Blepharoneura macwilliamsae Norrbom & Condon

Norrbom, Allen L. & Condon, Marty, 2010, Revision of the femoralis group of Blepharoneura Loew (Diptera: Tephritidae) 2374, Zootaxa 2374 (1), pp. 1-139: 79-81

publication ID 10.11646/zootaxa.2374.1.1

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scientific name

Blepharoneura macwilliamsae Norrbom & Condon

new species

Blepharoneura macwilliamsae Norrbom & Condon   , new species

Figs. 3 View FIGURES 2–5 , 43–44 View FIGURES 36–45 , 130 View FIGURES 126–135

Blepharoneura sp.   43: Norrbom & Condon 1999: 138.

Diagnosis. This species can be distinguished from other species of Blepharoneura   by the following combination of characters: scutum with 2 pairs of brown vittae; scutellum dorsally and anepisternum entirely yellow; meron with at least a pale brown area; cell r2+3 between crossveins r-m and dm-cu more extensively hyaline than brown; and cell r4+5 with spot nearest to crossvein dm-cu no more than half as wide as cell. The aculeus tip has a small convex medial lobe rather than a notch or broad concavity as in similar species such as B. amplihyalina   , chaconi   , regina   , mikenoltei   , and mexicana   .

Description. Head: Dark brown area on ocellar tubercle less than half distance to postocellar seta or almost to seta. Small medial brown spot often (5 of 11 specimens) present slightly ventral to postocellar seta. Medial occipital sclerite with pair of dark brown submedial vittae on ventral half. Occipital suture narrowly dark brown.

Thorax: Scutum entirely microtrichose, with 2 pairs of dark brown vittae; submedial vitta sometimes interrupted slightly posterior to transverse suture and not connected to marks on posterior margin; sublateral vitta sometimes narrowly interrupted at transverse suture, posterior part uninterrupted, separated from mark on posterior margin; posterior margin with 2 broad quadrate dark brown marks narrowly separated. Notopleuron with small brown spot in posterolateral corner, sometimes faint. Small brown spot anterior to postsutural supra-alar seta present, sometimes faint. Small dark brown spot anterior to postalar seta present, sometimes second spot present lateral to postsutural supra-alar seta. Large dark brown spot lateral to dorsolateral corner of scutellum present. Scutellum entirely yellow or with only narrow brown mark ventrolaterally, rarely (2 of 11 specimens) with pair of small, narrow basal brown spots aligned with centers of posterior scutal spots on disk; side usually with small, sometimes faint, brown spot on or near ventrobasal margin. Subscutellum dark brown except narrowly medially. Mediotergite brown except narrowly medially and more broadly dorsolaterally or sometimes (2 Zurquí males) with all of lateral margin yellow. Pleuron mostly yellow, with following markings: medial brown spot, usually small, usually (9 of 11 specimens) present on anepimeron; elongate brown mark ventrally on katatergite and covering most of anatergite or series of 2–3 spots ventrally on katatergite and ventrally and dorsally on anatergite; elongate spot or most of meron brown, occasionally pale brown or orange brown; sometimes (5 of 11 specimens) with dorsal brown spot on katatergite; or less commonly (3 of 11 specimens) with faint diffuse brown mark on posterior half of katepisternum. Basalare entirely yellow or with brown spot. Dorsocentral seta aligned with or usually slightly anterior to postalar seta.

Legs: Mostly yellow. Mid and hind femora with elongate, usually moderately broad anteroventral and posteroventral orange to red brown marks on apical 1/4–1/3. Hind tibia sometimes basally or mostly dark orange.

Wing ( Figs. 3 View FIGURES 2–5 , 43–44 View FIGURES 36–45 ): Length 7.72–9.01 mm, width 3.76–4.16 mm, ratio 1.98–2.17. Crossvein r-m at 0.52–0.56 distance from bm-cu to dm-cu. Cell c with 2 rectangular to trapezoidal hyaline spots, both reaching costa and subcosta but sometimes fading to pale brown anteriorly and/or posteriorly; medial brown area paler than area of cell r1 posterior to pterostigma, sometimes paler medially or posteriorly, as broad as to distinctly narrower than basal hyaline spot and usually slightly to distinctly narrower than distal spot. Pterostigma usually with pale brown subapical spot [#3], often poorly differentiated, often reaching R1 (7 of 11 specimens), but sometimes small (1 specimen) or absent (3 specimens). Cells r1 and r2+3 basally (proximal to apex of R1) each with 1–2 hyaline or pale brown marks, longer than wide except sometimes distal spot in r1, usually especially elongate if 1 mark present. Radial cells medially with 1 relatively narrow to slightly broad quadrate basal marginal hyaline mark [#5] in cell r1; cell r2+3 with broad hyaline spot aligned with r1 mark [#8] and slightly more distal broad to very broad hyaline spot [#9]; cell r4+5 with broad hyaline spot [#14] aligned with r1 mark, sometimes very broad and extending more distally, extending posteriorly slightly more than halfway across cell, with hyaline spot [#15] aligned with or slightly proximal or distal to dm-cu small to moderate sized, and often (6 of 11 specimens) with anterior hyaline spot near midlength [#48], rarely (1 specimen) with 2 additional minute yellowish spots anteriorly. Distally cell r1 usually without marginal hyaline spot [#6] (present on 1 wing of 1 specimen) but with 1–3 (usually 2) pale brown posterior spots. Cell r2+3 with 2 marginal hyaline marks [#10, 11], proximal mark extending to vein R4+5, distal mark often (8 of 11 specimens) fused with spots in cell r4+5 [#16, #18] to form concave band extending to posteroapical margin of cell r4+5. Cell r4+5 with small hyaline spot [#16] anteriorly, aligned between apical marks in cell r2+3 or with distal mark or fused with distal mark to form band, occasionally with second small spot aligned with proximal mark in r2+3; in males with small isolated medial and/or posterior hyaline spot(s) aligned with proximal mark in cell m, in females with large posterior hyaline mark fused with proximal mark in cell m to form band, and usually also fused with distal mark in cell m to form irregular inverted V-shaped mark; with 1 marginal spot [#18], but in 1 wing each of 2 specimens crescent-shaped or constricted [fused spots #18, #18A?], isolated [5 specimens] or connected to anterior spot [#16]. Cell m without small proximal hyaline spot [#49] near midlength of dm-cu; with 2 hyaline marks, proximal mark [fused #26A, #26, #27?] large but usually narrowly separated from margin (touching in 1♂, 3♀), in male not reaching vein M, in female forming continuous band with spot in cell r4+5, distal mark [#29] in male usually not reaching vein M, in female reaching vein M and usually connected with spot in r4+5 to form inverted V-shaped mark. Cell br with relatively large quadrate subbasal hyaline spot [#12]. Cell bm with single broad hyaline area [fused #19, #20]. Cell bcu occasionally (3 specimens) with pale brown spot in lobe, sometimes extending anteriorly into cell cu1. Posteromedial part of wing with large broad hyaline areas; cell br with broad quadrate subapical hyaline spot [#13] and usually smaller but broad usually quadrate more proximal spot [#44], both reaching and anterior and posterior margins of cell, occasionally fused into 1 very broad mark; cell dm with long broad hyaline area [fusion of at least #51, #52, #21, #22, #23, #24, #50] sometimes partially narrowly divided medially by faint brown, aligned with broad hyaline area in cell cu1, anteriorly extending to or beyond r-m, but tapered distally, extending farther posteriorly than anteriorly; cell cu1 with large medial hyaline area [fusion of at least #31, #32, #33, #34, #36, #36A], usually anteriorly trilobed and posteriorly bilobed, including 2 anterior and 1 subbasal marginal or submarginal brown spots, very broad on posterior wing margin; subapical marginal hyaline spot [#37] large, reaching or almost reaching vein Cu1, occasionally connected to large proximal hyaline area. Cell dm with medial and/or anterior subapical hyaline spot [#25?] and usually with posterior subapical hyaline spot [#53] (absent in 3 specimens), occasionally connected to proximal hyaline area, aligned with subapical mark in cell cu1.

Abdomen: Mostly yellow, all tergites with 4 rows of evenly spaced dark brown spots, with additional anterolateral spot slightly separated from margin (often fused with sublateral spot), and with paired bands on posterior margin, narrowly connected or usually narrowly separated medially, on tergites 3–6 extending anteriorly on lateral margin; spots on syntergite 1+2 and tergite 5 sometimes connected to posterior band.

Female terminalia: Oviscape mostly orange, distal 1/5–1/3 dark brown, dorsally up to basal half also dark brown; length 1.10 mm. Aculeus ( Fig. 130 View FIGURES 126–135 ) 0.85–0.93 mm long, 1.98–2.04 times as long as wide, with acute scales dorsally and ventrally on membrane medially; tip angular basolaterally, short triangular (lobed part 0.25–0.31 times as long as wide), with small, convex medial lobe and 3 pairs of step-like lobes; sublateral lobe larger than submedial lobe; lobes separated by deep gaps, lateral gap 1.07–1.23 times as long as wide. Spermathecae subspherical, with slightly convoluted, slender sclerotized neck and large cylindrical basal apodeme.

Male terminalia: Medial surstylus with prensisetae separated by several times width of medial prensiseta, medial prensiseta on long lobe, lateral prensiseta subequal to medial prensiseta.

Distribution. Costa Rica. The type specimens were collected between 1600–2350 m elevation.

Type data. Holotype ♀ ( USNM USNMENT00048601 View Materials ), COSTA RICA: San José: Zurquí de Moravia , 10°03'N 84°01'W, 1600 m, May 1995, P. Hanson GoogleMaps   . Paratypes: COSTA RICA: Cartago: Cañon Genesis II, 4 km NE of, 9°42'30N 83°54'30W, 2350 m, Apr 1995, P. Hanson, 1♀ ( UCRSJ USNMENT00048929) GoogleMaps   1♀ ( TAUI USNMENT00048930) GoogleMaps   ; same, Jun 1995, 1♀ ( USNM USNMENT00048612 View Materials )   ; same, Mar 1996, 1♀ ( USNM USNMENT00048929 View Materials )   ; same, May 1996, 1♀ ( USNM USNMENT00213841 View Materials )   ; La Cangreja, 9°48'N 83°58'W, 1950 m, Sep-Dec 1992, P. Hanson, 1♂ ( UCRSJ USNMENT000050085) GoogleMaps   1♀ ( USNM USNMENT00048509 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   . San José: San Gerardo de Dota , 9°33'N 83°48'W, 2200 m, 12 Jan 1996, C. W. Young, 1♂ ( CMP USNMENT00213843) GoogleMaps   ; San Gerardo de Dota , 9°33'N 83°48'W, forest behind Albergue Savegre, Sendero Los Robles, approx. 1 km up trail, 2300 m, emerged 25 Aug 1997 reared by B. Gamboa from larva mining stem of Sechium sp.   collected 21 May 1997, P. Quesada, A. L. Norrbom, E. Rojas, B. Gamboa, F. A. Quesada, J. Gonzalez & M. A. Zumbado, 97–BGR-025.3, 1♂ ( INBio INBio002151652 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   ; Zurquí de Moravia , 10°03'N 84°01'W, 1600 m, Apr-May 1993, P. Hanson, 1♂ ( USNM USNMENT00048483 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   ; same, Aug 1995, 1♂ ( USNM USNMENT00048624 View Materials )   ; San Gerardo, by secluded waterfall on stream in front of Albergue Savegre lodge, reared ex stem of Sechium pittieri   collected 20 Jan 2000, pupariated 21–22 Jan, eclosed Feb 2000, M. A. Condon, Ble 140, 1♀ ( USNM)   .

Etymology. The name of this species is a noun in the genitive case named for Trinity McWilliams, a student at Cornell College, who skillfully captured an adult of this species when it was on the terminal meristem of a branch of Sechium pittieri   .

Biology. A single adult male of this species was reared in 1997 from larvae mining stems of a cucurbit identified as Sechium sp.   by botanist José Gonzalez ( INBio, Costa Rica) by spotting flowers in the canopy. A total of 8 larvae were found, mostly by Pancho Quesada, all of which had mined at least 2–3 feet of stems found on or near ground level   .

The female reared from S. pittieri   ( Figs. 210–211 View FIGURES 210–214 ) developed from one of six larvae found mining stems at San Gerardo in January, 2000. We were unable to rear four of these larvae. The fifth developed into a male with an unusual wing pattern. It may be an aberrant specimen of B. macwilliamsae   . One of these larvae was found in a stem with gelatinous sap oozing from openings in two internodes (between second and third, and between third and fourth nodes from the meristem). One of the larvae consumed almost 5 meters of stem.


Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History


National Biodiversity Institute, Costa Rica














Blepharoneura macwilliamsae Norrbom & Condon

Norrbom, Allen L. & Condon, Marty 2010

Blepharoneura sp.

Norrbom, A. L. & Condon, M. A. 1999: 138