Syneches angulatus Menezes & Ale-Rocha

Soares, Matheus M. M., Freitas-Silva, Rafael A. P. & Ale-Rocha, Rosaly, 2021, Review of Brazilian species of Syneches Walker (Diptera, Hybotidae, Hybotinae), with description of ten new species, Zootaxa 5049 (1), pp. 1-84: 15

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Syneches angulatus Menezes & Ale-Rocha


Syneches angulatus Menezes & Ale-Rocha  

( Figs 6A–E View FIGURE 6 , 52 View FIGURE 52 )

Syneches angulatus Menezes & Ale-Rocha, 2016: 406–408   View Cited Treatment , figs 10–16, 104, 118. Type locality: Manaus , Amazonas, Brazil.

Diagnosis. Small size (2.2 mm). Antenna dark brown ( Fig. 6A View FIGURE 6 ). Scutum distinctly pyramidal-shaped, broader than mesopleuron in lateral view ( Figs 6A, B View FIGURE 6 ), covered with reddish brown pruinescence, paler on prescutellar disc. Wing hyaline; pterostigma divided into two small quadrangular spots, one posterior to apex of vein R 1, and one filling apex of cell r 1; R 2+3 strongly angulate apically; second section of M 1 about 1/4 length of crossvein r-m; cells bm and cua subequally long, both longer than cell br ( Fig. 6E View FIGURE 6 ).

Type material examined. HOLOTYPE ♂ ( INPA) labelled: “BRA [ BRAZIL], Amazonas , Manaus , Res [Reserva Florestal Adolpho ] Ducke , Igarapé Barro Branco, Armadilha Malaise 3” “ 11–22.iv.2004, Henriques, A. Leg ” “Holótipo, Syneches angulatus Menezes & Ale-Rocha   ” [red label]   . Holotype condition: good; not dissected.

Additional material examined. BRAZIL. Amazonas: Manaus, Res. Ducke , Igarapé Tinga , Armadilha Malaise 2, 13–23.ix.2004, A. Henriques leg. (1 ♀, INPA)   . Pará: Belém ( Area P-1),, Shope & de Freitas (1 ♂, CNC)   . Maranhão: Caxias, Reserva Ecológica Inhamum , 26–30.i.2006, Arm. Malaise, G. A. Cunha (1 ♀, INPA)   ; idem, 29.v– (1 ♀, INPA)   .

Distribution. Brazil (Amazonas, Pará* and Maranhão *) ( Fig. 52 View FIGURE 52 ). Syneches angulatus   was previously registered only from the Amazon biome and is now known to occur also in the Cerrado biome.

Remarks. Syneches angulatus   differs from all other Brazilian species with the scutum broader than the mesopleuron by having R 2+3 strongly angulate apically and the second section of vein M 1 noticeably short, about 1/4 length of crossvein r-m. This species apparently forms a monophyletic group with S. annulipes Bezzi   , S. bilobatus Menezes & Ale-Rocha   , S. maculosum Menezes & Ale-Rocha   , S. pyramidatus Bezzi   and S. vidali Ale-Rocha & Vieira   , sharing a small size (2–3 mm), scutum broader than mesopleuron in lateral view and usually pyramidal-shaped, femora brown to black, but fore and mid femora with yellow apex, and male terminalia remarkable similar, with simple short phallus and hypandrium lacking projections or deep concavities.


Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia


Canadian National Collection of Insects, Arachnids, and Nematodes














Syneches angulatus Menezes & Ale-Rocha

Soares, Matheus M. M., Freitas-Silva, Rafael A. P. & Ale-Rocha, Rosaly 2021