Schildia Aldrich, 1923: 4,

Dikow, Torsten & Bayless, Keith M., 2009, Taxonomic revision of the genus Schildia Aldrich, 1923 (Diptera: Asilidae: Leptogastrinae) with the description of new extant and extinct species, Insect Systematics & Evolution 40, pp. 253-289: 258-261

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Schildia Aldrich, 1923: 4


Schildia Aldrich, 1923: 4 

Type species Schildia microthorax Aldrich, 1923  by original designation.

Shannomyioleptus  ( Carrera, 1944: 86). Type species Shannomyioleptus fragilis Carrera, 1944  by original designation.

Schildia  ( Carrera 1944: 86; Carrera 1950: 108; Hull 1962: 313; Martin 1965: 110; Martin 1968b: 5; Martin 1975: 189; Artigas & Papavero 1988: 98, 102; Nagatomi et al. 2002: 38; Fisher in press).

Schildia  subgenus Shannomyioleptus ( Hull, 1962: 314)  .

Diagnosis. Schildia  is distinguished from other Leptogastrinae  genera by the long, regularly spaced trichoid spicules on dorsal and ventral sides of at least veins R and M ( Fig. 2View Figs 2–4), the asymmetrical tarsal claws wherein the median claw is shorter than the lateral claw ( Fig. 8View Figs 5–8), stipites with two long setae posteriorly, long posteriorly oriented presutural, and sometimes postsutural, dorsocentral setae on the scutum, the medially fused male epandrium (in most species) ( Fig. 32View Figs 25–36), the absence of a surstylus on the male epandrium ( Fig. 13View Figs 13–24, but see below), and the very elongate, slender abdomen and gracile appearance ( Figs 9, 12View Figs 9–12).

Remarks. The genus was named in honor of Pablo Schild, who collected the type specimens of the genus in Costa Rica, and is here treated feminine in gender.

Redescription. Head: Brown or black; face silver or grey pruinose, sometimes apruinose in dorsal half; face either narrower or wider than adjacent ommatidium ( Fig. 5View Figs 5–8); mystax always light colored from light yellow to light brown, either 2 or 4 setae, if 4 setae median pair shorter than outer; facial swelling indistinct, not discernible in lateral view; vertex either narrower or wider than face at clypeal–facial margin ( Fig. 6View Figs 5–8), silver or grey pruinose; occipital triangle apruinose, distance between triangle and median eye margin either less or more than adjacent ommatidium ( Fig. 6View Figs 5–8); occiput generally pruinose, sometimes ventral half apruinose; postocular setae always present, often very long and oriented anteriorly; proboscis brown; stipites with 2 long setae posteriorly; Antennae: scape and pedicel generally light yellow, with setae dorsally and ventrally; postpedicel broadest medio-distally, dorsal margin straight and ventral margin concave ( Fig. 5View Figs 5–8), light yellow to brown, silver pruinose, between 1.5–2.0 times as long as combined length of scape and pedicel; stylus brown, 1/6 of postpedicel to as long as postpedicel, composed of either 1 or 2 elements, inserted on dorso-distal margin ( Fig. 5View Figs 5–8).

Thorax: Predominantly brown, generally silver or brown pruinose, apruinose areas sometimes present; mesothorax antero-medially somewhat cone-like and projecting anteriorly over median postpronotal lobes ( Fig. 12View Figs 9–12); prosternum separated from proepisternum; antepronotum, postpronotum and median postpronotal lobes either apruinose or silver pruinose; lateral postpronotal lobes always apruinose, generally lighter colored than scutum ( Fig. 12View Figs 9–12); scutum brown or yellow, predominantly apruinose, only lateral and posterior margins pruinose to varying extent ( Fig. 12View Figs 9–12); presutural dc setae: between 2–5 posteriorly oriented pairs of varying length, postsutural dc setae: generally only short anteriorly oriented setae, sometimes long posteriorly oriented setae, sometimes setae absent, 2–6 acr setae anteriorly, 1 npl and 1 spa seta, pal seta absent; pleurae yellow or brown, generally pruinose, sometimes with apruinose areas on anepisternum, katepisternum, or meron+metanepisternum, few yellow anepisternal setae on anterior and dorsal margins; scutellum usually brown, silver pruinose, apical scutellar setae generally very short, sometimes longer; postmetacoxal bridge present, visible suture medially; Legs: light yellow to light brown ( Fig. 12View Figs 9–12); coxae either light yellow or brown, pruinose; trochanter light yellow with ventral sides sometimes brown; pro and mes femora light yellow with either 1 or 2 transverse brown bands, met femur light yellow proximally, light brown to brown in remaining part, clubbed in distal 2/5 to 1/2, club always brown with yellow transverse band at proximal margin of club ( Figs 9–12View Figs 9–12), scattered brown macrosetae on pro and mes femora, met femur with distinct rows of brown macrosetae; pro and mes tibiae light yellow with either 1 or 2 light brown transverse bands, met tibia brown with or without median yellow transverse band of different width, from 1–3 times as wide as width of tibia, all tibiae with yellow to light brown erect macrosetae in rows, pro and mes tibiae with 2–3 long apical macrosetae, met tibia with 1–5 median and 1–2 apical macrosetae; tarsus light yellow to light brown, proximal tarsomere always longer than 2 following tarsomeres combined ( Fig. 7View Figs 5–8), short and long macrosetae on all tarsomeres; pro and mes empodia generally minute sometimes 1/3 as long as median claw, met empodium from minute to more than half as long as median claw; median claw always shorter than lateral claw, 1/2–3/4 of lateral claw ( Fig. 7, 8View Figs 5–8); Wings ( Figs 11View Figs 9–12, 35, 36View Figs 25–36): length = 3.4–5.2 mm, sometimes 5.3–7.8 mm; hyaline, generally few microtrichia scattered on wing, sometimes microtrichia densely arranged throughout, at least R and M veins with conspicuous, regularly spaced, and curved trichoid spicules that can be very short to long ( Fig. 2View Figs 2–4), predominantly symmetrical dorsally and ventrally but sometimes asymmetrical, usually 12–26 on M1 between r-m and diversion of M1 and M2, two species 40–50; cell d generally small and terminating in M2 and M3 ( Figs 12View Figs 9–12, 36View Figs 25–36), sometimes large and terminating in M1 and M2, only M2, or M1, M2 and M3 ( Figs 11View Figs 9–12, 35View Figs 25–36), r-m generally situated proximal to separation of M3 and CuA1, sometimes distal to separation; R1 generally reaching C proximal to R5 and M1 joining C ( Fig. 35View Figs 25–36), sometimes distal to R5 and M1 joining C ( Fig. 36View Figs 25–36), R2+3 generally straight proximally and smoothly arching posteriad distally ( Fig. 36View Figs 25–36), sometimes sinuous and posteriormost point at mid-length ( Fig. 35View Figs 25–36); all marginal wing cells broadly open ( Figs 35, 36View Figs 25–36); pterostigma absent; alula absent; halter long, light yellow, knob dark brown.

Abdomen:Predominantly brown;T2 length = 1.0–4.0 mm, one species 4.9– 5.1 mm, T2 generally with yellow transverse band medially ( Fig. 12View Figs 9–12), sometimes yellow areas on anterior or posterior margins of T3–6, T2–3 with short, erect, evenly spaced macrosetae, remaining T with irregularly spaced and longer macrosetae; T7–8 generally with lateral sensory areas of unknown function that are best seen after maceration ( Fig. 34View Figs 25–36), absent in 2 species; Male terminalia: epandrium usually a single sclerite, fused medially ( Figs 17, 20, 23View Figs 13–24, 29, 32View Figs 25–36), sometimes separated medially and joining proximally ( Figs 14View Figs 13–24, 26View Figs 25–36), always with finger-like distal projection of varying length and shape, surstyli absent ( Fig. 13View Figs 13–24) (in S. fragilis  an indentation at the base of the finger-like distal projection of the epandrium might suggest that this projection is the surstylus which is secondarily fused to the epandrium); hypandrium and gonocoxites always fused, but sometimes with visible sutures ( Fig. 16View Figs 13–24), or forming a gonocoxite-hypandrial complex ( Figs 13, 22View Figs 13–24, 25, 28, 31View Figs 25–36); lateral processes of gonostyli present ( Figs 13, 16, 19, 22View Figs 13–24, 25, 28, 31View Figs 25–36); gonostyli situated apically on gonocoxite or gonocoxite-hypandrial complex; Aedeagus: sometimes long and protruding from hypopygium ( Figs 13View Figs 13–24, 25, 28View Figs 25–36), sometimes short ( Figs 16, 19, 22View Figs 13–24, 31View Figs 25–36); Female Genitalia:ovipositor unspecialized, composed of segments 8 and following; S8 invaginated medio-distally; furca triangular, with two sclerotized processes laterally; bursa copulatrix short, tube-shaped, widest medially; 3 spermathecae of same size generally occupying only segment 8, in one species reaching into segment 7, individual spermathecal ducts generally long, coiled, in one species more or less straight; spermathecal reservoirs generally as wide as individual spermathecal ducts, unsclerotized, in one species clearly sclerotized and wider than ducts.

Distribution. Species of Schildia  are known from the Afrotropical, Neotropical, and Oriental regions. The center of diversity is found in the Neotropical region with seven species ( Fig. 1View Fig): from Guatemala in the north to south-eastern Brazil in the south; Jamaica is the only Caribbean island that is currently inhabited whereas one extinct species is preserved in Dominican amber and occurred on Hispaniola during the Tertiary: Miocene ( Figs 1View Fig, 37). Within the Afrotropical region Schildia  is only known from a single species found on Madagascar ( Fig. 1View Fig) and has not been recorded on mainland Africa although the Leptogastrinae  fauna has been extensively studied by the senior author (unpublished data). Within the Oriental region a single species is recorded from the Malaysian peninsula ( Fig. 1View Fig).












Schildia Aldrich, 1923: 4

Dikow, Torsten & Bayless, Keith M. 2009


Hull 1962: 314


Carrera 1944: 86


Nagatomi 2002: 38
Artigas & Papavero 1988: 98
Martin 1975: 189
Martin 1968: 5
Martin 1965: 110
Hull 1962: 313
Carrera 1950: 108
Carrera 1944: 86


Aldrich 1923: 4