Syneches sinclairi, Soares & Freitas-Silva & Ale-Rocha, 2021

Soares, Matheus M. M., Freitas-Silva, Rafael A. P. & Ale-Rocha, Rosaly, 2021, Review of Brazilian species of Syneches Walker (Diptera, Hybotidae, Hybotinae), with description of ten new species, Zootaxa 5049 (1), pp. 1-84: 60-63

publication ID

publication LSID


persistent identifier

taxon LSID

treatment provided by


scientific name

Syneches sinclairi

sp. nov.

Syneches sinclairi   sp. nov.

( Figs 39A–F View FIGURE 39 , 40A–E View FIGURE 40 , 50 View FIGURE 50 )

Diagnosis. Medium size (4.3 mm) ( Fig. 39A View FIGURE 39 ). Antenna yellow, antennal stylus bare ( Fig. 39C View FIGURE 39 ). Ocellar bristles in two pairs subequally long. Scutum rounded, orange yellow, narrower than mesopleuron in lateral view, covered with gray pruinescence ( Fig. 39B View FIGURE 39 ). Pleura yellow, except posterior half of anepisternum and central portion of katepisternum brown, forming a distinct vertical dark spot ( Fig. 39B View FIGURE 39 ). Legs yellow with a small dorsal brown spot on apex of all trochanters and apex of hind femur ( Figs 39A, D View FIGURE 39 ). Wing sub-hyaline, brown in males ( Fig. 39E View FIGURE 39 ) and hyaline in females ( Fig. 39F View FIGURE 39 ); pterostigma long, oval, dark brown, about 5 x longer than wide, extended from apex of R 1 to near apex of cell r 1 (males) or inconspicuous (females).

Description. Holotype male ( Fig. 39A View FIGURE 39 ). Body length: 4.3 mm. Wing length: 4.3 mm. Head ( Fig. 39C View FIGURE 39 ). Ocellar triangle protuberant, covered with gray pruinescence; 2 pairs of subequally long ocellar bristles. Face black covered with gray pruinescence. Antenna yellow; postpedicel short oval, about 1.4 x longer than wide, as long as preceding segments combined, covered with golden pruinescence, 1 long mediodorsal bristle about as long as postpedicel; antennal stylus yellow, except apical half brown, about 3 x longer than preceding segments combined, bare, thinner on apical 1/4. Proboscis, palpifer and palpus yellow; palpus short, about 1/3 length of proboscis, covered with golden pruinescence, with 2 bristles as long as palpus (1 medioventral, 1 apical). Postcranium with golden pruinescence. Thorax ( Fig. 39B View FIGURE 39 ). Proepisternum short; prosternum isolated, not fused to proepisternum. Pronotum orangish yellow, covered with golden pruinescence. Scutum rounded, narrower than mesopleuron in lateral view, orangish yellow, except posterior margin of pprn lb and pal cal pale yellow, scutum covered with gray pruinescence. Scutellum yellow, except anterior margin orangish yellow, covered with golden pruinescence. Pleura yellow, except posterior half of anepisternum and mid-part of katepisternum brown forming vertically-directed dark spot. Mediotergite concolorous with scutum. Chaetotaxy: acr 8-serial, dc uniserial, bristles short and sparse; prescutellar disc with 1 acr and 1 dc longer; 2 long npl, strong and close to each other; 2 pal cal bristles (anterior short and thin, posterior long and strong, about 3 x longer than anterior one); scutellum with 12 marginal bristles (1 parallel apical pair, 1 long and strong subapical pair, about 1.5 x longer than apicals, 4 lateral pairs, about as long as apicals). Legs ( Figs 39A, D View FIGURE 39 ). Fore femur slightly swollen on basal half; mid femur slender, hind femur slightly swollen. Legs yellow, trochanters and hind femur near apices brown. Chaetotaxy: fore tibia with 1D series of long sparse bristles; mid femur with 1AV and 1PV series of long bristles, shortening towards apex; mid tibia with 1AD long bristle on basal third, 1AV and 1PV long subapical bristle; hind femur with 1AV series of long, thin and sparse bristle, slightly longer than covering bristles, V bristles short and strong on apical half; hind tibia with 1PD series of longer bristles on apical third. Wing ( Fig. 39E View FIGURE 39 ). Sub-hyaline, brown; pterostigma oval, dark brown, about 5 x longer than wide, extended from apex of R 1, ending near apex of cell r 1; R 2+3 slightly angulated near apex; second section of M 1 as long as crossvein r-m; cell bm slightly longer than cells br and cua. Halter dark brown, except base of stem yellow. Abdomen ( Fig. 39A View FIGURE 39 ). About 2 x longer than thorax. Dark brown, except tergite 1 dark yellow on anterior half, brown on posterior half, covered with reddish brown pruinescence; bristles dark brown, except tergite 1 with bristles yellow, dorsal bristles shorter, laterodorsal bristles longest. Male terminalia (Paratype, type-locality, Figs 40A–C View FIGURE 40 ). Hypandrium with distal margin with three concavities, two deeper laterally, mid-width one shallower and circled with short tubercles with truncate apex, each bearing one long bristle, reaching 2/3 length of exposed part of phallus. Phallus long, with rounded apex, lateral flaps long and strong pointing to base of phallus, arising from apical half of phallus. Postgonites fused to hypandrium, long, wider near base and narrowing towards apex, as long as exposed part of phallus. Dorsal connection of epandrial lamellae narrow. Epandrial lamella wider on basal third on lateral view, apex rounded.

Female. Similar to male, except pleural stripe paler, wing hyaline, pterostigma inconspicuous, second section of M 1 longer than crossvein r-m. Female terminalia ( Figs 40D, E View FIGURE 40 ). Tergite 8 somewhat rectangular, about 2 x longer than wide; sternite 8 about 3 x longer than wide, narrower and membranous on anterior half of mid area, distal margin with long bristles; cercus longer than sternite 10.

Type material examined. HOLOTYPE ♂ ( INPA) labelled: BRASIL, AM [Amazonas], Ipixuna , Rio Liberdade, Estirão da Preta, 07°21′46.7″S - 71°52′07.1″W, 13.v.2011, 04:00–06:30 h, Arm. [Armadilha] luminosa baixa / J.A. Rafael, J.T. Câmara, R.F. Silva, A. Somavilla, C. Gonçalves, A. Agudelo, leg. GoogleMaps   / HOLOTYPE, Syneches sinclairi Soares, Freitas-Silva & Ale-Rocha.   Holotype condition: left postpedicel, left palpus, right mid tarsomeres 2–5 broken off, right wing damaged. PARATYPES. Same data as holotype, but Arm. luminosa, dossel (1 ♂, CNC) GoogleMaps   ; idem, 14.v.2011, 01:00–04:00 h (1 ♂, INPA; 1 ♂, 1 ♀, CNC; 2 ♂, MZUSP; 2 ♂, DZUP) GoogleMaps   ; idem, Arm. Luminosa baixa (1 ♀, MZUSP) GoogleMaps   ; idem, 04:00–06:30 h (1 ♀ INPA) GoogleMaps   idem, Rio Gregório, Com. Lago Grande , 07°10′11.7″S 70°49′10.3″W, 18–23.v.2011, varredura (1 ♂, INPA) GoogleMaps   ; idem, Arm. Malaise (1 ♀, INPA) GoogleMaps   ; idem, 23.v.2011, Arm. Luminosa dossel, 04:00–06:30 (1 ♂, 1 ♀, CAS) GoogleMaps   . Pará: Belo Monte, Rio Xingu , Rodovia Transamazônica , 03°05′52″S 51°41′31″W, 07.iv.2008, armadilha luz, J.A. Rafael & F.F. Xavier F. (1 ♂, INPA) GoogleMaps   . PERU. Loreto: Iquitos , iii–iv.1931, R.C. Shanonn (1 ♂, NMNH)   .

Distribution. Brazil (Amazonas and Pará) ( Fig. 50 View FIGURE 50 ); Peru. Syneches sinclairi   sp. nov. is known to occur only in the Amazon biome.

Variation. In some specimens the color of the antennae may vary from yellow to pale brown, while the scutellum may bear 4–5 pairs of lateral bristles.

Remarks. The new species may be distinguished from all the other Brazilian species due to the antennal stylus bare, ocellar triangle with 2 pairs of equally long ocellar bristles, scutum orangish yellow, narrower than mesopleuron in lateral view, pleura with vertical dark spot, besides the characters of the male terminalia. Most of studied specimens were collected with light traps, demonstrating that both sexes are attracted to light.

Etymology. The species is named after Dr. Bradley Sinclair, who has contributed substantially to the study of Empidoidea worldwide, and whose study of Syneches   helped establish the state-of-art comprehension on the genus.


Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia


Canadian National Collection of Insects, Arachnids, and Nematodes


Universidade Federal do Parana, Colecao de Entomologia Pe. Jesus Santiago Moure


Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de Sao Paulo


California Academy of Sciences


Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History