Parabuthus pallidus Pocock, 1895

Kovařík, František, Lowe, Graeme, Plíšková, Jana & Šťáhlavský, František, 2016, Scorpions of the Horn of Africa (Arachnida: Scorpiones). Part VII. Parabuthus Pocock, 1890 (Buthidae) with description of P. hamar sp. n. and P. kajibu sp. n. from Ethiopia, Euscorpius 228, pp. 1-58: 41-50

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65077794-E810-4C60-B7C1-D19D97295CB4

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lsid:zoobank.org:pub:65077794-E810-4C60-B7C1-D19D97295CB4

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http://treatment.plazi.org/id/0386878A-FFFA-DC7D-FC3C-6935F6C93070

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scientific name

Parabuthus pallidus Pocock, 1895
status

 

Parabuthus pallidus Pocock, 1895  

( Figs. 87, 144–163, 192, 201, 204, Table 1)

Parabuthus pallidus Pocock, 1895: 312–314   ; Fet & Lowe, 2000: 208–209 (complete reference list until 2000); Kovařík, 2003: 145; Kovařík & Whitman, 2005: 111–112.

= Parabuthus mixtus Borelli, 1925: 13–16   ; Caporiacco, 1941: 34; Fet & Lowe, 2000: 207 (syn. by Kovařík, 2003: 145).

= Parabuthus mixtus obscurior Caporiacco, 1941: 34   ; Fet & Lowe, 2000: 207; Kovařík & Whitman, 2005: 111 (syn. by Kovařík, 2003: 145).

= Parabuthus zavattarii Caporiacco, 1939: 305–306   ; Fet & Lowe, 2000: 211; Kovařík & Whitman, 2005: 112 (syn. by Kovařík, 2003: 145, 159).

=? Riftobuthus inexpectatus Lourenço et al., 2010: 281   , figs. 1 and 2. Syn. n. (see comments under genus)

TYPE LOCALITY AND   TYPE REPOSITORY. Kenya, Mombasa; BMNH   .

TYPE MATERIAL EXAMINED. Ethiopia, Sagan-Omo , El Banno, 2. V   .1939, 1♀ 1im. (lectotype and paralectotype No. 1 of Parabuthus mixtus obscurior Caporiacco, 1941   ), leg. E. Zavattari, rev. M. Vachon (VA 1578), MZUF   No. 547   . Somalia, Balad , 2♀ (lectotype and paralectotype of Parabuthus mixtus Borelli, 1925   ), MCSN   .

ADDITIONAL ETHIOPIAN MATERIAL RECENTLY EXAM- INED. Ethiopia, Oromia State, Borena region, Negele env., 05°57'14"N 39°40'30"E, 1343 m a.s.l. (Locality No. 13 ED), 19.XI.2014 GoogleMaps   , 1♂, leg. F. Kovařík; Oromia State, Borana Province, Negele env., 05°21'36"N 39°32'04.7"E, 1452 m a.s.l. (Locality No. 13 EF), 26.- 27. GoogleMaps   VI.2013 GoogleMaps   , 1♂, leg. F. Kovařík; Oromia State, Borana Province , 05°04'01"N 39°28'47.7"E, 1044 m a.s.l. (Locality No. 13 EG), 27. GoogleMaps   VI.2013 GoogleMaps   , 5♂ 1♀ 1im., leg. F. Kovařík; Oromia State, Borana Province, Wachille , 04°50'50"N 39°18'25.3"E, 808 m a.s.l. ( Fig. 160, Locality No. 13 EH), 27. GoogleMaps   VI.2013 GoogleMaps   , 3♂ 3♀, leg. F. Kovařík; Oromia State, Borana Province , 04°25'31.5"N 38°58'14"E, 1171 m a.s.l. (Locality No. 13 EI), 27.- 28. GoogleMaps   VI.2013 GoogleMaps   , 1♂ 3♀, leg. F. Kovařík; Oromia State, Borana Province , 04°10'35"N 38°18'52.2"E, 1515 m a.s.l. (Locality No. 13 EJ), 28. GoogleMaps   VI.2013 GoogleMaps   , 11♂ 8♀ ( Figs. 158–159), leg. F. Kovařík; Oromia State, Borana Province, Yabello , 04°53'27.7"N 38°07'42.5"E, 1695 m a.s.l. ( Fig. 161, Locality No. 13 EL), 29.-30. GoogleMaps   VI.2013 GoogleMaps   , 3♂ 2♀, leg. F. Kovařík et J. Plíšková; Oromia State, 04°58'05"N 37°53'13.2"E, 1327 m a.s.l. ( Fig. 162, Locality No. 13EM), 30. GoogleMaps   VI.2013, 1♀, leg. F. Kovařík et J. Plíšková; Southern Nationalities and Peoples Region Federal State ( SNNPR), Konso , Dabub , 05°20'33"N 37°26'57"E, 1381 m a.s.l. (Locality No. 13 EN), 30. GoogleMaps   VI.2013 GoogleMaps   , 2♂, leg. F. Kovařík et J. Plíšková; SNNPR, Woito , 05°22'23.7"N 36°59'37.3"E, 598 m a.s.l. (Locality No. 13 EO), 1.VII.2013 GoogleMaps   , 1♂, leg. F. Kovařík; SNNPR, Tsamai, Luqua , 05°27'20"N 36°49'50"E, 660 m a.s.l. ( Fig. 163, Locality No. 13 EP), 1.-2.VII.2013 GoogleMaps   , 2♂ 2♀ 3ims.16juvs., leg. F. Kovařík; SNNPR, Hammar , 05°27'29"N 36°39'42"E, 1398 m a.s.l. (Locality No. 1 3 EQ), 3.VII.2013 GoogleMaps   , 4♂ 2♀, leg. F. Kovařík; SNNPR, near Omorate , 04°48'20.4"N 36°25'32.3"E, 761 m a.s.l. (Locality No. 13 ET), 4.VII.2013 GoogleMaps   , 1juv., leg. F. Kovařík; SNNPR, Omorate ( Kelem ), 04°48'42"N 36°03'16.7"E, 373 m a.s.l. (Locality No. 13EU), 4.-5.VII.2013 GoogleMaps   , 1♂ ( Figs. 144–145) 2♀ ( Figs. 146–147) 10juvs., leg. F. Kovařík et J. Plíšková; SNNPR, Hammar , E of Turmi, 04°52'17"N 36°38'44"E, 385 m a.s.l. (Locality No. 13 EV), 5.VII.2013 GoogleMaps   , 1♀, leg. F. Kovařík et P. Novák; SNNPR, "lower valley of the Omo river", Chew Bahr , 04°50'38.5"N 36°44'11.4"E, 625 m a.s.l. (Locality No. 13 EW), 5.-6.VII.2013 GoogleMaps   , 3♀ 9juvs., leg. F. Kovařík et V. Socha   ; SNNPR, Gamo Gofa Province , 20 km SE Konso, 05°14'33"N 37°32'06"E, 850 m a.s.l., 11-13. GoogleMaps   V.2015, 2♀ 3♂ 5juvs., leg. P. Kučera; SNNPR, Gamo Gofa Province , 40 km W Konso, 05°19'44"N 37°03'54"E, 600 m a.s.l., 14. GoogleMaps   V.2015, 2♂ 1♀ 1juv., leg. P. Kučera; SNNPR Gamo Gofa Province, Turmi env., 04°58'05"N 36° 29'13"E, 940 m a.s.l., 16. GoogleMaps   V.2015, 1♀ 2juvs., leg. P. Kučera; Oromia State, Sidamo Province, 115 km N Moyale, near Wachile , 04°32'34"N 39°03'08"E, 1070 m a.s.l., 22-23. GoogleMaps   V.2015, 1♂, leg. P. Kučera; Oromia State, Sidamo Province, 60 km SSW Negele borena, Goba village , 04°51'48"N 39°18'35"E, 750 m a.s.l., 24. GoogleMaps   V. 2015, 1♀ 5juvs., leg. P. Kučera; SNNPR, Turmi , 04°58' 32"N 36°30'53"E, 908 m a.s.l. (Locality No. 16EA), 5♂ ( Figs. 87, 148, 192, 201) 2♀ ( Fig. 149) 1juv., 9.- 11. GoogleMaps   IV.2016, leg. F. Kovařík; SNNPR, near Turmi , 04°44'21"N 36°19'53"E, 565 m a.s.l. (Locality No. 16 EC), 11.-12. GoogleMaps   IV.2016 GoogleMaps   , 1♂ 1♀, leg. F. Kovařík; SNNPR, 20 km SE Konzo , 05°14'33"N 37°32'06"E, 839 m a.s.l. (Locality No. 16 EF), 14.-15. GoogleMaps   IV.2016 GoogleMaps   , 1♂ 1♀ 3juvs., leg. F. Kovařík; Oromia State, Sidamo Province, Wachile , 04°32'33"N 39°03'07"E, 1051 m a.s.l. (Locality No. 16 EH), 16.-17. GoogleMaps   IV.2016 GoogleMaps   , 1♂ 1♀, leg. F. Kovařík. All specimens are in the first authors collection ( FKCP)   .

DIAGNOSIS. Adults from 45 mm (male) to 90 mm (female) long. Base color uniformly yellow to yellowish brown to grey including metasomal segments and telson. Pectine teeth number 33–38 in males and 28–36 in females. Stridulatory area present on dorsal surface of metasomal segments I to IV in both sexes, more pronounced on first and second segments, reduced on third and fourth segments. Metasoma hirsute, more so in female. Metasomal segment V length/ width ratio 1.40– 1.65 in males. Movable and fixed fingers of pedipalp bearing 10–12 rows of granules, all with external and internal accessory granules. Pedipalp fingers not enlarged. Pedipalp fingers of males with inner side of base smooth, no trace of tubercle. Manus of pedipalp smooth and narrow in both sexes, pedipalp chela length/ width ratio 4.30–4.80 in both sexes. Tarsomere I of legs I–III with bristlecombs reduced, usually composed of 6–10 bristles.

COMMENTS ON LIFE STRATEGY. Figures 150–157 were taken at night and show foraging and feeding behavior. The first author observed predation behavior of P.

pallidus   in the field at night. The scorpions were able to capture and feed on coleopteran ( Tenebrionidae   , probably Pimeliinae   ) larvae. These larvae were found in burrows at the bottom of funnels in sand, similar to ant lion larvae ( Myrmeleontidae   ). The scorpions seized the larvae with the tips of their pedipalp fingers and extended the metasoma and telson over the entire body to sting it. After waiting for the injected venom to induce flaccid paralysis and loosen the muscles of the prey, they pulled out the larva and carried it to a nearby shrub, climbed up on a twig, and devoured it there ( Figs. 150– 151). The same hunting strategy was observed to be employed by other scorpions, for example Neobuthus awashensis Kovařík et Lowe, 2012   (see Lowe & Kovařík, 2016: 43, figs. 162–165). Other photos show P. pallidus   eating different insects and arachnids - a juvenile of the scorpion Parabuthus hamar   sp. n. ( Fig. 152), Heteroptera ( Fig. 153), Solifugae ( Fig. 154), Gryllidae   ( Fig. 155), and Caelifera ( Fig. 156).

DISTRIBUTION. Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, Tanzania.

V

Royal British Columbia Museum - Herbarium

MZUF

Museo Zoologico La Specola, Universita di Firenze

MCSN

Museo Civico di Storia Naturale, Verona

VI

Mykotektet, National Veterinary Institute

EJ

Ein Yabrud collection catalogue entries at The Hebrew University

ET

East Texas State University

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Arachnida

Order

Scorpiones

Family

Buthidae

Genus

Parabuthus

Loc

Parabuthus pallidus Pocock, 1895

Kovařík, František, Lowe, Graeme, Plíšková, Jana & Šťáhlavský, František 2016
2016
Loc

Parabuthus pallidus

POCOCK 1895: 314
1895