Dryocosmus archboldi Melika & Abrahamson, 2021

Melika, George, Nicholls, James A., Abrahamson, Warren G., Buss, Eileen A. & Stone, Graham N., 2021, New species of Nearctic oak gall wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae, Cynipini), Zootaxa 5084 (1), pp. 1-131 : 83-86

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Dryocosmus archboldi Melika & Abrahamson

sp. nov.

Dryocosmus archboldi Melika & Abrahamson , sp. nov.

Figs. 302–314 View FIGURES 302–310 View FIGURES 311–313 View FIGURE 314–316


Type material: HOLOTYPE female “ USA, FL., Highlands Co., Lake Placid , Archbold Biological Station; leg. G. Melika , 31 March 1995, emerged in rearing cages 10 April 1995; ex Quercus myrtifolia . PARATYPES: 13 females and 6 males with the same labels as the holotype. The holotype, 1 female and 1 male are deposited at the USNM , 12 females and 5 males at the PHDNRL .

Etymology. The species named in honor of Mr. Richard Archbold, the founder of the Archbold Biological Station.

Diagnosis. The gall most closely resembles that of D. quercuslaurifoliae ( Ashmead, 1881) , D. quercusnotha ( Osten Sacken, 1870) and D. quercuspalustris ( Osten Sacken, 1861) . In D. archboldi , the gall narrows to a pointed tip ( Fig. 314 View FIGURE 314–316 ), while in D. quercuslaurifoliae , D. quercusnotha and D. quercuspalustris the galls are always rounded, never with a pointed tip ( Figs. 315–316 View FIGURE 314–316 ). In female and male D. archboldi the head is as broad as high in frontal view, the mesoscutum between notauli uniformly alutaceous, the mesopleuron and speculum smooth and glabrous while in D. quercuslaurifoliae , D. quercusnotha and D. quercuspalustris the head is broader than high, the mesoscutum between notauli entirely or at least in posterior half smooth, glabrous, not alutaceous, the mesopleuron at least partially alutaceous to delicately coriaceous.

Description. Sexual female ( Figs. 302–305, 309 View FIGURES 302–310 , 311–313 View FIGURES 311–313 ). Body dark brown to black; antennae brown; mandibles, maxillary and labial palpi, legs light brown.

Head alutaceous, with sparse white setae, slightly denser on lower face and postgena, as broad as high and slightly broader than mesosoma in frontal view, 1.2× as broad as long in dorsal view. Gena alutaceous, not broadened behind eye in frontal view, narrower than transverse diameter of eye in lateral view. Malar space short, alutaceous, without striae; eye 4.8× as high as length of malar space. Inner margins of eyes slightly converging ventrally. POL 1.7× as long as OOL, OOL 1.2× as long as diameter of lateral ocellus and equal to LOL, all ocelli ovate, of same size. Transfacial distance slightly shorter than height of eye; diameter of antennal torulus equal to distance between them, distance between torulus and eye slightly shorter than diameter of torulus; lower face alutaceous, without striae radiating from clypeus, slightly elevated median area alutaceous. Clypeus large, quadrangular, slightly broader than high, projecting over mandibles, smooth, glabrous, ventrally not emarginate, without median incision and with a few long setae; anterior tentorial pit large, ovate, deeply impressed, epistomal sulcus and clypeo-pleurostomal line deep. Frons uniformly alutaceous, without striae; strongly elevated interocellar area alutaceous with some delicate irregular rugae. Vertex and occiput alutaceous, postocciput smooth, glabrous, postgena alutaceous; posterior tentorial pit large, ovate, area below impressed, with some delicate longitudinally orientated rugae; occipital foramen 1.6× as high as height of postgenal bridge; hypostomal carina emarginate, continuing into postgenal sulci which are not united, running parallel then diverging slightly in anterior 1/3. Antenna as long as body, with 12 flagellomeres, terminal flagellomeres slightly darker than scape and preceding flagellomeres; pedicel subglobular, F1 slightly longer than F2, F2 longer than F3, F3=F4, subsequent flagellomeres gradually shorter towards apex, F12 longer than F11, placodeal sensilla on F3–F12.

Mesosoma longer than high. Pronotum glabrous, with delicate striae laterally, with dense setae; propleuron coriaceous, with dense setae. Mesoscutum uniformly alutaceous, longer than broad (greatest width measured across mesoscutum at level of base of tegulae). Notaulus complete, with smooth, glabrous bottom, broadened in posterior 1/3, strongly converging posteriorly; anterior parallel and median mesoscutal lines absent; parapsidal line marked by smooth glabrous areas; circumscutellar carina narrow, reaching notaulus. Mesoscutellum longer than broad, broader at mid length, posteriorly rounded, alutaceous with net of irregular strong rugae, overhanging metanotum. Mesoscutellar foveae ovate, broader than high, with smooth, glabrous bottom, separated by narrow triangular elevated coriaceous central carina. Mesopleuron and speculum smooth, glabrous, with setae in posteroventral quarter and along anterior and ventral margins; mesopleural triangle smooth, glabrous, with dense white setae; dorsal and lateral axillar areas alutaceous, glabrous, with white setae; subaxillular bar smooth, glabrous, triangular, most posterior part higher than height of metanotal trough; postalar process with parallel delicate striae; metapleural sulcus reaching mesopleuron at half its height, upper part of sulcus invisible. Metascutellum delicately coriaceous; metanotal trough smooth, glabrous, with few setae; ventral impressed area smooth, glabrous, 2.0× shorter than height of metascutellum; central propodeal area smooth, glabrous, without striae and setae; lateral propodeal carinae curved outward for their posterior 1/3; lateral propodeal area smooth, glabrous, without setae. Nucha smooth, without wrinkles dorsally and laterally. Tarsal claws simple, without basal lobe.

Forewing longer than body, hyaline, margin with long dense cilia, veins dark brown, with darker area along basalis, radial cell open, 3.4× as long as broad, R1 and Rs reaching wing margin, areolet triangular, well-delimited, Rs+M distinct for 2/3 of distance to basalis, its projection reaching basalis slightly below mid height.

Metasoma as long as head+mesosoma, higher than long in lateral view, saddle-shaped, second metasomal tergite extending to 3/4 of metasoma length in dorsal view, without setae anterolaterally, without micropunctures, subsequent tergites smooth, glabrous, without micropunctures. Hypopygium without micropunctures, prominent part of ventral spine of hypopygium 2.3× as long as broad in ventral view, with long setae ventrally which extend beyond apex of spine. Body length 1.9–2.2 mm (n = 12).

Male ( Figs. 306–308, 310 View FIGURES 302–310 ). Similar to female but antennae and legs yellow, transfacial distance shorter than height of eye, malar space alutaceous, without striae; eye 9.0× as long as length of malar space; postgenal bridge shorter compared to length of occipital foramen; POL 3.5× long as OOL, OOL shorter than diameter of lateral ocellus and shorter than LOL; ocelli large; interocellar area elevated; antenna with 13 flagellomeres, F1 straight and 1.4× as long as F2, F13 shorter than F12; placodeal sensilla on all flagellomeres. Body length 1.8–2.1 mm (n = 5).

Gall. ( Fig. 314 View FIGURE 314–316 ). An integral, succulent unilocular leaf gall, reaching 5 mm in diameter and height. Conical in shape, narrowing to a point; on underside of leaf; green with paler longitudinal stripes. The larval cell becomes freerolling once the gall matures. Very rarely the galls develop on catkins.

Biology. Only a sexual generation is known, which induces integral leaf galls on Q. myrtifolia and Q. laurifolia . The galls develop very quickly, appearing in the second half of March and producing adults by the end of March into April. Two individuals were sequenced for cytb, with 0.23% divergence between them ( OK346299 View Materials OK346300 View Materials ).

Distribution. USA, Florida:Archbold Biological Station, Lake Placid, Josephine Creek, Highlands Co.; Coconut Point Sanctuary, Brevard Co.; Gratin Beach Island, Walton Co.; Spanish Ponds Wildlife Reserve, Jacksonville.


Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History