Cock, Matthew J. W., Congdon, T. Colin E. & Collins, Steve C., 2016, Observations on the biology of Afrotropical Hesperiidae (Lepidoptera). Part 9. Hesperiinae incertae sedis: Zingiberales feeders, genera of unknown biology and an overview of the Hesperiinae incertae sedis, Zootaxa 4066 (3), pp. 201-247: 225

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Caenides   Holland, 1896

Holland (1896) established this genus with the palm-feeding C. dacela (Hewitson)   as type species. Nine species are currently considered to belong to this genus, but C. hidaroides Aurivillius   and C. dacena (Hewitson)   do not belong on morphological and male genitalia grounds ( Larsen & Collins 2011, 2014). As is the case for Leona   (above) the food plants of species currently placed in the genus Caenides   are diverse, suggesting that the genus may be paraphyletic. Caenides dacela   is recorded from Phoenix reclinata   ( Arecaceae   ) and was treated in Cock et al. (2014). Caenides soritia (Hewitson)   has been reported from an undetermined Zingiberaceae   (Sevastopulo unpublished, 1975) and oil palm, Elaeis guineensis   ( Arecaceae   ) in Côte d’Ivoire ( Vuattoux 1999, Larsen 2005, Vande weghe 2010), but the latter food plant is considered an error below. Caenides kangvensis   Holland has been reared from Thalia geniculata   ( Marantaceae   ) and Gloriosa superba   ( Colchicaceae   ) in Côte d’Ivoire ( Vuattoux 1999, Larsen 2005, Vande weghe 2010). Liliaceae   are not members of the Zingiberales   , and so this food plant record needs confirmation ( Larsen 2005, Cock et al. 2014). We present information below on C. soritia   and C. dacena (Hewitson)   , the food plants of which are Costus   spp. ( Costaceae   ). The food plants and early stages of the remaining Caenides   spp. are as yet unknown.