Austrocnephia orientalis (Mackerras & Mackerras)

Craig, Douglas A., Currie, Douglas C., Gil-Azevedo, Leonardo H. & Moulton, John K., 2019, Austrocnephia, new genus, for five species of ‘ Paracnephia’ (Diptera: Simuliidae), with a key to Australian black fly genera, Zootaxa 4627 (1), pp. 1-92: 51-62

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Austrocnephia orientalis (Mackerras & Mackerras)


Austrocnephia orientalis (Mackerras & Mackerras)   . New combination.

(Figs. 133–163)

Cnephia tonnoiri orientalis Mackerras & Mackerras 1950: 170   ; new subspecies. Mackerras & Mackerras, 1955: 105.

(‘ Cnephia   ’ of authors) orientalis   . Crosskey, 1987: 443; Prosimuliini   , undetermined genus, raised to species status.

(Unplaced species of Prosimuliini   ) orientalis   . Crosskey, 1989: 222.

Paracnephia orientalis   . Crosskey & Howard, 1997: 18; new combination, unplaced to subgenus. Bugledich 1999: 328. Crosskey & Howard, 2004: 10.

Cnephia   orientalis   . Moulton, 2000: 98. Moulton, 2003: 47.

Paracnephia orientalis   . Adler & Crosskey, 2008: 26; transferred to Simuliini   . Hernández-Triana et al., 2017: 350. Adler, 2019: 32.

Redescription. Adult female (based on holotype, slide mounts and numerous pinned specimens, ANIC). Body (Fig. 133): head and thorax yellow, abdomen black; total length ca. 2.8 mm. Head (Fig. 134): overall dark, width 0.98–1.00 mm, depth 0.70–0.80 mm; postocciput black, vestiture of dense hairs; frons narrowed basally, dark brown, slightly pollinose, vestiture of moderately dense silvery hairs; frons:head-width ratio various 1.0:9.7–12.4. Eyes: interocular distance 0.08–0.10 mm; ommatidia diameter 0.021 –0.023 mm; ca. 37 rows across and 43 down at mid-eye, upper ommatidia slightly yellowish. Clypeus: width 0.14–0.30 mm; dark brown, vestiture of fine silvery hairs apically. Antenna: elongate, extended, but not markedly beyond posterior margin of head; overall pale brown; total length 0.62 mm; scape and pedicel subequal in size to flagellomere I, darker in colour; flagellomere I as wide as long, others broader than long, smoothly tapered to apex. Mouthparts: not markedly expressed, ca. 0.23× length of head depth; maxillary palp, total length 0.6 mm, palpomeres I & II small, III cylindrical, darker brown than others, dense vestiture, palpomere IV small, V elongated; proportional lengths of palpomeres III–V 1.0:0.6:1.4; sensory organ markedly elongated, 0.75× palpomere III length, opening elongated, 0.3× vesicle width, internally sensory organs numerous; mandible (Fig. 135) with ca. 25 poorly expressed inner teeth, minor serra- tions only on outer edge; lacinia with 15 and nine teeth on inner and outer sides respectively; cibarium ( Fig. 136 View FIGURES 136, 137 ) cornuae slightly flared apically, medial gap shallow. Thorax: length 1.4 mm; width 1.1 mm; yellowish orange; postpronotal lobe well developed with dense fine hair longer than on scutum, scutellum slightly paler than scutum with vestiture of sparse very fine yellowish hairs; postnotum concolourous with scutellum, vestiture similar; antepronotal lobe haired; proepisternum and fore coxa bare; pleuron and anepisternal membrane light brown, bare; katepisternal dark brown, sulcus shallow and broad. Wing: length 3.3–3.7 mm; width 1.5–1.7 mm; membrane not noticeably fumose; basal medial cell minute; a:b ratio 1.0:2.3–2.7; distal 1/3 of costa with spines, Rs not divided distally, but slightly thickened (occasional row of hairs marks R 2+3), M 1 appearing doubled, but not markedly so; CuA not markedly sinuous; r-m cross vein junction with small distinct pigmented region; wing overall essentially as for A. fuscoflava   (e.g., Fig. 105 View FIGURE 105 ), but slightly blunter apically. Haltere: stem pale, knob darker. Legs: evenly yellowish brown; hind basitarsus with regular row of stout spines; calcipala markedly developed, subequal in length and breadth, distinct dorsobasal notch ( Fig. 137 View FIGURES 136, 137 ); pedisulcus moderately developed; tarsomere II 2.0× as long as distal width; claws with main talon smoothly tapered, basal tooth well developed, 0.3–0.5× length of claw, distinct heel; overall essentially as for A. fuscoflava   (i.e., Fig. 108 View FIGURES 108–112 ). Abdomen: basal scale (tergite I) dark brown, vestiture of long dense yellow hairs, reaching well over tergite II; anterior few segments yellowish, other segments dark brown, dense vestiture of long yellowish hairs laterally and posteriorly; tergites overall markedly poorly sclerotized, each barely discernable from remainder of dorsum, hirsute, vestiture better expressed on posterior segments. Genitalia ( Fig. 138 View FIGURES 138–141 ): sternite VIII with distinct anterior edges and medial region, vestiture of microtrichia, large strong hairs posterolaterally; hypogynial valves, lightly pigmented, vestiture consists of triads of microtrichia and strong hairs apically, medial edges of valves slightly concave, minor strengthening anteromedially, moderately rounded apically; cercus in lateral view cone-shaped, with medial depression minute to absent, anal lobe small and rounded ( Fig. 139 View FIGURES 138–141 ); genital fork ( Fig. 140 View FIGURES 138–141 ) with anterior arm markedly strap-like in expression, strongly bent dorsally when emplaced (distorted in image), apically irregular, membranous lateral areas, lateral arms narrow, apodemes absent, posterolateral expansions small; spermatheca ovoid ( Fig. 141 View FIGURES 138–141 ) lightly pigmented, slightly wrinkled, without internal spines, clear region surrounding junction with spermathecal duct essentially absent.

Adult male (based on paratype, topotypes and other specimens). Body: pinned ( Fig. 142 View FIGURES 142, 143 ), overall colour dark with yellow vestiture; in ethanol ( Fig. 143 View FIGURES 142, 143 ) overall yellow and black; total body length 3.1 mm. Head ( Fig. 144 View FIGURES 144–147 ): width 1.1–1.2 mm, depth 0.8–0.9 mm. Eyes: upper ommatidia yellowish, markedly large, diameter 0.063 –0.067 mm, 15–19 across and ca. 15 down; lower ommatidia black, markedly smaller, diameter 0.023 –0.025 mm, ca. 35 across and down. Clypeus: black; width 0.16–0.20 mm; vestiture of sparse coarse black hairs. Antenna: barely extended beyond head margins; total length 0.63 mm; pedicel small, scape twice as long, rounded and dark brown, flagellomere I slightly narrower than scape, other flagellomeres tapered slightly to small apical flagellomere, all evenly pale brown; flagellomere I not as elongated as in A. fuscoflava   , but overall as finely tapered. Mouthparts: markedly insubstantial; length 0.14–0.22× head depth; maxillary palp 0.66–0.71 mm long, palpomeres I & II small, III & IV subequal in length, V elongated, proportional lengths of palpomeres III–V 1.0:0.8:1.8, sensory vesicle spherical shaped, occupying 0.25× palpomere length, opening 0.5× vesicle width; mandible and lacinia not observed. Thorax: markedly domed, head directed ventrally; length 1.5 mm, width 0.96 mm; postpronotal and antepronotal lobes with sparse longish fine pale hairs, proepisternum bare; scutum dark brown, vestiture of sparse short fine pale hairs, dense and long in scutellar depression; scutellum concolourous with scutum, bare medially, with sparse long pale hairs laterally; postnotum concolourous with scutum; pleurae brown, anepisternal membrane bare. Wing: length 3.3 mm, width 1.6 mm; otherwise as for female; Rs with no indication of branching. Haltere: base of stem pale, knob dark tan. Legs: overall yellowish brown; basitarsus with ventral row of stout spines, calcipala markedly developed and trowel-like; pedisulcus well developed; tarsomere II 2 × as long as distal width; tarsal claw as for other males in genus. Abdomen: overall yellow and black, basal scale hairs black, extended to posterior of segment IV, tergites poorly sclerotized, 3 to 4× as wide as long, markedly hirsute, more so posteriorly; pleurites and sternites apparently absent. Genitalia: overall small and not heavily pigmented ( Fig. 145 View FIGURES 144–147 ); gonocoxa ( Fig. 146 View FIGURES 144–147 ) 1.3× longer than its basal width, posteromedially strengthened and fluted, extended beyond articulation with gonostylus, vestiture of sparse hairs, microtrichia in rows, hairs accentuated medially, medial margin depressed and hirsute; gonostylus in ventral view narrowed, approximately 2.5× longer than basal width, in lateral view markedly cone-shaped, 1.3× longer than basal height, strengthened with clear smooth cuticle along one edge, two short blunt apical spines, the preapical one smaller; ventral plate small, simple ( Fig. 147 View FIGURES 144–147 ), 2.5× wider than long, broadly rounded laterally, shallowly convex anteromedially, vestiture sparse to absent, basal arms broadly expressed, paramere connection small; median sclerite as for other species; parameres plate-like and bluntly tri- angular, slightly strengthened along one side, apex slightly fluted, spines absent; adeagal membrane with sparse microtrichia.

Pupa (based on a small number of specimens). Body: female length 3.3–4.0 mm ( Fig. 148 View FIGURES 148 ), male length 3.3–3.8 mm, dark brown. Head: frons of female rounded; ratio of frons basal width to vertex width and height, 1.0:1.2 and 1:2.0 respectively ( Fig. 149 View FIGURES 149–152 ), that of male ovoid, markedly narrowed basally; ratios 1.0:2.0 and 1.0:3.0 respectively ( Fig. 150 View FIGURES 149–152 ); both smooth; in male, frontal and facial setae present, in female frontal setae absent, epicranial setae present, (in male well lateral of antennal sheaths, female under antennal sheath); two setal sockets anteromedial of tentorial pits; antennal sheath of female extended beyond edge of ocular shield, that of male markedly not so. Thorax: domed, smooth, dorsal trichoid setae curled at tip. Gill ( Fig. 151 View FIGURES 149–152 ): total length ca. 1.5 mm; 36–70 filaments arising from numerous short basal trunks ( Mackerras & Mackerras 1950: 170, noted that the type locality and southern populations have lower numbers), some filaments bi- and trifurcate; light brown; surface with distinct fine annulations, albeit smooth apically ( Fig. 152 View FIGURES 149–152 ); tips pale and often broken. Abdomen ( Fig. 153 View FIGURE 153 ): armature as for A. fuscoflava   , tuberculation markedly dense.

Cocoon. Close fitting, usually covering abdomen and occasionally part of thorax; irregular weave, silk fibers thick; often with extraneous material incorporated.

Larva (based on numerous last instar larvae). Body ( Fig. 154 View FIGURES 154–156 ): total length 5.6–7.2 mm, overall light yellowish brown, evenly expanded from anterior to posterior abdomen. Head ( Fig. 155 View FIGURES 154–156 ): evenly yellowish; head spot pattern poorly developed, but positive; length 0.85–0.89 mm, width 0.65–0.66 mm; distance between antennal bases 0.34–0.40 mm; anterior margins of head subparallel, straight; ecdysial lines not markedly visible, slightly concave until posterior of stemmata, then very broadly curved medially; cervical sclerites elongated and fused to postocciput; genae brown. Antenna: not extended to end of labral fan stem; total length 0.33 mm; apical and medial sensillae small; basal article short and clear proximally, darker brown distally, medial article and distal articles evenly brown, subequal in length; basal article markedly shorter than medial article, proportional lengths of basal, medial, and apical articles 1.0:1.6:1.8; medial article of even diameter, or slightly diminished medially; otherwise as for A. fuscoflava   . Labral fan: stem short and not markedly pigmented, ca. 34–36 dark brown fine rays, five posterior rays finer than others, length 0.66 mm, mid-ray width 0.013 mm; no conspicuous microtrichial pattern—most of similar length with longer ones (length 0.02 mm) at irregular intervals, ‘spines’ at base of ray not markedly developed, rather as series of short microtrichia and ill-defined serrations. Mandible ( Fig. 156 View FIGURES 154–156 ): various; darkly pigmented; short; apical brushes poorly developed; outer teeth short; apical tooth prominent; subapical teeth small and subequal in length; six or seven spinous teeth, distal one well developed; serration and sensillae moderately expressed; blade region straight. Maxilla: palp cone-shaped, varied, 1.6–2.1× as long as basal width, very dark; hairs at base of palp not markedly developed. Postgenal cleft ( Fig. 157 View FIGURES 157–160 ): shallow U-shaped; posterior tentorial pits small and rounded; postgenal bridge evenly light brown; elongated posteroventral muscles spots not markedly obvious. Hypostoma ( Fig. 158 View FIGURES 157–160 ): variable; not prominent; teeth 0–2 smaller and depressed, flanked by larger tooth 3, number and development per side various; tooth 4 well developed with broad base, protruding; teeth 5–7 small, tooth 8 small, but distinct and directed slightly laterally; ventral edge of hypostoma partially obscuring teeth 0–2; lateral serrations small, numerous and overlapping; four or five short substantial hypostomal setae per side; ratio of hypostoma: genal bridge: postgenal cleft 1.0:1.6:0.5. Thorax ( Fig. 159 View FIGURES 157–160 ): yellowish grey; gill histoblast with five to seven primary trunks visible, occasional bifurcations, directed ventrally, sharply posteriorly then anteroventrally, with filament tips directed anterodorsally, producing overall blunt L-shape. Prothoracic proleg: well developed with distinct Lshaped lateral plates; lappets absent, however, some larvae show rudiments of these (e.g., Fig. 50 View FIGURES 50, 51 ). Abdomen: not markedly expanded posteriorly, evenly mottled yellowish brown, paler anteriorly, darker posteriorly. Rectal papillae: three simple lobes. Ventral tubercles: absent. Anal sclerite ( Fig. 160 View FIGURES 157–160 ): variable, complex, anterior arms flared, occasionally with rectal scales; main body of sclerite moderately developed, posterolateral arms absent; posterior extensions into junction of circlet of hooks not markedly developed, not joined, (i.e., ‘hole’ open); posteroventral arms elongated and finely tapered; ca. five campaniform sensilla (typical number) between the posteroventral arms and circlet of hooks. Posterior circlet: not markedly developed, directed posteriorly, ca. 109 – 119 rows of hooks with 16–19 per row (total ca. 2,000).

First instar (Three specimens, Purling Brook Falls). Body: length, 0.60–0.66 mm. Head: length and width 0.13 mm. Labral fan: six or seven short rays. Hypostoma ( Fig. 161 View FIGURES 161, 162 ): with straight sides, 15 teeth, tooth 0 prominent, teeth 1–3 small, tooth 4 prominent, teeth 5–7 with the first smaller; a single hypostomal seta. Antenna ( Fig. 162 View FIGURES 161, 162 ): single article, length 0.023 mm; single apical and two basal sensilla. Anal sclerite: not evident. Posterior circlet: ca. 50 rows of hooks with three or four hooks per row (total ca. 175).

Pharate 2 nd instar larva (from one of the previous 1 st instar larvae) ( Fig. 162 View FIGURES 161, 162 ). Labral fan: nine or 10 rays. Hypostoma: similar in expression to 1st instar; single hypostomal seta. Antenna: single article, length 0.036 mm; sensillae as for 1st instar. Other characters not evident.

Etymology. Not specified by Mackerras & Mackerras (1950: 170), but clearly named as the eastern form of Cnephia tonnoiri   .

Types. Holotype: Female. Little Nerang Creek , south coast Queensland. September. Coll. Unknown ( ANIC). Exact label data not recorded, but probably as for the paratype. Examined by LHG-A in 2007 (Fig. 133).  

Paratype: [Little Nerang Cr./S.Q. 10 Aug., 1948] [ Cnephia tonnoiri   / orientalis M.&M./ PARATYPE. {F}] [Aust. Nat./Ins. Coll.] Collector not indicated. (S28.1900º E153.2700º). Condition good. Originally on minuten pin, now mounted on slide. A male paratype was photographed by LHG-A in 2007 ( Fig. 142 View FIGURES 142, 143 ). Bugledich (1999: 328) listed two male and one female adult paratypes, plus another male, in the British Museum.

Additional material. Collected mainly by M. Colbo, DAC and JKM. Alcohol: Larvae, pupae [ ANIC Database No./ 29 026748]; [ UASM #/ 370729, 370730; 370801, 370802; 370847, 370848]. Slide mounts: All stages [ UASM #/ 370782–370800].

Bionomics. Mackerras & Mackerras (1950: 170) state that “ The early stages occur in clear, moderate to fast, turbulent streams, generally adjacent to, rather than in, the line of fastest flow. They are nearly always attached to vegetation, rarely to stones. Adults have not been collected in the field. ” The type locality, Little Nerang Creek ( Fig. 163 View FIGURE 163 ) is shallow with hard rock substrate and fast flow, albeit shallow. Female adults have markedly small mouthparts in relation to head size and reduced numbers of teeth on the lacinia and mandible, plus a well developed claw tooth— indicating ornithophily?

Distribution ( Fig. 197 View FIGURE 197 ). Queensland. Mt. Haig, 21 km NEE of Atherton, at light, S17.0900º E145.6000º. 17 Nov. 1981. Adult. Coll. D.H. Colless (ANIC). West of Gordonvale, Goldsborough State Forest, Kearneys Falls, S17.2350º E145.7853º. 24 Mar. 1992. Larvae, pupae. Coll. Zwick. Paluma Range Nat. Park, Little Crystal River, cascade, S19.0156º E146.2641º. 25 April 2002. Larvae. Coll. Zwick (ANIC). Carnarvon Nat. Park, Moss Garden & Hell Hole, S25.0552° E148.2114°. Larva, pupae. Coll. Zwick (ANIC). Carnarvon Nat. Park, Kooraminya Creek, trib. Carnarvon River, S25.0600º E148.2300º, 18 Mar. 1982. Larvae, pupae. Coll. Zwick (ANIC). Carnarvon Gorge, S25.0611º E148.2351º. 4 Nov. 1973. Larvae, pupae. Coll. H.A. Standfast (ROM). Mt. Glorious, Brisbane, Cedar Creek Falls, S27.3220° E152.7762°. 2 May 1974. Larvae, pupae. Coll. D.A. Craig. (UASM). Mt. Glorious, Brisbane, S27.3341° E152.7674°. 6 Apr. 1973. Coll. M.H. Colbo (UASM). South Queensland, Upper Mudgeeraba Creek, S28.1630º E153.3100º. 26 Aug. 1950. 10 adults. Coll. Unknown (ANIC). Mudgeeraba Creek, S28.1658º E153.3101º. 26 Aug. 1950, 16 Aug. 1950. Female & males. Coll. Unknown (ANIC). Springbrook National Park, Purling Brook Falls, S28.1898º E153.27091º. 23 June 1971. Larvae. 9 Nov. 1971. Larvae, pupae. Coll. M.H. Colbo (ROM). Purling Brook Falls, S28.1898º E153.27091º. December. Coll. Mackerras (1950). Little Nerang Creek, S28.1906º E153.2710º. 10 Aug. 1948. Female paratype. Coll. Unknown (ANIC). Springbrook South, Purling Brook, S28.1899º E153.2706º. 4 Dec. 1949. Larvae, pupae, adults. Coll. Unknown (ANIC). South Queensland, Little Nerang River, S28.1890º E153.2710º. Larvae, pupae. Aug. 1948. Coll. Unknown (ANIC). South Queensland, Little Nerang River, S28.1890º E153.2710º. 25 Sept. 1949. Coll. I. & M. Mackerras (ANIC). South Queensland, Little Nerang Creek. S28.1890º E153.2710º. 26 Aug. 1950. Adult. Coll. Unknown (ANIC). Springbrook, S28.1901º E153.2709º. 4 Dec. 1949. Male and females. Coll. Unknown (ANIC). Springbrook National Park, Twin Falls, S28.2000º E153.2700º. 9 Nov. 1973. Larvae, pupae. Coll. M.H. Colbo (ROM). Springbrook, Puky Brook, S28.2100º E153.2700º. 4 Dec. 1949. Larvae, pupae, adults. Coll. Unknown (ANIC). Lamington National Park, S28.2100º E153.1400º. 5 Nov. 1961. Adult. Coll. I.F.B. Common & M.S. Upton (ANIC). South Queensland, Mudgurata Creek, 26 Aug. 1950. Larvae, pupae. Coll. Unknown (ANIC). Springbrook, Blackfellow Creek, S28.4330º E151.4833º. 25 Feb. 1971. Larvae, pupae. Coll. M.H. (ROM). Springbrook, Goomoolahra Falls, S28.2233º E153.2849º. 25 Feb. 1971, 25 Jun. 1971. Larvae, pupae. Coll. M.H. Colbo (ROM). Wilsons Peak, Teviot Brook, S28.2500º E152.4800º.?- iv-1971. Larvae, pupae. Coll. M.H. Colbo (ROM). Nerang River. 26 Jun. 1971. Larvae. Coll. M.H. Colbo (ROM).

New South Wales. Coutt’s Water, near Ebor , S30.3485º E152.4752º. January. Coll. Unknown ( Mackerras & Mackerras, 1952) GoogleMaps   . Ebor, Coutts Water , trib., S30.4010º E152.3490º. 10 Jan. 1952. Larvae. Coll. Unknown ( ANIC) GoogleMaps   . Macdonald River, Bendemeer , S30.8785º E151.1577º. 30 Sept. 1950. Larva, pupae. Coll. Mackerras ( ANIC) GoogleMaps   . Barrington Tops, S32.0660º E151.6620º. GoogleMaps   March. Coll. McMillan. Laheys Creek, Moonbi Range , S32.2500º E149.3100º. September. Coll. Unknown ( ANIC) GoogleMaps   . Hartley, small trib. River Lett , S33.5400º E1700º. 12 Oct. 1950. Larvae. Coll. Unknown ( ANIC)   . Hartley , S33.5440º E1705º. 9 Dec. 1931. 7 adults. Coll. F.H. Taylor ( ANIC)   . Orange, Mt. Canoblas, Molong Creek , S33.3350º E149.0190º. 10 Oct. 1958. Larvae. Coll. Unknown ( ANIC) GoogleMaps   . Mt. Canoblas, Molong Creek , S33.3350º E149.0190º. 12-15 Oct. 1950. two reared adults. Coll. Unknown ( ANIC) GoogleMaps   . Brown Mt., Rutherford Creek , S36.5920º E149.4450º. 17 Jul. 1963. Adult. Coll. Z. Liepa ( ANIC) GoogleMaps   . Janolan Caves , S33.8190º E150.0220º. No date. Adult. Coll. J.C. Wiburd ( ANIC) GoogleMaps   . Bendimeer, Macdonald River , S30.8920º E151.1570º. 3-6 Oct. 1950. two reared adults. Coll. Unknown ( ANIC) GoogleMaps   . Several creeks between Mt. Canoblas and Bumberry , Orange District , S33.3000º E149.0600º. October. Coll. Unknown ( ANIC) GoogleMaps   . Hartley, Lett River , S33.5400º E150.1700º. October, Coll. Unknown ( ANIC) GoogleMaps   . Jenolan Caves , S33.8200º E150.0500º. Male. Coll. J.C. Wilburo ( ANIC) GoogleMaps   . Alpine Highway, Tom Grogin, Murray Gorge , Snowy Creek , S36.5377º E148.1348º. 16 Nov. 2011. Larvae. Colls. D.A. & R.E.G. Craig ( UASM) GoogleMaps   .

Australian Capital Territory. Upper Paddy’s River, S35.4600º E149.0200º. 9 Sept. 1962. Larvae. Coll. Unknown. Det. J. Prince (ANIC). Upper Paddy’s River, S35.4600º E149.0200º. 17 Nov. 1962. Adult. Coll. Unknown (ANIC). Paddy’s River, near Cotter Junction, S35.3264 E145.9480. 16 Nov. 1949. Larvae. Coll. Unknown (ANIC). Coree Creek, S35.3300º E148.8700º. 25 Jan. 1931. Adult. Coll. A.L. Tonnoir (ANIC). Canberra, S35.2740º E149.1140º. 6 Nov. 1929.Adult. Coll.A.L. Tonnoir (ANIC). Black Mountain, CSIRO. Light trap, S35.2740º E149.1140º.Adults. 10 Aug. 1953. Coll.A. Dyce, 23 Oct. 1959, 9 June 1961. Coll. I. F. B. Common, Black Mountain, Light trap on CSIRO, S35.2748º E149.1134º. 23 Oct. 1959. Female. Coll. I.F.B. Common (ANIC). Canberra, S35.2823º E149.1287º. November (Tonnoir) ( Mackerras & Mackerras, 1952, 1955). Cotter River, S35.3200º E148.940º. Nov. (Mackerras & Mackerras). Uniarra State Forest, Coree Creek, S35.3300º E148.8700º. Nov, Jan. (Tonnoir), (Mackerras & Mackerras). Paddy’s River, S35.4500º E149.0500º. Nov. (Mackerras). Tidbinbilla Nature Reserve, trib Tidbinbilla River, Lyrebird Stream S35.4559º E148.8830º. 18 Sept. 2011. Pupa. Colls. D.A. & R.E.G. Craig (UASM). Pierce Creek Forest, Scenic Road, culvert, 1.7 km from Paddys Road, S35.3498º E148.9491º. 24 Sept. 2011. Larvae. Colls. D.A. & R.E.G. Craig (UASM).

Victoria. Log bridge Creek, West Corryong , S36.2100º E147.7100º. 16 Sept. 2006. Larvae. Coll. Zwick. Snobs Creek Falls GoogleMaps   , S37.3300º E145.8990º. 19 Dec. 1972 Larvae. Coll. Zwick ( ANIC) GoogleMaps   .

South Australia (Adelaide Peninsula). Scotts Bottom, S34.9691º E138.9445º. GoogleMaps   Sept. Brownhill Creek, S34.9896º E138.6373º. GoogleMaps   Sept. Sellicks Hill, S35.3300º E138.4800º. GoogleMaps   Oct. Myponga Creek , S35.3760º E138.4980º. Sept. Coll. Lines. ( Mackerras & Mackerras, 1955) GoogleMaps   .

Tasmania. Cam River, Back Cam Road , S41.0432º E145.0172º. CAMR01. 22Aug. 2006. Larvae. Coll. M. Jack. DPIPWE ( TMAG) GoogleMaps   . Rheban, Sandspit River , S42.6460º E147.8990º. 21 Jan. 1949. Larvae, pupae. Coll. Unknown ( ANIC) GoogleMaps   . Pyengana , S41.2800º E148.000º. 2 Mar. 1963. Adult. Coll. I. F. B. Common & M. S. Upton ( ANIC) GoogleMaps   . Penguin, Penguin Creek, Hayward Street , S41.1140º E146.0689º, BLYT04. 18 Nov. 2005. Larvae. Coll. D. Horner, DPIPWE ( TMAG) GoogleMaps   . Don River   , Sheffield Road , S41.2829º E146.3189º, MERS37. 18 Oct. 2006. Larvae. Coll. T. Krasnicki, DPIPWE ( TMAG) GoogleMaps   . Arthur River, Pykes Bridge , S41.2936º E147.4160º, ARTH01. 21 Mar. 2007. Larvae. Coll. T. Krasnicki DPIPWE ( TMAG) GoogleMaps   . Emu River, Fern Glade Reserve , S41.2981º E147.9572º, EMUR01, 5 May 2005. Larvae. Coll. D. Horner, DPIPWE ( TMAG) GoogleMaps   . Florentine River, Florentine Road , S41.4947º E146.8171º, UDER008. 22 Mar. 2005. Larvae. Coll. T. Krasnicki, DPIPWE ( TMAG) GoogleMaps   . North West Bay River, Miandetta Drive , S42.0084º E147.2503º, HOBA04. 12 Oct. 2005. Larvae. Coll. D. Horner DPIPWE ( TMAG) GoogleMaps   . Rheban, Griffith River, Sandspit River , S42.6460º E147.8996º. January. Coll. Mackerras. ( Mackerras & Mackerras, 1950: 170) GoogleMaps   . North West Bay River, Huon Highway , S42.9705º E147.1973º, HOBA07. 4 Oct. 2005. Larvae. Coll. S. Meyer, DPIPWE ( TMAG) GoogleMaps   . Allens Rivulet, Sandfly Road , S42.9914º E147.2070º, HOBA13. 13 Oct. 2005. Larvae. Coll. J. Latton, DPIPWE ( TMAG) GoogleMaps   . North West Bay River, Margate weir, S42.9923º E147.2246º, HOBA05. 12 Oct. 2005. Larvae. Coll. T. Krasnicki, DPIPWE ( TMAG) GoogleMaps   . North West Bay River, upstream of Allens Rivulet , S42.9939º E147.2245º, HOBA06. 20 Apr. 2006. Larvae. Coll. T. Krasnicki, DPIPWE ( TMAG) GoogleMaps   . Mountain River, Ranelagh Bridge , S43.0138º E147.0495º, HUON018. 27 Sept. 2005. Larvae. Coll. S. Meyer, DPIPWE ( TMAG) GoogleMaps   . North West Bay River, Channel Highway , S43.0213º E147.2655º, HOBA01. 5 Oct. 2005. Larvae. Coll. T. Krasnicki, DPIPWE. TMAG GoogleMaps   .

Remarks. The distribution of A. orientalis   is of some interest. It is widespread in Queensland, New South Wales, Australian Capital Territory and Tasmania, however, not so in Victoria where it is known only from two localities and in South Australia only from the Adelaide Peninsula. Given the intense collecting by the authors in Victoria this gap would appear to be correct. Further collection from the Adelaide Peninsula might be informative.

Mackerras & Mackerras (1950: 170) noted that it was not possible to distinguish the female adults of the then orientalis fuscoflava   from those of fuscoflava   and that it was closely related to aurantiaca   and tonnoiri   , albeit aurantiaca   lacked the spot on the wing. They comment on differences in number of gill filaments—the type locality and southern populations having lower numbers—50. Further, those with higher numbers had filaments branching close to the base. Our observations agree in that those with lower numbers do not. Colbo (pers. com., 2012) also knows of populations from Carnarvon Gorge (500+ km NW of Brisbane, S25.0500º E148.2200º) that have much larger numbers of gill filaments. These discrepancies are indicative of closely related entities, similar to that hypothesized for A. aurantiaca   . Indeed, material from Springbrook has larvae where the anal sclerite is similar to that of aurantiaca   , but the overall head is as for orientalis   , however, the maxilla and mandible are aurantiaca   -like, while the pupa has abdominal pleurites, as does orientalis   s.s.

Craig (1974) and Ross & Craig (1978) reconfirmed that 1 st instar larvae of Prosimulinii virtually lack labral fans; apparently first noted by Strickland (1913: 48) and definitively so by Davies (1960: 81). Colbo (1974: His Fig. 4 View FIGURES 1–6 ) illustrated the 1 st instar larval head structures of A. orientalis   , clearly showing distinct labral fans and we have observed these as well. Similarly for A. tonnoiri   ( Fig. 193 View FIGURES 190–194 ); supporting well the contention that Austrocnephia   is not Prosimulinii. Colbo (loc. cit.) also illustrated a minute anal sclerite for A. orientalis   . For A. tonnoiri   1 st instar larvae (see latter) there is but a faint trace of this sclerite. This is of interest since Crosby (1974: 23) indicated the anal sclerite was absent in Austrosimulium   1 st instar larvae, developing only in the 2 nd.

Other characters of interest in mature larvae are the markedly serrated lateral edges of the hypostoma ( Fig. 158 View FIGURES 157–160 ) and apparent ‘rectal scales’ on either side of the anal sclerite anterior arms ( Fig. 160 View FIGURES 157–160 ), unique within the genus. Colbo (1974: 66) noted those as well. Further, while the central gap of the anal sclerite has medial posterior projections as seen in the aurantiaca   species-group, the number of campaniform sensilla between the posteroventral arm and the circlet of hooks is four to five—more typical for simuliids.


Australian National Insect Collection


University of Alberta, E.H. Strickland Entomological Museum


Tasmanian Museum and Art Gallery














Austrocnephia orientalis (Mackerras & Mackerras)

Craig, Douglas A., Currie, Douglas C., Gil-Azevedo, Leonardo H. & Moulton, John K. 2019

Paracnephia orientalis

Adler, P. H. 2019: 32
Hernandez-Triana, L. M. & Montes De Oca, F. & Prosser, S. W. J. & Hebert, P. D. N. & Gregory, T. R. & McMurtrie, S. 2017: 350
Adler, P. H. & Crosskey, R. W. 2008: 26


Moulton, J. K. 2003: 47
Moulton, J. K. 2000: 98

Paracnephia orientalis

Crosskey, R. W. & Howard, T. M. 2004: 10
Bugledich, E. - M. A. 1999: 328
Crosskey, R. W. & Howard, T. M. 1997: 18

Cnephia tonnoiri orientalis

Mackerras, M. J. & Mackerras, I. M. 1955: 105
Mackerras, M. J. & Mackerras, I. M. 1950: 170