Eumerus vallicolus Gilasian & van SteenisEumerus tricolor,

Gilasian, Ebrahim, Steenis, Jeroen van & Parchami-Araghi, Mehrdad, 2020, Review of the Eumerus tricolor species group (Diptera: Syrphidae) in Iran, with description of six new species, European Journal of Taxonomy 722, pp. 106-152: 145-148

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2020.722.1139

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:90B3B475-49D9-4869-8F5F-A788DB880356

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/DB618219-7086-4DFA-82AC-F261D536B68D

taxon LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:act:DB618219-7086-4DFA-82AC-F261D536B68D

treatment provided by

Valdenar

scientific name

Eumerus vallicolus Gilasian & van Steenis Eumerus tricolor
status

sp. nov.

Eumerus vallicolus Gilasian & van Steenis   sp. nov.

urn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:DB618219-7086-4DFA-82AC-F261D536B68D

Figs 4H View Fig , 7H View Fig , 10D View Fig , 11I View Fig , 12F View Fig , 17 View Fig G–H, 19D, 21D, 23D

Diagnosis

This species differs from the species E. tricolor   , E. pamirorum   , E. sarybulunis   and E. coeruleithorax   by the following characters: eyes distinctly dichoptic, 5–6 ommatidia spaced, distance between eyes wider than in E. tricolor   but narrower than in E. pamirorum   and E. coeruleithorax   , eyes in E. sarybulunis   coalescent over some distance; frontal triangle with dense whitish pile like in E. sarybulunis   (it is not covered with so dense pile in E. tricolor   , frontal triangle in E. coeruleithorax   with sparse black pile and in E. pamirorum   with sparse white pile); ocellar triangle narrow like in E. tricolor   (it is wider in other species); ocellar triangle black pilose like in the European E. tricolor   (with white pile in Turkish E. tricolor   and other species); thorax with relatively long pile like in E. coeruleithorax   (with very short pile in E. tricolor   and covered with longer pile in E. sarybulunis   and E. pamirorum   ); metafemur narrow like in E. tricolor   (in other species it is either longer pilose and/or incrassate); abdominal maculae on terga III and IV more oblique than in other species.

Etymology

The name ‘vallicolus’ [Latin] is derived from ‘vallis’ (valley) and ‘incola’ (dweller), in reference to Chekab Valley, where the holotype was collected.

Material examined

Holotype

IRAN • ♂; “ IRAN: Markazi prov., Haftad / Qolleh Protected Area, / Chekab Valley , 2219 m, / 34°07′0.5″N, 050°16′25.3″E, / 28.v–15.vi.2016, Malaise trap / near pool, E. Gilasian & M. / Parchami- Araghi // HOLOTYPUS ♂ / Eumerus vallicolus   / Gilasian & van Steenis / 2020 [red label]”; HMIM.

GoogleMaps  

Description

Male ( Figs 4H View Fig , 7H View Fig )

MEASUREMENTS. Body length: 6 mm; wing length: 4.5 mm.

HEAD ( Fig. 17 View Fig G–H). Eyes short yellowish pilose, dichoptic, 5–6 ommatidia spaced; face nearly parallelsided, shiny black and covered with short yellowish-white pile; frontal triangle black, weakly pollinose and covered with dense whitish pile; head in frontal view 4.3 times as wide as face; frontal triangle 1.6 times as long as vertical triangle; vertical triangle shiny black, with brownish pile; ocellar triangle isosceles; ocellar triangle shiny black, with blackish pile, 1.1 times as long as wide and 1.4 times as long as vertical triangle; distance between posterior ocelli to posterior margin of eye about 0.6 times as long as ocellar triangle; occiput light grey pollinose, with yellowish pile; frontal triangle 1.25 times as wide as ocellar triangle; vertex at posterior corner of eyes 1.2 times as wide as vertex over posterior ocelli; head in dorsal view 5.3 times as wide as vertex at posterior corner of eyes; antennae brownish-black; basoflagellomere almost 0.9 times as long as wide; arista about 2 times as long as basoflagellomere ( Fig. 11I View Fig ).

THORAX. Scutum and scutellum shiny black, with relatively long white pile, without median pollinose vittae; posterolateral part of scutum with a longitudinal row of black seulae above base of wing; scutellum with marginal rim; pleurae shiny black; anepisternum, anepiemron and katepisternum with short whitish pile.

LEGS ( Fig. 10D View Fig ). Predominantly black, short yellowish-brown pilose; apex of femora and basal narrow margin of tibiae orange; metafemur simple, narrow, about 4 times as long as wide; anteroventral and posteroventral margins of metafemur each with a row of 11 respectively 6 black setae in about apical half; metatarsus with tuft of dense orange pile ventrally.

WING. Hyaline, entirely microtrichose; vein R 4+5 slightly sinuate; calypters yellowish; halter yellowishorange.

ABDOMEN. Tergum I black with short blackish pile; tergum II mostly orange except for anterior black margin and median black vitta not reaching posterior margin of segment; tergum II yellowish pile except for short blackish pilosity on its posterior third; tergum III entirely orange, mostly short blackish pile except for whitish pile on its white maculae; tergum IV black, with mostly short whitish pile except for short black pile on its anterior and posterior margin; sterna short yellowish pilose; sternum I black in anterior half and orange in posterior half; sterna II and III orange; sternum IV black, rectangular, with rounded posterolateral corners and with median wide V-shaped incision posteriorly ( Fig. 12F View Fig ).

GENITALIA ( Figs 19D View Fig , 21D, 23D View Fig ). Hypandrium simple; aedeagal apodeme relatively narrow in lateral view; posterior lobe of surstylus in lateral view sharply extending outward posteroventrally, with a longitudinal row of short and black setulae posteriorly, with a few short median setulae and with 2–3 setae anteriorly, posterior lobe of surstylus in dorsal view uniformly rounded apically, almost balloonshaped, covered with short setulae; inner accessory lobe of surstylus with short pile.

Female

Unknown.

Distribution

Iran.

Identification key to the males of the Eumerus tricolor   species group in Iran

Females are not included in the following key because they are either unknown for most of the species or morphologically difficult to separate from each other.

1. Basoflagellomere radially furrowed, apicolaterally with clearly demarcated, ellipsoidal fossa ( Fig. 11 View Fig A–I); katepisternum almost entirely pilose; wing vein costa with a row of long posterodorsal setae basally ( Fig. 8F View Fig ); terga often more or less red coloured; anterior surstylus lobe undeveloped ( Figs 18 View Fig A–F, 19A–E) .............................................................................................. tricolor   group 2

– Basoflagellomere without radial grooves, its fossa unclear; katepisternum with separate dorsal and ventral pile patch; wing vein costa with at most short posterodorsal pile basally; terga black coloured, in some species with yellow transparent maculae on tergum II laterally; anterior surstylus lobe more or less developed ............................................................................................ other Eumerus   groups

2. Eyes pilose (as in Fig. 15A View Fig ); scutum and scutellum shiny metallic, weakly pollinose (as in Fig. 3C View Fig ); legs predominantly black; metafemur slightly enlarged (as in Fig. 9A View Fig ) .......................................... 3

– Eyes bare ( Fig. 15 View Fig C–D); scutum and scutellum strongly pollinose, with very short yellowish pile and with 4 longitudinal blackish vittae ( Fig. 3F View Fig ); legs predominantly orange ( Fig. 6F View Fig ); metafemur strongly enlarged ....................................................................................... E. jacobsoni Becker, 1913  

3. Metaleg extremely long and slender ( Fig. 7G View Fig ) ................................................................................. 4

– Metaleg not elongated, clearly enlarged (especially metafemur) ..................................................... 5

4. Eyes widely spaced ( Fig. 17E View Fig ); face white pilose; scutum brownish pilose, without pollinose vittae; wing infuscated ( Fig. 4G View Fig ); abdominal terga II–IV predominantly reddishorange .......................................................................................... E. tadzhikorum Stackelberg, 1949  

– Eyes only about 1 ommatidium spaced ( Fig. 15G View Fig ); face black pilose, in some specimens entirely white pilose; scutum white pilose, with 2 narrow median pollinose vittae; wing hyaline ( Fig. 3H View Fig ); abdomen black ............................................................................................ E. longitarsis Peck, 1979  

5. Wing extensively bare of microtrichia, also on apical half; protarsus with strong setae along posterior margin, especially basitarsomere with several setae along entire posterior margin; subscutellar pile fringe long and dense and with apices strongly bent medially; pleura above metacoxa pilose ................................................................................................. E. persarum Stackelberg, 1961  

– Wing almost entirely covered with microtrichia, basal cells sometimes partly bare; protarsus without strong setae along posterior margin, or at most with one apical seta on each tarsomere; subscutellar pile fringe long or short, not dense, and with apices at most very slightly bent medially; pleura above metacoxa bare ................................................................................................................................... 6

6. Wing at least slightly infuscated; metatarsus with dense thick black pile fringe ............................. 7

– Wing hyaline; metatarsus without dense thick black pile fringe ...................................................... 8

7. Eyes 3–4 ommatidia spaced ( Fig. 17A View Fig ); scutum and pleurae with relatively long pile; metafemur with long ventral pile, about ¼–⅓ width of metafemur; dense dorsal thick pile fringe on metatibia almost absent ( Fig. 10B View Fig ); metatarsus with pile fringe on entire dorsal surface ( Fig. 10C View Fig ); wing slightly infuscated in apical half from anterior margin to anterior half of cell dm; male genitalia as in Figs 19C View Fig , 21C, 23C View Fig ............................................... E. pilosipedes Gilasian & van Steenis   sp. nov.

– Eyes about 1 ommatidium spaced ( Fig. 15E View Fig ); scutum and pleurae with short pile; metafemur with short ventral pile, about ⅛–1/7 width of metafemur; metatibia with dense dorsal thick pile fringe apically ( Fig. 10A View Fig ); metatarsus pile fringe confined to antero-dorsal margin of metatarsus; wing strongly infuscated reaching to posterior margin of wing; male genitalia as in Figs 19B View Fig , 21B, 23B View Fig ..................................................................................................... E. kazanovzkyae Paramonov, 1927  

8. Eyes holoptic with long eye contiguity ............................................................................................ 9

– Eyes dichoptic, in some species coalescent in one point ................................................................ 10

9. Eye contiguity about 0.7 times as long as frontal triangle; face and frontal triangle white pilose ( Fig. 13H View Fig ); scutum with long yellowish pile ( Fig. 6D View Fig ); abdomen predominantly reddish-orange ( Fig. 3D View Fig ); male genitalia as in Figs 18C View Fig , 20C View Fig , 22C View Fig ........................................................................... ................................................................................... E. chekabicus Gilasian & van Steenis   sp. nov.

– Eye contiguity about 0.4 times as long as frontal triangle; face and frontal triangle black pilose ( Fig. 16 View Fig C–D); scutum with mix of white and black pile ( Fig. 7B View Fig ); abdomen brownish-black ( Fig. 4B View Fig ); male genitalia as in Figs 19A View Fig , 21A, 23A View Fig ......................................... E. hissaricus Stackelberg, 1949  

10. Eyes widely spaced, distance between eyes more than width of ocellar triangle ( Fig. 13E View Fig ); scutum pilose, with two bare longitudinal areas posteromedially; scutellum, in lateral view, strongly arched basally, more than half as high as long ........................................................... E. falsus Becker, 1922  

– Eyes less widely spaced, distance between eyes less than width of ocellar triangle; scutum entirely and evenly pilose; scutellum more flat, at most ¼ as high as long ..................................................11

11. Pile on scutum at least equal to combined length of two basal segments of arista ........................ 12

– Pile on scutum very short, shorter than combined length of two basal segments of arista ............ 16

12. Basoflagellomere black or brownish-black .................................................................................... 13

– Basoflagellomere orange ................................................................................................................ 14

13. Eyes 6–7 ommatidia spaced ( Fig. 17G View Fig ); tergum III entirely and tergum II mostly orange; male genitalia as in Figs 19D View Fig , 21D, 23D View Fig ; body length: 6 mm .................................................................... ...................................................................................... E. vallicolus Gilasian & van Steenis   sp. nov.

– Eyes coalescent in one point ( Fig. 13A View Fig ); terga almost entirely reddish-brown ( Fig. 3A View Fig ); male genitalia as in Figs 18A View Fig , 20A View Fig , 22A View Fig ; body length: 9.7 mm ....... E. atricolorus Gilasian & van Steenis   sp. nov.

14. Eyes distinctly dichoptic; scutum and scutellum with dense pile; legs long pilose; abdomen mostly orange ............................................................................................................................................. 15

– Eyes coalescent in one point ( Fig. 17C View Fig ); scutum and scutellum with less dense pile; legs short pilose; abdomen brownish-black; male genitalia as in Figs 18F View Fig , 20F View Fig , 22F View Fig ...... E. richteri Stackelberg, 1960  

15. Basoflagellomere egg-shaped ( Fig. 11G View Fig ); eyes 8–9 ommatidia spaced ( Fig. 16E View Fig ); ocellar triangle isosceles; vein R 4+5 slightly sinuate; legs predominantly black except for orange apex of femora and orange basal third of tibiae; abdominal tergum III almost entirely orange; male genitalia as in Figs 18E View Fig , 20E View Fig , 22E View Fig .................................................... E. ovoformus Gilasian & van Steenis   sp. nov.

– Basoflagellomere not egg-shaped; eyes about 4 ommatidia spaced ( Fig. 15A View Fig ); ocellar triangle equilateral; vein R 4+5 deeply sinuate; tarsi and basal half of tibiae orange; abdominal tergum III with distinct median black vitta; male genitalia as in Figs 18D View Fig , 20D View Fig , 22D View Fig .... E. coeruleus ( Becker, 1913)  

16. Basoflagellomere orange ( Fig. 11B View Fig ); frontal triangle with dense pile; tibiae orange in basal third; abdomen black ( Fig. 3B View Fig ); male genitalia as in Figs 18B View Fig , 20B View Fig , 22B View Fig .................................................. .................................................................................. E. brevipilosus Gilasian & van Steenis   sp. nov.

– Basoflagellomere black; frontal triangle with less dense pile ( Fig. 13I View Fig ); tibiae predominantly black except for narrow basal orange margin; abdomen predominantly orange; male genitalia as in Grković et al. (2017: 188, fig. 11d) ...................................................................... E. tricolor ( Fabricius, 1798)  

Identification key to the males of the Eumerus tricolor   species group in Iran

Females are not included in the following key because they are either unknown for most of the species or morphologically difficult to separate from each other.

1. Basoflagellomere radially furrowed, apicolaterally with clearly demarcated, ellipsoidal fossa ( Fig. 11 View Fig A–I); katepisternum almost entirely pilose; wing vein costa with a row of long posterodorsal setae basally ( Fig. 8F View Fig ); terga often more or less red coloured; anterior surstylus lobe undeveloped ( Figs 18 View Fig A–F, 19A–E) .............................................................................................. tricolor   group 2

– Basoflagellomere without radial grooves, its fossa unclear; katepisternum with separate dorsal and ventral pile patch; wing vein costa with at most short posterodorsal pile basally; terga black coloured, in some species with yellow transparent maculae on tergum II laterally; anterior surstylus lobe more or less developed ............................................................................................ other Eumerus   groups

2. Eyes pilose (as in Fig. 15A View Fig ); scutum and scutellum shiny metallic, weakly pollinose (as in Fig. 3C View Fig ); legs predominantly black; metafemur slightly enlarged (as in Fig. 9A View Fig ) .......................................... 3

– Eyes bare ( Fig. 15 View Fig C–D); scutum and scutellum strongly pollinose, with very short yellowish pile and with 4 longitudinal blackish vittae ( Fig. 3F View Fig ); legs predominantly orange ( Fig. 6F View Fig ); metafemur strongly enlarged ....................................................................................... E. jacobsoni Becker, 1913  

3. Metaleg extremely long and slender ( Fig. 7G View Fig ) ................................................................................. 4

– Metaleg not elongated, clearly enlarged (especially metafemur) ..................................................... 5

4. Eyes widely spaced ( Fig. 17E View Fig ); face white pilose; scutum brownish pilose, without pollinose vittae; wing infuscated ( Fig. 4G View Fig ); abdominal terga II–IV predominantly reddishorange .......................................................................................... E. tadzhikorum Stackelberg, 1949  

– Eyes only about 1 ommatidium spaced ( Fig. 15G View Fig ); face black pilose, in some specimens entirely white pilose; scutum white pilose, with 2 narrow median pollinose vittae; wing hyaline ( Fig. 3H View Fig ); abdomen black ............................................................................................ E. longitarsis Peck, 1979  

5. Wing extensively bare of microtrichia, also on apical half; protarsus with strong setae along posterior margin, especially basitarsomere with several setae along entire posterior margin; subscutellar pile fringe long and dense and with apices strongly bent medially; pleura above metacoxa pilose ................................................................................................. E. persarum Stackelberg, 1961  

– Wing almost entirely covered with microtrichia, basal cells sometimes partly bare; protarsus without strong setae along posterior margin, or at most with one apical seta on each tarsomere; subscutellar pile fringe long or short, not dense, and with apices at most very slightly bent medially; pleura above metacoxa bare ................................................................................................................................... 6

6. Wing at least slightly infuscated; metatarsus with dense thick black pile fringe ............................. 7

– Wing hyaline; metatarsus without dense thick black pile fringe ...................................................... 8

7. Eyes 3–4 ommatidia spaced ( Fig. 17A View Fig ); scutum and pleurae with relatively long pile; metafemur with long ventral pile, about ¼–⅓ width of metafemur; dense dorsal thick pile fringe on metatibia almost absent ( Fig. 10B View Fig ); metatarsus with pile fringe on entire dorsal surface ( Fig. 10C View Fig ); wing slightly infuscated in apical half from anterior margin to anterior half of cell dm; male genitalia as in Figs 19C View Fig , 21C, 23C View Fig ............................................... E. pilosipedes Gilasian & van Steenis   sp. nov.

– Eyes about 1 ommatidium spaced ( Fig. 15E View Fig ); scutum and pleurae with short pile; metafemur with short ventral pile, about ⅛–1/7 width of metafemur; metatibia with dense dorsal thick pile fringe apically ( Fig. 10A View Fig ); metatarsus pile fringe confined to antero-dorsal margin of metatarsus; wing strongly infuscated reaching to posterior margin of wing; male genitalia as in Figs 19B View Fig , 21B, 23B View Fig ..................................................................................................... E. kazanovzkyae Paramonov, 1927  

8. Eyes holoptic with long eye contiguity ............................................................................................ 9

– Eyes dichoptic, in some species coalescent in one point ................................................................ 10

9. Eye contiguity about 0.7 times as long as frontal triangle; face and frontal triangle white pilose ( Fig. 13H View Fig ); scutum with long yellowish pile ( Fig. 6D View Fig ); abdomen predominantly reddish-orange ( Fig. 3D View Fig ); male genitalia as in Figs 18C View Fig , 20C View Fig , 22C View Fig ........................................................................... ................................................................................... E. chekabicus Gilasian & van Steenis   sp. nov.

– Eye contiguity about 0.4 times as long as frontal triangle; face and frontal triangle black pilose ( Fig. 16 View Fig C–D); scutum with mix of white and black pile ( Fig. 7B View Fig ); abdomen brownish-black ( Fig. 4B View Fig ); male genitalia as in Figs 19A View Fig , 21A, 23A View Fig ......................................... E. hissaricus Stackelberg, 1949  

10. Eyes widely spaced, distance between eyes more than width of ocellar triangle ( Fig. 13E View Fig ); scutum pilose, with two bare longitudinal areas posteromedially; scutellum, in lateral view, strongly arched basally, more than half as high as long ........................................................... E. falsus Becker, 1922  

– Eyes less widely spaced, distance between eyes less than width of ocellar triangle; scutum entirely and evenly pilose; scutellum more flat, at most ¼ as high as long ..................................................11

11. Pile on scutum at least equal to combined length of two basal segments of arista ........................ 12

– Pile on scutum very short, shorter than combined length of two basal segments of arista ............ 16

12. Basoflagellomere black or brownish-black .................................................................................... 13

– Basoflagellomere orange ................................................................................................................ 14

13. Eyes 6–7 ommatidia spaced ( Fig. 17G View Fig ); tergum III entirely and tergum II mostly orange; male genitalia as in Figs 19D View Fig , 21D, 23D View Fig ; body length: 6 mm .................................................................... ...................................................................................... E. vallicolus Gilasian & van Steenis   sp. nov.

– Eyes coalescent in one point ( Fig. 13A View Fig ); terga almost entirely reddish-brown ( Fig. 3A View Fig ); male genitalia as in Figs 18A View Fig , 20A View Fig , 22A View Fig ; body length: 9.7 mm ....... E. atricolorus Gilasian & van Steenis   sp. nov.

14. Eyes distinctly dichoptic; scutum and scutellum with dense pile; legs long pilose; abdomen mostly orange ............................................................................................................................................. 15

– Eyes coalescent in one point ( Fig. 17C View Fig ); scutum and scutellum with less dense pile; legs short pilose; abdomen brownish-black; male genitalia as in Figs 18F View Fig , 20F View Fig , 22F View Fig ...... E. richteri Stackelberg, 1960  

15. Basoflagellomere egg-shaped ( Fig. 11G View Fig ); eyes 8–9 ommatidia spaced ( Fig. 16E View Fig ); ocellar triangle isosceles; vein R 4+5 slightly sinuate; legs predominantly black except for orange apex of femora and orange basal third of tibiae; abdominal tergum III almost entirely orange; male genitalia as in Figs 18E View Fig , 20E View Fig , 22E View Fig .................................................... E. ovoformus Gilasian & van Steenis   sp. nov.

– Basoflagellomere not egg-shaped; eyes about 4 ommatidia spaced ( Fig. 15A View Fig ); ocellar triangle equilateral; vein R 4+5 deeply sinuate; tarsi and basal half of tibiae orange; abdominal tergum III with distinct median black vitta; male genitalia as in Figs 18D View Fig , 20D View Fig , 22D View Fig .... E. coeruleus ( Becker, 1913)  

16. Basoflagellomere orange ( Fig. 11B View Fig ); frontal triangle with dense pile; tibiae orange in basal third; abdomen black ( Fig. 3B View Fig ); male genitalia as in Figs 18B View Fig , 20B View Fig , 22B View Fig .................................................. .................................................................................. E. brevipilosus Gilasian & van Steenis   sp. nov.

– Basoflagellomere black; frontal triangle with less dense pile ( Fig. 13I View Fig ); tibiae predominantly black except for narrow basal orange margin; abdomen predominantly orange; male genitalia as in Grković et al. (2017: 188, fig. 11d) ...................................................................... E. tricolor ( Fabricius, 1798)  

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Diptera

Family

Syrphidae

Genus

Eumerus

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Diptera

Family

Syrphidae

Genus

Eumerus