specific locality, 1 male, NHMUK 010242136View Materials ( NHMUK)  . La Paz— Mapiri, 1 male, 12.409 ( DZUP); Rio Zongo, P. Zongo to R. Snapi, 1100 m, III–1 v, 1 male, Garlepp leg., NHMUK 010242137View Materials ( NHMUK); 1895–6, 1200 m, 1 male, Garlepp leg. ( ZMHU); Zongo, 1 male, ex–coll. Staudinger ( ZSM); 1 male, Garlepp leg. ( ZMHU); Yungas, 1000 m, 1 male, H. Rolle leg., NHMUK 010242139View Materials ( NHMUK)  .

VENEZUELA: Carabobo— Puerto Cabello , 1 male, Hahnel leg. ( ZMHU); 1 female, Hahnel leg., ex–coll. Staudinger ( ZMHU)  .

GUYANA: Upper Takutu–Upper Esequibo— Annai, Quonga, 1 female, H. Whitely leg., NHMUK 010242124View Materials ( NHMUK)  .

SURINAME: no specific locality, 1 male, 12.410 ( DZUP)  . Para— Onoribo— III–1893, 1 male, C. W. Ellacombe leg., NHMUK 010242125View Materials ( NHMUK)  .

FRENCH GUIANA: no specific locality, 2 males and 2 females, C. Bar leg., NHMUK 010242126View Materials, NHMUK 010242128View Materials, NHMUK 010242127View Materials, NHMUK 010242133View Materials ( NHMUK); Caiena, 3 females, C. Bar leg., NHMUK 010242129View Materials, NHMUK 010242131View Materials, NHMUK 010242132View Materials ( NHMUK); Kourou, Montagne Des Péres , 16–VIII– 2010, 1 female, DZ 25.952* ( DZUP); La Carapa—Champ Vigile, 2–III–2006, 1 male, S.E. A.G. leg., OM 73.380 * ( DZUP–OM); Règina, Reserva Nouragues  , 4º 08’ N, 52º 41’ W, 6–12–VIII–2010, 1 male, S.E. A.G. leg., DZ 25.954 ( DZUP); Roura, Roura Route de Kaw, Km 6, 14–I–2010, 1 female, DZ 25.953 ( DZUP)GoogleMaps  .

TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO: Trinidad, 1 male, Dr. F.W. Jackson leg., NHMUK 010242123View Materials ( NHMUK)  .

BRAZIL: Amazonas— no specific locality, 1 male ( ZSM)  ; Boa Vista do Ramos, Massauari, 1 female, ex–coll. Staudinger ( ZMHU)  ; Maués , Rio Preto , 15–30–XI–2007, 1 male, OM 69.467 ( DZUP–OM)  ; São Paulo de Olivença, 1 male, NHMUK 010242143View Materials ( NHMUK). Acre— Bujari, 50 Km NO, 200 m, 18–20–IX–2003, 2 males, O.–C. Mielke & Casagrande leg., DZ 25.856, DZ 25.858* ( DZUP)  ; 10–12–IX–2004, 1 male, Mielke & Casagrande leg., DZ 25.854 ( DZUP)  ; Mâncio Lima— Parque Nacional da Serra do Divisor (7º 26’ 52’’ S, 73º 39’ 55’ ‘W), 20–27–VI–2013, 2 males, Mielke, Casagrande, Carneiro, Dias & Dolibaina leg., DZ 34.244, DZ 34.284* ( DZUP)  ; 23–30–VIII–2014, 3 males, Mielke, Casagrande, Carneiro, Dias, Dolibaina, Siewert & Salik leg., DZ 31.155, DZ 31.165, DZ 34.254 ( DZUP)  ; Senador Guiomard— Reserva Catuaba, 200 m, 2–5–IX–2004, 4 males, Mielke & Casagrande leg., DZ 25.850, DZ 25.851, DZ 25.852, DZ 25.853 ( DZUP)  ; 17–19–VII–2004, 1 male, O.–C. Mielke leg., OM 65.167 ( DZUP–OM)  ; 6–7–X–2006, 1 male, Mielke & Casagrande leg., DZ 34.294 ( DZUP)  ; 23–27–VII– 2008, 2 males, Mielke & Casagrande leg., DZ 34.264, DZ 34.274 ( DZUP)  ; 27–VIII–5–IX–2011, 3 males, Dolibaina & Moura leg., DZ 36.124, DZ 36.125, DZ 36.126 ( DZUP)  ; Vila Taumaturgo— Foz do Rio Tejo , 29–VIII–1997, 1 male, Brown & Freitas leg., OM 46.643 ( DZUP–OM). Pará— no specific locality, 1 male, NHMUK 010242141View Materials ( NHMUK)  ; 1 male e 1 female, A.M. Moss leg., NHMUK 010242146View Materials, NHMUK 010242142View Materials ( NHMUK)  ; 1 male, M. de Mathan leg., NHMUK 010242144View Materials ( NHMUK)  ; 1 male, H. W. Bates leg., NHMUK 010242145View Materials ( NHMUK)  ; Benevides, 18–19–IV–1993, 3 males, Mielke leg., OM 34.308, OM 34.464, OM 34.476 ( DZUP–OM)  ; 23–24– XI–2004, 1 male, Mielke & Casagrande leg., DZ 25.849 ( DZUP)  ; Itaituba, 1893, 1 male, Michael leg. ( ZMHU)  ; Santarém, 1 male, NHMUK 010242130View Materials ( NHMUK)  ; Santo Antônio do Tauá , Reserva Sonho Azul, 29–XI–2004, 1 male, Mielke, Casagrande & Jauffret leg., DZ 25.855 ( DZUP)  ; 31–XII–2004, 1 male, P. Jauffret leg., DZ 25.862 ( DZUP)  ; 31–I–2005, 1 male, P. Jauffret leg., DZ 17.201 ( DZUP)  ; 17–II–2005, 1 female, P. Jauffret leg., DZ 25.860* ( DZUP)  ; 28–XI–2005, 1 female, P. Jauffret leg., DZ 25.859 ( DZUP)  ; 5–II–2006, 1 female, P. Jauffret leg., DZ 25.863 ( DZUP)  ; 26–XII–2006, 1 male, P. Jauffret leg., DZ 25.861 ( DZUP). Rondônia— Candeias do Jamari , Banho do Rio Preto , Fazenda Urupá, 23–25–VII–1991, 1 male e 1 female, C. Mielke & Miers leg., OM 27.077, OM 27.083 ( DZUP–OM)  ; 8–10–VII–1996, 1 male, O.–C. Mielke & Miers leg., OM 42.576 ( DZUP–OM)  ; Cacaulândia, Fazenda Rancho Grande, 21–XI–1991, 1 male, Mielke leg., OM 27.720 ( DZUP–OM). Mato Grosso— Bras- norte, Fazenda Paraná, 400 m, 5–20–VII–1990, 1 female, C. Mielke & Miers leg., OM 26.384 * ( DZUP–OM). Pernambuco— no specific locality, 1 male, A. M. Moss leg., NHMUK 010242147View Materials ( NHMUK)  ; Santa Cruz da Baixa Verde , Serra de Bernarda , I–1895, 1 female, L. Gounelle leg., NHMUK 010242148View Materials ( NHMUK). Bahia— no specific locality, 1 male, NHMUK 010242149View Materials ( NHMUK). Espírito Santo— no specific locality, 1 male, ex–coll. Fruhstorfer, ( ZSM). Mato Grosso do Sul— Nioaque, V–1905, NHMUK 010242150View Materials ( NHMUK) 

.

NHMUK

Natural History Museum, London

CMNH

The Cleveland Museum of Natural History

MNHN

Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle

MHNL

Musee Guimet d'Histoire Naturelle de Lyon

OM

Otago Museum

DZUP

Universidade Federal do Parana, Colecao de Entomologia Pe. Jesus Santiago Moure

ZMHU

Zoologisches Museum der Humboldt Universitaet

ZSM

Bavarian State Collection of Zoology

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Lepidoptera

Family

Hesperiidae

Genus

Telemiades

Loc

Telemiades epicalus Hübner, [1819]

Siewert, Ricardo Russo, Mielke, Olaf Hermann Hendrik & Casagrande, Mirna Martins 2020
2020
Loc

crameri

Evans 1953
1953
Loc

crameri

Evans 1953
1953
Loc

crameri

Evans 1953
1953
Loc

crameri, phasias, arcturus, potomoni, diores

Evans 1953
1953
Loc

crameri, phasias, arcturus, potomoni, diores

Evans 1953
1953
Loc

crameri, phasias, arcturus, potomoni, diores

Evans 1953
1953
Loc

Telemiades crameri

Evans 1953
1953
Loc

Echelatus punctatus

Mabille & Boullet 1917
1917
Loc

diores

Mabille & Boullet 1912
1912
Loc

diores

Mabille & Boullet 1912
1912
Loc

diores

Mabille & Boullet 1912
1912
Loc

diores, var. obscurus, potomani, crameri, epicaulis

Mabille & Boullet 1912
1912
Loc

Telemiades diores

Mabille & Boullet 1912
1912
Loc

var. obscurus

Mabille & Boullet 1912
1912
Loc

Telemiades diores var. obscurus

Mabille & Boullet 1912
1912
Loc

potomoni

Ehrmann 1907
1907
Loc

potomoni

Ehrmann 1907
1907
Loc

potomoni

Ehrmann 1907
1907
Loc

arcturus

Herrich-Schaffer 1869
1869
Loc

arcturus, megallus, epicatus

Herrich-Schaffer 1869
1869
Loc

arcturus

Herrich-Schaffer 1869
1869
Loc

arcturus

Herrich-Schaffer 1869
1869
Loc

arcturus

Herrich-Schaffer 1869
1869
Loc

arcturus, phassias, potomoni, epicatus, diores, var. obscurus, potomani, crameri, epicaulis

Herrich-Schaffer 1869
1869
Loc

Telemiades arcturus Herrich–Schäffer, 1869

Herrich-Schaffer 1869
1869
Loc

arcturus

Herrich-Schaffer 1869
1869
Loc

phasias

Hewitson 1867
1867
Loc

phasias

Hewitson 1867
1867
Loc

phasias

Hewitson 1867
1867
Loc

phasias, arcturus, phassias, potomoni, epicatus

Hewitson 1867
1867
Loc

phasias

Hewitson 1867
1867
Loc

Eudamus phasias

Hewitson 1867
1867
Loc

Telemiades epicalus Hübner, [1819]

Hubner 1819
1819
Loc

Telemiades epicalus

Hubner 1819
1819
Loc

epicalus

Hubner 1819
1819