Synkrotima tsalakpmenoi, Fernandez & Theron & Leiva & Jordaan, 2018

Fernandez, Nestor, Theron, Pieter, Leiva, Sergio & Jordaan, Anine, 2018, Revision of the family Carabodidae (Acari: Oribatida) XVI. Synkrotima tsalakpmenoi sp. nov. from Zimbabwe and Kenya, and Congocepheus thailandae sp. nov. from Thailand, including a complementary study of Cavaecarabodes hauseri (Mahunka 1989), Zootaxa 4504 (3), pp. 371-389: 372-379

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4504.3.4

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:5D91D1A9-413B-4704-A78E-4402FC449943

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/0389B40B-FFD1-781C-FF0A-FCBCFAA6FADF

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Synkrotima tsalakpmenoi
status

sp. nov.

Synkrotima tsalakpmenoi   sp. nov.

( Figures 1–41 View FIGURES 1–8 View FIGURES 9–11 View FIGURES 12–20 View FIGURES 21–34 View FIGURES 35–41 )

Etymology. The specific epithet “tsalakpmenoi” is derived from (tσαλακωµένo Greek=, wrinkled = English) due to characteristics of the notogastral cuticular surface.

Material examined. Holotype.   Female “ Zimbabwe, Mutare II/1945. Leg. R. Mussard ”; material deposited in the Collection of the Natural History Museum of Geneva (MHNG), Switzerland; preserved in 46% ethanol.

Paratypes. Two adult females from different localities, namely “ Zimbabwe, Mutare II/1945. Leg. R. Mussard ” and “ Kenya. Embu distr. Kirimiri Forest, Ouest de Runyenje, alt. 1586 m; tamisage dans la forêt 13 /X/1977. Leg. V. Mahnert & J.L. Perret ”; material deposited in the Collection of the MHNG; preserved in 46% ethanol. Material studied by means of SEM: three female specimens, not deposited   .

Diagnosis (adult female). Integument. Notogaster: longitudinally aligned cuticular chords forming rugose integument.

Setation. Lanceolate, thick, medial longitudinal zone elevated, with small dentitions, triangular in crosssection: notogastral; adanal setae. Lanceolate, with small dentitions, barbate: le. Lanceolate, more or less flat, with elevated medial longitudinal zone: rostral, lamellar setae.

Simple, smooth: anal; simple, with small barbs; epimeral setae 4a, 4b particular shape: 4a thin, elongate, 4b triangular, curved. Simple, sharply tipped: subcapitular setae; flabellate: genital, aggenital setae.

Prodorsum. Complex elevated interlamellar process flat, slightly elevated; polyhedral lateral processes with parallel oblique grooves, one on either side; T-shaped anterior projection. Lamellae resembling elevated ribbon.

Notogaster. Humeral apophysis ovoid, anterior end barely overlapping posterior bothridial zone.

Lateral zone. Deep supratutorial depression; small anterior supratutorial depression. Depressions above and behind acetabulum IV; longitudinal oblique depression posterior to acetabulum IV.

Ventral region. Discidium with triangular sharp tip. Genital plate smaller than anal plate. Shallow depression surrounding elevated zone bearing genital plate; anterior genital furrow present; genital neotrichy 6 to 11 pairs of setae, symmetric or asymmetric distribution.

Large, deep furrow surrounding anterior and medial zones of anal opening, not extending to posterior zone. Adanal setae ad 3 and ad 2 situated on lateral furrow surrounding anal opening; ad 1, outside the lateral furrow.

Description. Measurements. Female, length 827 (658–958) (ten animals measured), width 347 (298–438) (ten animals measured).

Shape. Prodorsum polyhedral, notogaster elongate ovoid ( Figures 1, 2 View FIGURES 1–8 , 10 View FIGURES 9–11 )

Colour. Specimens without cerotegument: brown to dark brown, slightly shiny when observed in reflected light.

Cerotegument. Present: thin granular layer, following cuticular microsculpture; thickness 0.5 to 0.9 ( Figures 12, 15 View FIGURES 12–20 , 24 View FIGURES 21–34 ).

Integument. Pusticulate: notogaster ( Figure 8 View FIGURES 1–8 ); bothridial zone ( Figures 14, 19 View FIGURES 12–20 ); pedotectum II ( Figure 22 View FIGURES 21–34 ). Rugose, formed by cuticular cords, principally aligned longitudinally ( Figures 1, 2, 8 View FIGURES 1–8 , 12, 13, 20 View FIGURES 12–20 indicated by ¡): notogaster ( Figures 1, 8 View FIGURES 1–8 , 12, 13, 20 View FIGURES 12–20 ), in some specimens elevations on central notogastral zone more accentuated ( Figures 1, 8 View FIGURES 1–8 , 12, 20 View FIGURES 12–20 ), in others less ( Figures 2 View FIGURES 1–8 , 13 View FIGURES 12–20 ); prodorsal zone of elevated interlamellar process (e.i.p) ( Figure 4 View FIGURES 1–8 ); Smooth: prodorsum (1, 2, 12, 13, 16, 21, 38, 40); humeral apophysis (h.ap) ( Figure 17 View FIGURES 12–20 ); ventral region (epimeral zone, ano-adanal zone) ( Figure 35 View FIGURES 35–41 ); anal plate ( Figure 36 View FIGURES 35–41 ); genital plate ( Figure 37 View FIGURES 35–41 ); subcapitulum ( Figure 39 View FIGURES 35–41 ).

Setation. Lanceolate, thick elevated medial longitudinal zone, with small dentitions, triangular in cross-section ( Figures 3, 7 View FIGURES 1–8 ): interlamellar (in) ( Figures 4 View FIGURES 1–8 , 10 View FIGURES 9–11 ); notogastral c 1, c 2, da, dm, dp, la, lm, lp, p 1, p 2, p 3, h 1, h 2, h 3 ( Figures 5, 6 View FIGURES 1–8 , 26 View FIGURES 21–34 ); adanal ( Figures 29, 31 View FIGURES 21–34 ). Lanceolate, more or less flat, with elevated medial longitudinal zone: ro, le ( Figures 4 View FIGURES 1–8 , 16 View FIGURES 12–20 , 25 View FIGURES 21–34 ); simple: anal ( Figure 27 View FIGURES 21–34 ). Epimeral setae simple, with small barbs ( Figure 18 View FIGURES 12–20 ), but setae 4a, 4b particular in shape; 4a is simple, elongate, thin, small barbs ( Figure 33 View FIGURES 21–34 ); 4b simple, triangular, curving, small barbs ( Figure 32 View FIGURES 21–34 ); simple, sharply tipped: subcapitular setae; flabellate: genital; aggenital setae ( Figures 30, 34 View FIGURES 21–34 ).

Prodorsum. Polyhedral (in dorsal view) ( Figures 1, 2 View FIGURES 1–8 , 10 View FIGURES 9–11 ); triangular to polyhedral in frontal view ( Figure 38 View FIGURES 35–41 ). Complex elevated interlamellar process (e.i.p): flat or slightly elevated ( Figures 1, 2 View FIGURES 1–8 , 12, 13 View FIGURES 12–20 ) forming two separate lateral processes, polyhedral in shape ( Figures 38, 40 View FIGURES 35–41 ). In lateral view each lateral process terminating in sharp tip, situated above le setal insertion ( Figure 4 View FIGURES 1–8 indicated by white asterisk in black square).

Two oblique parallel grooves on elevated zone of lateral process ( Figures 1, 2, 4 View FIGURES 1–8 , 10 View FIGURES 9–11 , 12, 13 View FIGURES 12–20 , 38, 40 View FIGURES 35–41 indicated by5); finger-shaped projection on anterior e.i.p, delineating a T-shaped, forward extending structure ( Figures 2 View FIGURES 1–8 , 38 View FIGURES 35–41 , indicated by ¿); in setae curved ( Figure 1, 2, 4 View FIGURES 1–8 ), directing externally, inserted in front of e.i.p below lateral process ( Figures 4 View FIGURES 1–8 , 12 View FIGURES 12–20 ).

Bothidial zone with pusticulate cuticula ( Figure 19 View FIGURES 12–20 ). Bothridium (bo) cup-shaped with large, smooth, incomplete bothridial ring (bo.ri) ( Figure 14 View FIGURES 12–20 ); bothridial opening lateral, directing downward ( Figures 12, 13 View FIGURES 12–20 ); bothridial tooth (bo.to) clearly visible, rounded ( Figure 14 View FIGURES 12–20 ).

Sensillus (Si) filiform, barbate, arching to the top, tip usually pointed ( Figures 1, 2 View FIGURES 1–8 , 12, 14 View FIGURES 12–20 ); lamellar setae (le) inserted laterally on anterior part of lamellae ( Figures 15, 16 View FIGURES 12–20 ) between lamellar tip and le setal insertion zone; conspicuous lamellar tip (la.ti) ( Figure 16 View FIGURES 12–20 ); curved rostral setae (ro) ( Figures 12, 13 View FIGURES 12–20 , 21, 25 View FIGURES 21–34 ), directing downwards; le setal insertion behind ro insertion setal level ( Figures 15, 16 View FIGURES 12–20 ); large deep dorsosejugal suture (d.sj) ( Figures 1, 2 View FIGURES 1–8 , 12, 13 View FIGURES 12–20 ).

Notogaster. Shape: anterior and posterior zone oval (in dorsal view) ( Figures 1, 2 View FIGURES 1–8 , 10 View FIGURES 9–11 ); convex in lateral view ( Figures 9 View FIGURES 9–11 , 12, 13 View FIGURES 12–20 ); circumgastric furrow (s.c) present, easily discernible, situated antiaxially to c 1, c 2, la, lm, lp, h 2 and paraxially to h 3, p 3, p 2, p 1 setal insertion level ( Figures 1, 2 View FIGURES 1–8 , 10,13 indicated byl) (See Remarks). Fourteen pairs of setae (c 1, c 2, da, dm, dp, la, lm, lp, h 1, h 2, h 3, p 1, p 2, p 3), all similar: lanceolate, thick, with elevated medial longitudinal zone, small dentitions, triangular in cross-section. However, c 2 setae differ slightly in shape and crosssection ( Figures 6, 7 View FIGURES 1–8 ) from other notogastral setae ( Figures 3, 5 View FIGURES 1–8 , da setae used as example); all setae (except c 2) extending backward; c 2 setae directing obliquely inwards ( Figures 1, 2 View FIGURES 1–8 , 10 View FIGURES 9–11 , 12 View FIGURES 12–20 ).

Humeral apophysis (h.ap) ovoid; anterior end barely overlapping posterior bothridial zone ( Figures 9 View FIGURES 9–11 , 12, 13 View FIGURES 12–20 ); h.ap with some transversal cuticular depressions ( Figure 17 View FIGURES 12–20 indicated by¿), resulting in an undulate aspect to h.ap. Lyrifissures hardly discernible, only rounded im is observed ( Figure 20 View FIGURES 12–20 ).

Lateral region. Prodorsum: in setae clearly visible, situated in front of flat e.i.p ( Figures 4 View FIGURES 1–8 , 12, 13 View FIGURES 12–20 ); l.l.f well visible ( Figure 16 View FIGURES 12–20 ). Lamellae resembling elevated ribbon; Tutorium (Tu) strongly curving cuticular thickening ( Figure 13 View FIGURES 12–20 ); supratutorial depression (s.tu.d) deep ( Figure 9 View FIGURES 9–11 , 13, 15 View FIGURES 12–20 ); small anterior supratutorial depression (a.tu.d) ( Figures 9 View FIGURES 9–11 , 21 View FIGURES 21–34 ). Large deep posterior tutorial depression (p.tu.d) situated posteriorly on Tu basal zone ( Figure 9 View FIGURES 9–11 , 13 View FIGURES 12–20 , 21 View FIGURES 21–34 ). Pedotectum I (Pd I) prominent extending lamina, anteriorly rounded; large ovoid depression (dep) on posterior zone near Pedotectum II (Pd II); small, ovoid lamina directing downward ( Figures 9 View FIGURES 9–11 , 13 View FIGURES 12–20 , 22 View FIGURES 21–34 ). Discidium (dis) hardly discernible (See Ventral region).

Several depressions (dep) clearly visible basally to Pd I and above and behind acetabulum IV ( Figure 9 View FIGURES 9–11 , 13 View FIGURES 12–20 , 21 View FIGURES 21–34 , 41 View FIGURES 35–41 ). Anal plate terminating in long sharp tip ( Figure 23 View FIGURES 21–34 ), more clearly visible in lateral than ventral view.

Ventral region. Epimeres well delimited; 1 and 2 defined by deep furrows; bo.1, bo.2, bo.sj, 3 and 4 not noticeably separated; apo.1, apo.2, apo.sj and apo.3 clearly visible ( Figures 11 View FIGURES 9–11 , 35 View FIGURES 35–41 ).

Epimeral chaetotaxy 3-1-3-3; setae 1a, 2a, 3a short. Epimeral setae 4b ( Figure 10 View FIGURES 9–11 , 32 View FIGURES 21–34 , 35 View FIGURES 35–41 ), and 4a ( Figure 33 View FIGURES 21–34 ) differ in shape. Epimeral zone with medially deep polyhedral depression ( Figures 11 View FIGURES 9–11 , 35 View FIGURES 35–41 indicated by s). Discidium (dis) easily observed ( Figure 35 View FIGURES 35–41 ), triangular sharp tip. Genital plate slightly smaller than anal plate ( Figure 35 View FIGURES 35–41 ). Genital plate situated on elevated zone, externally surrounded by shallow depression (dep) ( Figure 35 View FIGURES 35–41 ). This furrow is connected to the anterior genital furrow (a.g.f) ( Figures 11 View FIGURES 9–11 , 35 View FIGURES 35–41 , trajectory indicated by l).

Genital plate with neotrichy: 6 to 11 pairs of setae ( Figures 11 View FIGURES 9–11 , 35, 37 View FIGURES 35–41 ) with symmetric or asymmetric distribution (See Remarks). Setae generally flabellate ( Figure 34 View FIGURES 21–34 ), some with very irregular shapes ( Figure 37 View FIGURES 35–41 ); in other cases setae absent, only insertions present (large insertions) ( Figure 37 View FIGURES 35–41 ).

Aggenital (ag) setae far from posterior border of genital opening, but situated posterolaterally on the surrounding genital furrow ( Figures 11 View FIGURES 9–11 , 35 View FIGURES 35–41 ).

Anal plate terminating in long sharp tip ( Figure 23 View FIGURES 21–34 , and 36 indicated byY). Large deep furrow observed surrounding anal plate anteriorly and medially, not completely surrounding the rear; in one instance the anal plate was deformed on one side.

Three pairs of adanal setae: ad 3 and ad 2 situated in lateral furrow of anal plate; ad 1 situated posteriorly on anal plate, outside lateral furrow ( Figures 10 View FIGURES 9–11 , 35 View FIGURES 35–41 ); rounded to polyhedral dep ( Figures 11 View FIGURES 9–11 , 35 View FIGURES 35–41 ) situated externally to genital and anal openings.

Legs. Setal formulae I (1-4-3-4-17 -1) (1-2-2); II (1-3-3-3-15 -1) (1-1-2); III (2-2-1-2-14 -1) (1-1-0); IV (1-2-2- 2-12) (0-1-0).

Remarks. Large variations in size were observed in both populations ( Zimbabwe and Kenya). Initially the authors associated this variation in size with differences between males and females, but no correlation between sex and size was observed; in both sexes there were small and large specimens; sexes could be distinguished only by dissection.

Setae h 1 were not included when indicating the trajectory of s.c, as their position is variable ( Figures 1, 2 View FIGURES 1–8 ), in some cases aligned to h 2 setae ( Figure 1 View FIGURES 1–8 ) and in others near p 2 setae ( Figure 2 View FIGURES 1–8 ). Positions of setae p 1, p 2, p 3 also varied.

Small dentitions present on surfaces of notogastral setae differ in size and number. In lateral view differences between notogastral cuticular ornamentations are easily visible; these variations are common in populations from Zimbabwe ( Figure 12 View FIGURES 12–20 ) and Kenya ( Figure 13 View FIGURES 12–20 ), but more so in populations from Kenya.

Large variation in the number of setae due to genital neotrichy, with asymmetry being very common. Setae frequently number 6–8 on each side; in one specimen from Zimbabwe only 4 setae were observed on a side, while in specimens from Kenya, six are most common. The largest variation was found in specimens from Kenya, with eleven setae on a side of the genital plate.

Depressions are very numerous on the ventral plate, clearly visible in ventral view; in lateral view a longitudinal oblique depression can be seen ( Figure 41 View FIGURES 35–41 indicated by 5), usually concealed by femur IV.

MHNG

Museum d'Histoire Naturelle