Syneches walkeri Smith

Soares, Matheus M. M., Freitas-Silva, Rafael A. P. & Ale-Rocha, Rosaly, 2021, Review of Brazilian species of Syneches Walker (Diptera, Hybotidae, Hybotinae), with description of ten new species, Zootaxa 5049 (1), pp. 1-84: 75

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Syneches walkeri Smith


Syneches walkeri Smith  

( Figs 48A–H View FIGURE 48 , 56 View FIGURE 56 )

Syneches walkeri Smith, 1962: 214   ; Smith, 1967: 11 (cat.); Yang et al., 2007: 315 (cat.); Menezes & Ale-Rocha, 2016: 433–435 View Cited Treatment , figs 92–98, 115, 123 (rev., distr.). Type locality: Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Diagnosis. Large size, with strong aspect (6.0 mm) ( Figs 48A, B View FIGURE 48 ). Antenna brown, but postpedicel varying from yellow to dark brown ( Figs 48C–E View FIGURE 48 ). Prosternum fused to proepisternum. Scutum dc stripe with pruinescence gray to pale golden ( Fig. 48A View FIGURE 48 ). Hind femur strongly swollen, brown to dark brown, with a yellow to dark yellow preapical ring, 1AV row of spiniform bristles inserted on short tubercles ( Figs 48F, G View FIGURE 48 ). Wing sub-hyaline, pale brown; pterostigma brown quadrangular, posterior to apex of R 1, two infuscations (one at apex of Rs, other at apex of R 2+3); second section of M 1 longer than crossvein r-m ( Fig. 48H View FIGURE 48 ).

Type material examined. HOLOTYPE ♂ ( MZUSP) labelled: “[ BRAZIL], KM 47 EST[RADA] RIO [de JANEIRO]–S [SÃO] PAULO, 4.xi.1946, J. MIRANDA L.” “ Holotype Syneches walkeri   , det. 1961 sp. n. K.G. V. Smith” “HOLÓTIPO” [red label]   . Holotype condition: right hind leg lost, terminalia dissected.

Additional material examined. BRAZIL. Amazonas: Manaus , ZF-2, 7–8.i.1997, Torre 45m, Luz mista, mercúrio, R.L. Ferreira (1 ♀, INPA)   ; idem, Reserva Ducke , x.2001, J. Vidal, Arm. Malaise (1 ♂, INPA)   . Amapá: Rio Amapari , J. Lane col,, J. Lane col., comparado com o tipo, Det. Ale-Rocha (1 ♂, INPA)   . Maranhão: (sic. C. N. Maranhão), REBIO-Res. Biol. Gurupi, 03°14′05″S 46°41′83″W, Arm. Luminosa , 01–06.iii.2011, F. Limeirade-Oliveira, M.M. Abreu & J.A. Silva, cols. (1 ♂, CZMA)   .

Distribution. Brazil (Amapá, Amazonas, Maranhão *, Pará, Rio de Janeiro, Rondônia) ( Fig. 56 View FIGURE 56 ); Suriname. Syneches walkeri   is known to occur in the Amazon and Atlantic Forest biomes.

Remarks. Syneches walkeri   is similar to S. catarinae   and S. curvipes   , as mentioned elsewhere (see also “Remarks” under S. catarinae   ). Syneches walkeri   displays remarkable morphological variation, with some specimens predominantly yellow, while others are predominantly dark brown to black. However, the pattern of the wing and the morphology of the male terminalia is similar in all specimens. One studied specimen was collected with a light trap set on the top of a tower (45 m high), located in a primary forest in northern Manaus, indicating that the species may also inhabit the canopy of the forest.


Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de Sao Paulo


Royal British Columbia Museum - Herbarium


Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia














Syneches walkeri Smith

Soares, Matheus M. M., Freitas-Silva, Rafael A. P. & Ale-Rocha, Rosaly 2021

Syneches walkeri

Menezes, I. S. & Ale-Rocha, R. 2016: 433
Yang, D. & Yao, G. & Zhang, K. & Zhang, J. 2007: 315
Smith, K. G. V. 1967: 11
Smith, K. G. V. 1962: 214