Cock, Matthew J. W., Congdon, T. Colin E. & Collins, Steve C., 2016, Observations on the biology of Afrotropical Hesperiidae (Lepidoptera). Part 9. Hesperiinae incertae sedis: Zingiberales feeders, genera of unknown biology and an overview of the Hesperiinae incertae sedis, Zootaxa 4066 (3), pp. 201-247: 237

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Hesperiinae   incertae sedis genera of unknown biology

Here we note 11 Afrotropical genera of Hesperiinae   incertae sedis, for which we have no information on the food plants or life history, and for which in most cases we would not even hazard a guess.

Gyrogra Lindsey & Miller (1965)   was established for the single species G. subnotata   ( Holland), previously placed in Gorgyra   . Lindsey & Miller (1965) suggest that Gyrogra   is not closely related to Gorgyra   , whose caterpillars feed mostly on Connaraceae ( Cock & Congdon 2013)   , but ‘probably nearer’ Platylesches   and Meza   . Platylesches   spp. feed on Chrysobalanceae but do not seem to be close to any other Afrotropical genera ( Cock & Congdon 2013). Meza   is paraphyletic; the type species, M. meza   has been reported to feed on Poaceae   , while the remaining species belong in a separate genus and feed on Fabaceae   , Linaceae   and Dichapetalaceae ( Cock & Congdon 2013)   . On balance, Gyrogra   seems likely to be a dicotyledon-feeder.

Paracleros Berger   differs from Acleros   in the form of the palpi, as Evans (1937) pointed out, and in details of the male and female genitalia ( Berger 1978). This is primarily a West and central African genus, but two of the six recognised species occur as far east as Kenya ( Collins & Larsen 2000). In Kenya, P. biguttulus (Mabille)   is restricted to the western forests and the coast. It is not rare in parts of western Kenya, for example in Kakamega Forest where MJWC would consider it one of the regular skippers likely to be seen on most visits. The adults rest on low vegetation and come readily to flowers ( Figure 40 View FIGURE 40 ). They are conspicuous as one of the last species on the wing, as dusk sets in, or as rain in the afternoon starts to intensify. Nothing is known of the life history of members of this genus, but the adult similarity to Acleros   suggests it may have similar biology, i.e. a dicotyledon feeder ( Cock & Congdon 2013).

Larsen & Collins (2012) recently established the genus Herila to accommodate Herila herilus (Hopffer)   . The food plants and life history are unknown. Although H. herilus   was previously placed in Teniorhinus   , which is reported to feed on Fabaceae   ( Pringle et al. 1994, Vuattoux 1999, Cock & Congdon 2013), Larsen & Collins (2012) found that Herila does not seem to be closely related to Teniorhinus   or indeed any other genus, so although they suggest it may feed on Brachystegia   spp. ( Fabaceae   ), the question of likely food plants is open. Larsen & Collins (2015) also established a new genus, Hollandus, for H. xanthopepla   ( Holland), which was previously placed in the Poaceae-feeding genus Pardaleodes   ; they suggest that it may be a dicotyledon-feeder, based on the ‘habitat, relative rarity, patchy distribution, and habits’.

Mopala orma (Plötz)   , the only species of the genus, is found from Liberia east to Uganda in wet rainforest in good condition, but is always scarce ( Larsen 2005). Osphantes ogowena (Mabille)   is also the only species of its genus; it is a very rare species found in wetter forest in good condition from Guinea to DR Congo and Zambia ( Larsen 2005). Ceratricula semilutea (Mabille)   is unlike any other African Hesperiinae   ( Larsen 2013). Similarly, the three species of Flandria are unrelated to other genera, except perhaps Ceratricula ( Larsen 2013). Fulda Evans   (8 spp.), Arnetta Watson   (= Galerga Evans) (3 spp.), and Malaza Mabille   (3 spp.) are Madagascan endemic genera ( Lees et al. 2003). We have no information on the early stages and food plants of any of these genera. There are still several interesting opportunities to add to our knowledge of the Afrotropical Hesperiinae   incertae sedis food plants at the genus level.













Cock, Matthew J. W., Congdon, T. Colin E. & Collins, Steve C. 2016

Connaraceae (

Cock & Congdon 2013

Dichapetalaceae (

Cock & Congdon 2013


Lindsey & Miller 1965