Parabuthus hamar Kovařík, Lowe, Plíšková et Šťáhlavský, Kovarik, Lowe, Pliskova et Stahlavsky, 2016

Kovařík, František, Lowe, Graeme, Plíšková, Jana & Šťáhlavský, František, 2016, Scorpions of the Horn of Africa (Arachnida: Scorpiones). Part VII. Parabuthus Pocock, 1890 (Buthidae) with description of P. hamar sp. n. and P. kajibu sp. n. from Ethiopia, Euscorpius 228, pp. 1-58: 23-33

publication ID

65077794-E810-4C60-B7C1-D19D97295CB4

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:65077794-E810-4C60-B7C1-D19D97295CB4

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/AFEF853A-9B05-4756-9793-2C51A1A1690F

taxon LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:act:AFEF853A-9B05-4756-9793-2C51A1A1690F

treatment provided by

Felipe

scientific name

Parabuthus hamar Kovařík, Lowe, Plíšková et Šťáhlavský
status

sp. n.

Parabuthus hamar Kovařík, Lowe, Plíšková et Šťáhlavský   , sp. n.

( Figs. 50–83, 90–91, 168–169, 187, 195, 204, Table 2) http://www.zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:A

FEF853A-9B05-4756-9793-2C51A1A1690F

TYPE LOCALITY AND   TYPE REPOSITORY. Ethiopia, SNNPR, 20 km SE Konzo , 05°14'33"N 37°32'06"E, 839 m a.s.l. (Locality No. 16 EF, Fig. 93) GoogleMaps   , FKCP.

TYPE MATERIAL. Ethiopia, Southern Nationalities and Peoples Region Federal State ( SNNPR), near Turmi , 04°44'21"N 36°19'53"E, 565 m a.s.l. (Locality No. 16 EC), 11.-12. GoogleMaps   IV.2016 GoogleMaps   , 1♂ ( Figs. 67–70, 73–82, 91, 168–169, 195, paratype), leg. F. Kovařík; SNNPR, 20 km SE Konzo , 05°14'33"N 37°32'06"E, 839 m a.s.l. ( Fig. 93, Locality No. 16 EF), 14.-15. GoogleMaps   IV.2016 GoogleMaps   , 1♂ ( Figs. 50–51, 54–56, 63–66, 187, holotype), leg. F. Kovařík; Oromia State, Sidamo Province, Wachile , 04°32'33"N 39°03'07"E, 1051 m a.s.l. (Locality No. 16 EH), 1♀ (paratype, Figs. 52–53, 57–62, 71–72, 83), 16.- 17. GoogleMaps   IV.2016, leg. F. Kovařík; Oromia State, Borana Province , 04°25'31.5"N 38°58'14"E, 1171 m a.s.l. (Locality No. 13 EI), 27.-28. GoogleMaps   VI.2013 GoogleMaps   , 2juvs. ♂ ♀ (paratypes), leg. F. Kovařík; SNNPR, Omorate ( Kelem ), 04°48'42"N 36°03'16.7"E, 373 m a.s.l. ( Fig. 92, Locality No. 13EU), 4.-5.VII.2013 GoogleMaps   , 1im. ♂1juv.♂ (paratypes), leg. F. Kovařík et J. Plíšková; SNNPR, "lower valley of the Omo river", Chew Bahr , 04°50'38.5"N 36°44'11.4"E, 625 m a.s.l. (Locality No. 13 EW), 5.-6.VII.2013 GoogleMaps   , 1im. ♂ (paratype), leg. F. Kovařík et V. Socha   ; SNNPR, Gamo Gofa Province , 20km SE Konso, 05°14'33"N 37°32'06"E, 850 m a.s.l., 11-13. GoogleMaps   V.2015, 1♂ (paratype), leg. P. Kučera; Oromia State, Borena region, between Negele and Filtu , 05°13'12.2"N 39°52'29.3"E, 1406 m a.s.l. (Locality No. 14 EE), 19.XI.2014 GoogleMaps   , 2ims. ♂ 3ims. ♀ 2juvs. (paratypes), leg. F. Kovařík; Somali State, Liben region, Filtu , 05°06'48.7"N 40°39'18.3"E, 1229 m a.s.l. (Locality No. 14 EG), 19.-21.XI.2014 GoogleMaps   , 1im. ♂ 6juvs. ( Fig. 90, paratypes), leg. F. Kovařík; Somali State, Liben Region, between Filtu and Dolo Odo , 04°50'18.1"N 40°56'23.5"E, 885 m a.s.l. (Locality No. 14 EH), 20.XI. 2014 GoogleMaps   , 1juv.♀ (paratype), leg. F. Kovařík. All types are in the first authors collection ( FKCP)   .

ETYMOLOGY. Named after the Hamar people, an Omotic community inhabiting southwestern Ethiopia. They live in Hamer woreda (or district), a fertile part of the Omo River valley of the Southern Nationalities and Peoples Region Federal State (SNNPR). They are largely pastoralists, so their culture places a high value on cattle. They speak the Hamar language of Omotic group and representing approximately 0.1% of the total Ethiopian population. Several of the localities of this species are directly on their territory.

DIAGNOSIS. Adults from 88 mm to 92 mm long. Base color uniformly yellow to yellowish brown, carapace, tergites, metasomal segments IV–V and telson dark brown to black. Pectine teeth number 38–44 in males and 30–35 in females. Stridulatory area present on dorsal surface of metasomal segments I–II in both sexes, absent on third segment in adult male and very reduced in female. Metasoma densely hirsute. Metasoma of male narrow; metasomal segment V length/ width ratio 1.82– 2.05 in male. Movable and fixed fingers of pedipalp bearing 12–13 rows of granules, all with external and internal accessory granules. Fingers of pedipalp not enlarged, movable finger length/ manus length ratio 1.7 in male. Fingers of pedipalps of male with inner side of base smooth, no trace of tubercle. Manus of pedipalp of male broad, pedipalp chela length/ width ratio 3.05–3.13 in male and 4.27 in female. Pedipalp manus smooth, patella strongly granulated. Tarsomere I of all legs with bristlecombs.

DESCRIPTION. The adults are 88–92 mm long. The habitus is shown in Figs. 50–53. For position and distribution of trichobothria of pedipalps see Figs. 74–77 and 79–80. Sexual dimorphism: adult males with chela of pedipalps broader ( Figs. 71 and 73), metasomal segments narrower ( Figs. 54–59), and carapace and tergites dull (in female glossy). Female with basal pectinal tooth wide ( Fig. 62) and smaller number of pectines.

Coloration ( Figs. 50–53). The base color of pedipalps, chelicerae, legs, sternites and metasomal segments I–III is uniformly yellow to yellowish brown. Carapace, tergites, metasomal segments IV–V and telson are dark brown to black.

Carapace and mesosoma ( Figs. 50–53, 60–64). The entire carapace is covered by large granules, and only between posterior and median eyes are there two symmetrical smooth places mainly in the females. Carinae are absent. The anterior margin of the carapace is almost straight, although medially it can be weakly convex, and it bears 10 or 12 symmetrically distributed short, stout spiniform macrosetae. The tergites are granulated, more so in males. Tergite VII is pentacarinate, with lateral pairs of carinae strong, serratocrenulate. The pectinal tooth count is 38–44 (3x38, 1x39, 2x40, 5x41, 5x42, 2x43, 1x44) in males and 30– 35 (1x30, 1x32, 3x33, 5x34, 2x35) in females. The pectine marginal tips extend to half of the fourth sternite in the male, and to end of the third sternite in the female. The pectines have three marginal lamellae and 10–11 middle lamellae. The lamellae and fulcra bear numerous dark setae. All sternites are smooth, except that there is a stridulatory area on the third sternite that is more visible in the male. Sternite VII bears four usually crenulate carinae.

Metasoma and telson ( Figs. 54–59). The first to fourth metasomal segments bear a total of 10 variously granulated carinae. The fifth segment has five carinae, and its ventral and lateral surfaces are granulated in females. Males have granulation only on the ventral surface of metasomal segments IV–V and the upper lateral part of metasomal segment I. Dorsolateral keels of the third and fourth segments terminate in sharp teeth in males, and blunt denticles in females, of which the posteriormost denticle is not enlarged. The stridulatory area is located on the dorsal surface of the first and second segments in both sexes. On the third segment the stridulatory area is absent in males and very reduced in females. The entire metasoma, but especially the third to fifth segments, and the telson are densely pilose. The ventral surface of the telson is strongly granulated. The metasoma of males is more narrow; metasomal segment V length/ width ratio is 1.82–2.05 in males and 1.57 in females. The telson is bulbous, with the aculeus shorter than the vesicle in females and the same length as the vesicle in males.

Pedipalps ( Figs. 71–83). The pedipalps are hirsute with short setae, only the trochanter and femur bear long setae externally. The femur bears four carinae. The patella is strongly granulated without distinct carinae. The chela is smooth without carinae. The movable and fixed fingers of the pedipalp bear 12–13 rows of granules, all with external and internal accessory granules. Pedipalp fingers are not enlarged, movable finger length/ manus length ratio 1.7 in male. Pedipalp fingers of male with inner side of base smooth, no trace of tubercle. Manus of pedipalp of male broad, pedipalp chela length/ width ratio is 3.05–3.13 in males and 4.27 in females.

Legs ( Figs. 67–70). Legs III and IV bear tibial spurs. Retrolateral and prolateral pedal spurs are present on all legs. All legs without distinct carinae and smooth. The tarsomeres bear two rows of macrosetae on the ventral surface and other macrosetae on the other surfaces. Bristlecombs are present on all legs, although slightly reduced on the fourth leg.

Measurements. See Table 2.

AFFINITIES. The described features distinguish P. hamar   sp. n. from all other species of the genus. They are recounted in the key below. P. hamar   sp. n. is similar to members of the " Parabuthus liosoma   complex" represented by P. abyssinicus   , P. leiosoma   , and P. maximus   from which can be unequivocally separated by: 1) metasoma of male narrow, for example metasomal segment V length/ width ratio is 1.82–2.05 in male P. hamar   sp. n. and broader in the other three species ( Figs. 187 versus 183–185; metasomal segment V length/ width ratio is 1.50–1.73 in males P. abyssinicus   , P. liosoma   , and P. maximus   ); 2) dorsal stridulation area of metasomal segment III absent in male P. hamar   sp. n.. present or reduced in the other three species ( Figs. 187 versus 183–185); 3) patella of pedipalp strongly granulated in P. hamar   sp. n. ( Fig. 76) and in P. maximus   ( Fig. 182), smooth in P. liosoma   ( Fig. 180) and finely granulated in P. abyssinicus   ( Fig. 181).

COMMENTS ON LOCALITIES AND LIFE STRATEGY. The first author visited the type locality 16EF ( Fig. 93) on 14–15 April 2016 and collected with UV light. At the locality, the first author recorded a maximum daytime temperature of 34.7 ºC, and nighttime temperatures of 27.4 ºC shortly after sunset, dropping to 21.7 ºC (minimum temperature) before sunrise, and humidity varied between 55% and 65%. In addition to P. hamar   sp. n. the first author also recorded at this locality Hottentotta trilineatus (Peters, 1862)   , Lychas obsti Kraepelin, 1913   , Parabuthus pallidus Pocock, 1895   , and Somalicharmus whitmanae Kovařík, 1998   . All four of these scorpion species were more common at this locality than P. hamar   sp. n.

The first author visited the locality 16EC on 11–12 April 2016 and collected the male paratype of P. hamar   sp. n. on the margin of a dry river-bed with UV light. At the locality, the first author recorded nighttime temperatures of 28.1 ºC shortly after sunset, dropping to 22.6 ºC (minimum temperature) before sunrise, and humidity varied between 59% and 78%. In addition to P. hamar   sp. n. the first author also recorded at this locality Hottentotta trilineatus   , Lychas obsti   , and Parabuthus pallidus   . All three of these scorpion species were relatively common at this locality.

The first author visited the locality 16EH on 16–17 April 2016. The female paratype of P. hamar   sp. n. was in a ca. 40 cm deep borrow with the entrance in open terrain. At this locality, the first author recorded a maximum daytime temperature 30.5 ºC, and nighttime temperatures of 25.0 ºC shortly after sunset, dropping to 17.8 ºC (minimum temperature) before sunrise, and humidity varied between 46% and 99% (raining season). In addition to P. hamar   sp. n. the first author also recorded at this locality Gint gaitako Kovařík et al., 2013   , Hottentotta trilineatus   , Parabuthus pallidus   , and Pandinops sp.  

VI

Mykotektet, National Veterinary Institute

V

Royal British Columbia Museum - Herbarium