Blepharoneura splendida Giglio-Tos

Norrbom, Allen L. & Condon, Marty, 2010, Revision of the femoralis group of Blepharoneura Loew (Diptera: Tephritidae) 2374, Zootaxa 2374 (1), pp. 1-139: 109-112

publication ID 10.11646/zootaxa.2374.1.1

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Blepharoneura splendida Giglio-Tos


Blepharoneura splendida Giglio-Tos  

Figs. 64–65 View FIGURES 56–65 , 184–187 View FIGURES 182–187

Blepharoneura splendida Giglio-Tos 1893: 10   ; Giglio-Tos 1895: 58 [type data, additional description]; Lima & Leite 1952: 309; Norrbom et al. 1999: 106 [in catalog].

Hexachaeta splendida: Wulp 1899: 402   [in key], 404 [discussion]; Hendel 1914: 23 [in key, in catalog]; Aczél 1950: 195 [in catalog]; Foote 1967: 18 [in catalog].

Diagnosis. This species, B. sinepuncta   , punctistigma   , and aspiculosa   differ from other Blepharoneura species   in having the thoracic pleuron largely brown, the apical fourth or more of the hind femur dark brown, and the distal part of the wing with oblique bands. Blepharoneura splendida   differs from B. sinepuncta   in having the submedial scutal vittae separate from or at most narrowly connected to the marks on the posterior margin, and from B. punctistigma   and aspiculosa   by its markings in cell dm (subapical spot [#25] absent or aligned with or fused to posteromedial spot [#24]), its frequent lack of a subapical hyaline spot in the pterostigma, and its mostly nonmicrotrichose scutum. The aculeus tip is stouter than in B. sinepuncta   and aspiculosa   , with the sublateral lobe more pronounced, and the gap between the lateral and sublateral lobes is deeper than in B. punctistigma   .

Description. Head: Dark brown area on ocellar tubercle usually (17 of 22 specimens) extended more than half distance to postocellar seta. Medial vertical seta in yellow area. Medial occipital sclerite with pair of pale brown to dark brown submedial vittae on ventral half. Occipital suture narrowly dark brown, on lateral side bordered by variably shaped brown area extending as band or triangular mark towards postocular setae, sometimes reaching eye margin, and usually (16 of 21 specimens) including lateral vertical seta.

Thorax: Scutum nonmicrotrichose except posterior to dorsocentral seta and laterally, with 2 pairs of dark brown vittae or rows of spots; submedial vitta narrowed or interrupted posterior to transverse suture and usually separated from mark on posterior margin (narrowly connected on at least 1 side in 3 specimens); sublateral vitta interrupted at transverse suture and usually separated from mark on posterior margin (connected in 8 of 17 specimens); posterior margin with 1 broad brown mark narrowed medially or rarely with 2 separate marks. Notopleuron entirely brown or brown except for small pale area surrounding posterior seta. Small brown spot anterior to postsutural supra-alar seta sometimes absent or faint, sometimes connected along transverse suture to lateral vitta. Brown vitta anterior to postalar seta present. Brown spot lateral to dorsolateral corner of scutellum present, connected to sublateral vitta in Costa Rican and Venezuelan specimens. Scutellum with single inverted U-shaped or inverted mushroom shaped medial brown mark extended to basal margin. Subscutellum and mediotergite with pair of dark brown vittae, on ventral half of mediotergite extended to lateral margin or with separate narrow brown mark on margin. Pleuron mostly dark brown, yellow only on propleuron, anterior margin of anepisternum and occasionally narrowly bordering phragma, all or most of katepimeron, greater ampulla, and often dorsal margins of anepimeron, katatergite or anatergite. Basalare with brown spot or entirely brown. Dorsocentral seta aligned with or slightly anterior or posterior to postalar seta.

Legs: Mostly yellow. Mid femur sometimes with anteroventral and posteroventral brown marks on apical 1/5–1/4. Hind femur with entire apical 1/4–1/2 dark brown.

Wing ( Figs. 64–65 View FIGURES 56–65 ): Length 5.14–6.55 mm, width 2.60–3.37 mm, ratio 1.88–2.00. Crossvein r-m at 0.51– 0.56 distance from bm-cu to dm-cu. Cell c with 2 hyaline spots, basal spot broad and rectangular, reaching costa and subcosta, distal spot slightly larger to distinctly smaller, rectangular or constricted anteriorly, occasionally not reaching costa; medial brown area as dark as to distinctly paler than area of cell r1 posterior to pterostigma, sometimes paler medially, usually broader than or as broad as basal hyaline spot, usually as broad as but sometimes narrower or broader than distal spot. Pterostigma usually without subapical hyaline spot, occasionally (6 Mexican specimens) with small to large subhyaline to pale brown spot [#3]. Cells r1 and r2+3 entirely dark brown basally (proximal to apex of R1) or only with 1 diffuse, indistinct pale brown spot posterior to apex of vein Sc. Radial cells medially with tapering basal marginal hyaline mark [#5 fused with additional spot?] in cell r1 and aligned spots in r2+3 [#8] and r4+5 [#14] (latter rarely absent) forming acute triangular mark, extended at most midway across r4+5; cell r4+5 with hyaline spot [#15] near anterior end of dmcu often extending to or almost to vein M, especially in Mesoamerican specimens. Cell r2+3 without marginal hyaline marks. Cell r4+5 with hyaline band from posteroapical margin, extending parallel to costa almost to or usually to vein R2+3 or slightly into r1 (fused with subapical hyaline spot), sometimes constricted along vein R4+5 (some Mesoamerican specimens), usually slightly tapering anteriorly, approximately as broad as marginal brown area or (some Mesoamerican specimens) slightly to much broader. Cells m and r4+5 with inverted Vshaped hyaline mark [fusion of at least #26A, #26, #27, #29], extending to or almost to vein R4+5, occasionally (1 Mexican, 1 Costa Rican specimen) connected anteriorly to most distal hyaline wing band to form 3 branched mark, both arms reaching margin in cell m. Cell br with subbasal hyaline spot [#12]. Cell bm rarely (1 wing of 1 specimen) with subbasal hyaline spot [#19], usually with only medial or subapical circular hyaline spot [#20]. Cell bcu rarely (2 specimens) with hyaline spot in lobe. Anal lobe hyaline except brown area from apical part of lobe of cell bcu and base of vein A1+Cu2 crossing apex of vein A2. Posteromedial part of wing with large, usually somewhat Y-shaped hyaline mark, sometimes (more commonly in Mesoamerican specimens) connected to mark across vein A1+Cu2 [fused #34, #39] to form H- or X-shaped mark or rarely (3 Venezuelan, 1 Ecuadorean specimens) with anterior distal arm in cell dm isolated or small; anterior proximal part of mark [aligned and fused #13, #21, #22, #32, possibly also #51, #52 or #23 when broad] extending from subapically in cell br across cells dm, sometimes broader on proximal or distal side especially posteriorly in cell dm; part in cell br [#13] slightly to strongly narrowed anteriorly, often (15 of 26 specimens) not reaching vein R4+5, br without more proximal hyaline spot [#44]; posterior part of mark [fusion of at least #32, #33, #36] extending across cell cu1 to wing margin; anterior distal part of mark [usually fusion of #25, #24] usually extending from anterior side of cell dm but not reaching vein M, usually broadly connected to proximal branch anteriorly and medially in cell cu1 and occasionally (some Mesoamerican specimens) posteriorly in cell dm, or less commonly (some Venezuelan specimens) with anterior part of distal branch isolated in cell dm or constricted along vein Cu1, rarely (1 Ecuadorean male, 1 wing of 1 Venezuelan male) reduced to small posterior hyaline area or spot in dm; cell cu1 with subapical marginal hyaline spot [#37] small to moderately large, sometimes reaching vein Cu1.

Abdomen: Syntergite 1+2 with pair of irregular posterolateral brown marks formed from fused submedial and sublateral spots and posterolateral band. Tergites 3–5 with pair of irregular, shallow U-shaped or Wshaped marks, separated medially, formed from connected or fused submedial, sublateral and anterolateral spots and posterolateral bands, occasionally very broad laterally (without or with small anterior sublateral yellow area) or rarely (Upala ♂) entirely brown except base of syntergite 1+2 and irregular medial vitta.

Female terminalia: Oviscape entirely dark brown, length 0.78–1.08 mm. Aculeus ( Figs. 184–187 View FIGURES 182–187 ) 0.58– 0.83 mm long, 1.49–2.02 times as long as wide, with acute scales dorsally and ventrally on membrane medially; tip angular basolaterally, short triangular (lobed part 0.32–0.40 times as long as wide), with small, convex medial lobe and 3 pairs of step-like lobes separated by relatively deep gaps; sublateral lobe larger than submedial lobe; lateral gap 0.98–1.29 times as long as wide. Spermathecae subspherical, with straight to convoluted, slender sclerotized neck and large cylindrical basal apodeme (similar to B. femoralis   ).

Male terminalia: Medial surstylus with prensisetae subequal, separated by several times width of medial prensiseta, medial prensiseta on long lobe, lateral prensiseta on short lobe.

Distribution. Mexico (Nayarit, San Luis Potosí, Tamaulipas, Veracruz), Guatemala, Costa Rica, Venezuela, and Ecuador. Although B. splendida   occurs in Costa Rica (and presumably also in the other Central American countries besides Guatemala), the male from Río Sucio, Costa Rica reported as this species by Wulp (1899) is B. sinepuncta   . Specimens for which elevation data were provided by the collectors were taken at 480 to 1600 m.

Type data. Holotype ♀ ( IMZ), MEXICO, "senza indicazione di località" [unspecified locality], [no date], A. Boucard [examined]. The holotype is a female, not a male as stated in the original description. Given the difficulty of distinguishing the sexes in the femoralis   group because of the small size of the oviscape, there is no reason to doubt that this specimen is the holotype. It has labels with "1215" and, in Giglio-Tos' writing, " Blepharoneura splendida Giglio-Tos   ♀ ".  

Other specimens examined. COSTA RICA: Alajuela: Upala , 20 km S of, 27–31 Mar 1991, F. D. Parker, 1♂ ( USU USNMENT00213872 View Materials )   . San José: San Gerardo de Dota , 9°33'N 83°48'W, 2200 m, 7–11 Aug 1995, E. M. Fisher, 1♂ ( CDFA USNMENT00104207) GoogleMaps   ; Zurquí de Moravia , 10°03'N 84°01'W, 1600 m, Sep 1995, P. Hanson, 1♀ ( USNM USNMENT00050131 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   . ECUADOR: Napo: Huahua Sumaco, Hollin - Loreto road, km 45, Malaise trap, 18 Dec 1989, M. & J. Wasbauer & H. Real, 1♂ ( CDFA USNMENT00104209)   . Pichincha: Maquipucuna Biological Reserve , Malaise trap, 2– 3 Aug 1998, F. G. Andrews, 1 ♂ ( CDFA USNMENT00104208)   . GUATEMALA: Pochuta, Pacayal , 1000 m, Feb-Mar 1931, J. Bequaert, 1♀ ( MCZ USNMENT00213874 View Materials )   ; Pochuta, Santa Emilia , 1000 m, Feb-Mar 1931, J. Bequaert, 1♂ ( MCZ USNMENT00213879 View Materials )   . Escuintla: Palín , 14°24'N 90°42'W, McPhail traps, 1992, J. López, 1♀ ( USNM USNMENT00213838 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   . Guatemala: Santa Catarina Pinula, Puerta Parada, Schuster property, 14.5572°N 90.4653°W, 1860 m, Malaise trap, 25 Mar - 1 Apr 2006, J. C. Schuster, 1♂ 1♀ ( FSCA USNMENT00654008– 09 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   MEXICO: Nayarit: San Blas , La Bajada, 20–21 Mar 1983, W. J. Hanson, 1 ♀ ( USU  

USNMENT00213873). San Luis Potosí: Xilitla, River 1 km E of, 600 m, 7 Jul 1990, I. Yarom, 1♀ ( USNM USNMENT00213871 View Materials )   . Tamaulipas: W of Gomez Farias, Rancho de Cielo , 3 Jul 1989, R. Jones, 1♀ ( TAMU USNMENT00212642)   ; 74 mi S of Ciudad Victoria, Gómez Farias , W of, 15 Nov 1985, P. Kovarik, R. Jones & K. Haack, 1♂ ( TAMU USNMENT002126421)   . Veracruz: Estación de Biología Los Tuxtlas , 3 Mar 1985, A. Ibarra, 1♂ ( IEXV USNMENT00213878)   ; Estación de Biología Los Tuxtlas , El Viguia, 480 m, 17 Mar 1986, E. Ramírez, 1♂ ( IEXV USNMENT00213881)   ; Salto de Eyipantla , 21 Feb 1985, F. Arias, 1♀ ( IEXV USNMENT00213877)   ; Xalapa , 22 Feb 1998, A. Freidberg, 1♂ ( TAUI USNMENT00213876)   . VENEZUELA: Aragua: Rancho Grande , 1100 m, 20 Mar 1946, 1♂ ( AMNH USNMENT00213863 View Materials )   ; same, 3 May 1951, F. Fernandez Y., 2♂ 2 ♀ ( IZAM USNMENT00213864–65, USNMENT00213867, USNMENT00213883)   ; 1♂ 2♀ ( USNM USNMENT00213868 View Materials , USNMENT00213870 View Materials , USNMENT00213882 View Materials )   ; same, 5 May 1951, 1♂ ( IZAM USNMENT00213866)   ; same, 10 Jun 1954, C. J. Rosales, 1♀ ( IZAM USNMENT00213869)   . Monagas: Caripe , 21 July 1953, C. J. Rosales & J. R. Requena, 1♂ ( IZAM USNMENT00213862)   .


Utah State University


Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History


Museum of Comparative Zoology


Florida State Collection of Arthropods, The Museum of Entomology


American Museum of Natural History














Blepharoneura splendida Giglio-Tos

Norrbom, Allen L. & Condon, Marty 2010

Hexachaeta splendida:

Foote, R. H. 1967: 18
Aczel, M. L. 1950: 195
Hendel, F. G. 1914: 23
Wulp, F. M. van der 1899: 402

Blepharoneura splendida

Lima, A. M. da & Costa & Leite, I. da & Costa 1952: 309
Giglio-Tos, E. 1895: 58
Giglio-Tos, E. 1893: 10