Paramacrobiotus richtersi ( Murray, 1911 ) sensu,

Kaczmarek, Łukasz, Michalczyk, Łukasz & Mcinnes, Sandra J., 2015, Annotated zoogeography of non-marine Tardigrada. Part II: South America, Zootaxa 3923 (1), pp. 1-107: 85-87

publication ID

http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3923.1.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:2305A96C-0A03-4524-93AA-90359893A4DD

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/038FA02E-FFC8-7A6B-4A85-BF09507BF20E

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Paramacrobiotus richtersi ( Murray, 1911 ) sensu
status

sensu

210. Paramacrobiotus richtersi ( Murray, 1911) sensu  lato [T]

M. richtersii J. Murr. ( Marcus 1939) 

Macrobiotus richtersii J. Murr., 1908  (de Barros 1942 b) M. richtersi J. Murray, 1911  (du Bois-Reymond Marcus 1944) Macrobiotus richtersii J. Murr. ( Iharos 1963) 

Macrobiotus richtersi Murr. ( Iharos 1969) 

Macrobiotus richtersi Murray, 1911 ( Rossi & Claps 1980) 

M. richtersi Murray, 1911  ( Claps & Rossi 1981, 1984, 1988)

Macrobiotus richtersi J. Murray, 1911 ( Iharos 1982) 

Macrobiotus richtersi Murray, 1911  ( Maucci 1988, Rossi & Claps 1991, Jerez & Narváez 2001) M. richtersi J. Murr., 1911 ( Rossi & Claps 1989) 

M. richtersi Murray ( Claps & Rossi 1997) 

Macrobiotus harmsworthi  / richtersi  ( Montoya et al. 2010)

Terra typica: Ireland (Europe)

Argentina:

• 23 °08′S, 64 ° 19 ′W; 350 m asl: Salta Province, Orán [San Ramón de la Nueva Orán], mosses on rock. Claps & Rossi (1984)

• 23 ° 36 ′S, 65 °04′W; 2,000 m asl: Jujuy Province, Departamento Santa Bárbara, lichens on vina lito. Claps & Rossi (1984)

• 24 °07′S, 65 ° 24 ′W; 1,450 m asl: Jujuy Province, road to Yala, mosses from the edge of irrigation ditch and on tree (2 samples). Claps & Rossi (1984)

• 24 ° 18 ′S, 64 ° 54 ′W; 700 m asl: Jujuy Province, road to Higueritas, mosses on soil. Claps & Rossi (1984)

• 25 ° 43 ′S, 54 ° 25 ′W; 250 m asl: Misiones Province, Iguazú National Park, moss on rock and mosses on trees in the forest (3 samples). Claps & Rossi (1988)

• 25 ° 58 ′S, 54 ° 34 ′W; 200 m asl: Misiones Province, Wanda, mosses on rocks. Claps & Rossi (1988)

• 26 °08′S, 54 ° 35 ′W; 150 m asl: Misiones Province, Arroyo Torocuá, 12 km S Puerto Esperanza, mosses on rocks (2 samples). Claps & Rossi (1988)

• 26 ° 47 ′S, 65 ° 20 ′W; 750 m asl: Tucumán Province, Horco Molle, mosses on soil and tree (2 samples). Claps & Rossi (1984)

• 26 ° 51 ′S, 65 ° 26 ′W; 700 m asl: Tucumán Province, road from San Miguel de Tucumán to Tafi del Valle, mosses and lichens on rocks (2 samples). Claps & Rossi (1984)

• 26 ° 56 ′S, 55 °04′W; 200 m asl: Misiones Province, Capioví, mosses on trees in the forest (2 samples). Claps & Rossi (1988)

• 27 ° 27 ′S, 58 ° 39 ′W; 50 m asl: Corrientes Province, old road to Santa Ana, Selaginella  sp. in lagoon and moss on tree (2 samples). Claps & Rossi (1988)

• 35 ° 27 ′S, 58 ° 48 ′W; 0 m asl: Buenos Aires Province, Laguna San Miguel del Monte, on plant ( Ceratophyllum  sp.) Rossi & Claps (1991).

• 36 ° 22 ′S, 56 ° 43 ′W; 0 m asl: Buenos Aires Province, camping San Clemente del Tuy, lichens on tree ( Eucalyptus  ) in shade. Rossi & Claps (1980)

• 36 ° 24 ′S, 56 ° 57 ′W; 0 m asl: Buenos Aires Province, Port General Lavalle, lichens on tree (Tamarisk) in full sun. Rossi & Claps (1980)

• 40 ° 50 ′S, 71 ° 38 ′W; 900 m asl: Neuquén Province, Peninsula de Quetrihue, semi-wet, mosses on rocks on the sunny slope. Claps & Rossi (1981)

• 41 °00′S, 71 ° 30 ′W; 800 m asl: Neuquén Province, Isla Victoria, mosses on tree. Rossi & Claps (1989)

• 41 ° 13 ′S, 71 ° 30 ′W; 2,250 m asl: Rio Negro Province, Nahuel Huapi National Park, Cerro Catedral, semi-wet, lichens and mosses on trees and roots ( Nothofagus  sp.) in the forest, very wet, mosses on soil and dead wood and mosses on leaf litter in the forest (6 samples). Claps & Rossi (1981)

• 41 ° 58 ′S, 71 ° 29 ′W; 1,200 m asl: Rio Negro Province, El Bolsón, Piltriquitron Mt., mosses on dry soil under Mulinum spinosum  and between Berberis  shrubs. Iharos (1963)

• 41 ° 58 ′S, 71 ° 28 ′W; 1,460 m asl: Rio Negro Province, El Bolsón, Piltriquitron Mt., mosses on rocks and barks of trees near edge within Nothofagus pumilio  forest. Iharos (1963)

• 41 ° 59 ′S, 71 ° 34 ′W; 300 m asl: Rio Negro Province, El Bolsón, Valley of Rio Azul, mosses on tree ( Myrceugenia exupca  ) in the Myrceugenia exupca  - Nothofagus dombeyi  marsh forest. Iharos (1963)

• 41 ° 59 ′S, 71 ° 31 ′W; 360 m asl: Rio Negro Province, El Bolsón, foot of Piltriquitron Mt., mosses on rocks in shaded Libocedrus chilensis  -Lomatia obliqua  forest. Iharos (1963)

• 41 ° 59 ′S, 71 ° 31 ′W; 370 m asl: Rio Negro Province, El Bolsón, foot of Piltriquitron Mt., slope above Pampa Azcona, mosses on soil of shrubby area. Iharos (1963)

• 42 ° 13 ′S, 71 ° 42 ′W; 220 m asl: Chubut Province, El Turbio, Puelo Lake, mosses on wet soil in primeval Nothofagus dombeyi  - Libocedrus chilensis  forest near the lake. Iharos (1963)

• 54 ° 39 ′S, 68 ° 30 ′W; 800 m asl: Tierra del Fuego Province, National Park Ushuaia [Tierra del Fuego National Park], soil and litter (2 samples). Iharos (1982)

Bolivia:

• 10 ° 49 ′S, 65 ° 22 ′W; 150 m asl: Beni Department, Guayaramerín, Estancia Esperanza, gallerian forest along Mamore river, leaf litter, leaf litter near water, decayed leaves on banana plantation, dry leaf litter, leaf litter from cacao plantation and soil from Leguminosae  plantation (7 samples). Iharos (1969)

• 10 ° 56 ′S, 65 ° 28 ′W; 150 m asl: Beni Department, Guayaramerín, 15 km on W on the city, leaf litter in evergreen forest, near the road to Riberalta, leaf litter (2 samples). Iharos (1969)

• 15 ° 31 ′S, 67 ° 33 ′W; 800 m asl: La Paz Department, between Alcoche and Puerto Linares, 20 km on Alcoche, mosses in shaded place. Iharos (1969)

• 16 °08′S, 67 ° 43 ′W; 1,600 m asl: La Paz Department, Coroico, 5 km on N of the city, wet leaf litter from citrus and coffee plantation. Iharos (1969)

• 16 ° 11 ′S, 69 °05′W; 4,100 m asl: La Paz Department, Copacabana [on the coast of Titicaca Lake], leaf litter from Stipa  vegetation. Iharos (1969)

• 16 ° 16 ′S, 67 ° 53 ′W; 3,100 m asl: La Paz Department, 5 km on N of Unduavi, leaf litter and soil from Vaccinum plantation. Iharos (1969)

• 16 ° 19 ′S, 67 ° 54 ′W; 4,000 m asl: La Paz Department, near Unduavi, near the river, very wet leaf litter under shrubs. Iharos (1969)

Brazil:

• 03° 17 ′S, 59 ° 53 ′W; 0 m asl: Amazonas State, Manaus, 20 km on S of the city, leaf litter from evergreen forest. Iharos (1969)

• 21 ° 49 ′S, 49 °05′W: Undefined localities in São Paulo State, few localities. Marcus (1939), de Barros (1942 b)

• 22 ° 44 ′S, 45 ° 35 ′W; 1,650 m asl: São Paulo State, Campos do Jordão, mosses or aquatic plants. du Bois-Reymond Marcus (1944)

• 22 ° 45 ′S, 47 ° 24 ′W; 550 m asl: São Paulo State, Município de Sta. Bárbara [Município Santa Bárbara d ′Oeste], mosses or aquatic plants. du Bois-Reymond Marcus (1944)

• 22 ° 54 ′S, 47 °04′W; 700 m asl: São Paulo State, Município Campinas, in bromeliads. du Bois-Reymond Marcus (1944)

• 25 ° 26 ′S, 49 ° 16 ′W; 900 m asl: Paraná State, Curitiba, mosses or aquatic plants. du Bois-Reymond Marcus (1944)

Chile:

• 18 ° 11 ′S, 69 ° 13 ′W; 4,800 m asl [4,550 m asl]: Region XV Arica y Parinacota, Laguna La Cotacotani, leaf litter. Iharos (1969)

• 18 ° 34 ′S, 70 °05′W; 500 m asl: Region XV Arica y Parinacota, Azapa Chico, 25 km. on East of Arica, near the river Rio Lauca, wet soil on bamboo plantation. Iharos (1969)

• 20 ° 12 ′S, 69 ° 17 ′W: Undefined locality in Region I Tarapac, Bofedal de Bajuco, soil under red cactus. Iharos (1969)

• 30 ° 17 ′S, 71 ° 16 ′W; 400 m asl: Region IV Coquimbo, Las Cardas, leaf litter under shrubs. Iharos (1969)

• 30 ° 40 ′S, 71 ° 41 ′W; 900 m asl [650 m asl]: Region IV Coquimbo, Fray Jorge [Bosque de Fray Jorge National Park], foggy forest, leaf litter. Iharos (1969)

• 31 ° 55 ′S, 71 ° 31 ′W; 0 m asl: Region IV Coquimbo, Los Vilos, jungle soil and leaf litter. Iharos (1969)

• 32 ° 58 ′S, 71 °01′W; 1,900 m asl: Region V Valparaíso (Región de Valparaíso), Cordiliera de la Costa, Cerro El Roble, 84 km NW of Santiago de Chile, leaf litter under snow, under the bushes. Iharos (1969)

• 32 ° 58 ′S, 71 °01′W; 1,700 m asl: Region V Valparaíso (Región de Valparaíso), Cordiliera de la Costa, Cerro El Roble, 84 km NW of Santiago de Chile, leaf litter between dry bushes. Iharos (1969)

• 33 °04′S, 71 °00′W; 1,000 m asl: Region RM Metropolitana (Región Metropolitana de Santiago), Tiltil, Cuesta La Dormida, jungle leaf litter. Iharos (1969)

• 33 ° 21 ′S, 70 ° 19 ′W; 2,300 m asl: Region RM Metropolitana (Región Metropolitana de Santiago), Farellones, 30 km on East of Santiago de Chile, detritus and soil under the bushes, wet mosses from rocky cave and leaf litter (3 samples). Iharos (1969)

• 33 ° 26 ′S, 70 ° 38 ′W; 800 m asl: Region RM Metropolitana (Región Metropolitana de Santiago), Santiago de Chile, San Cristóbal Mt., mosses on rocks. Iharos (1969)

• 33 ° 30 ′S, 70 ° 55 ′W; 850 m asl: Region RM Metropolitana (Región Metropolitana de Santiago), Quebrada de La Plata, shrubs upland, moss and lichen on rocks (2 samples). Iharos (1969)

• 37 ° 13 ′S, 72 ° 23 ′W; 100 m asl: Region VIII Biobío, Salto del Laja, near waterfalls, mosses on rocky wall. Iharos (1969)

• 50 ° 59 ′S, 73 °00′W; 1,200 m asl: Region XII Magallanes (Región de Magallanes y de la Antártica Chilena), Torres del Paine National Park, mosses on trees and rocks, nearly all in half sunlight. Maucci (1988)

• 51 ° 34 ′S, 72 ° 36 ′W; 200 m asl: Region XII Magallanes (Región de Magallanes y de la Antártica Chilena), Ultima Esperanza, near Cueva del Milodón, mosses on rocks, in sunlight. Maucci (1988)

Colombia:

• 07°07′N, 73 °02′W; 1,795–1,970 m asl: Santander Department, El Diviso Natural Reserve, Pine forest ( Pinus patula  ), mosses ( Hypopterygium tamariscinum  , Fabronia ciliaris  and Sematophyllum insularum  ). Jerez & Narváez (2001)

Uruguay:

• 30 ° 15 ′S, 57 ° 36 ′W; 50 m asl: Artigas Department, Bella Unión, mosses or lichens on rocks, trees or posts or aquatic macrophytes. Claps & Rossi (1997)

• 31 °03′S, 57 ° 38 ′W; 50 m asl: Salto Department, Arroyo Palomas, mosses or lichens on rocks, trees or posts or aquatic macrophytes. Claps & Rossi (1997)

• 31 ° 20 ′S, 57 ° 51 ′W; 50 m asl: Salto Department, Arroyo San Antônio de Chico, mosses or lichens on rocks, trees or posts or aquatic macrophytes. Claps & Rossi (1997)

Venezuela:

• 08° 46 ′N, 70 ° 49 ′W; 4,300 m asl: Region Los Andes, Mérida, Mucuñuque Mt., moss. Montoya et al. (2010)

• 08° 45 ′N, 70 ° 49 ′W; 4,450 m asl: Region Los Andes, Mérida, Mucuñuque Mt., surface samples of peat bog. Montoya et al. (2010)

Record numbers: Argentina: 24, Bolivia: 7, Brazil: 6, Chile: 15, Colombia: 1, Uruguay: 3, Venezuela: 2; total: 58.

Remarks: Paramacrobiotus richtersi  was, until recently, believed to be cosmopolitan ( McInnes 1994 a). New taxonomic data has shown that this is the nominal species for a species complex – the ‘ richtersi  group’ – requiring careful examination of both adults and eggs. Several newly described species of this group have been added to the faunas of South and Central America (e.g. Michalczyk & Kaczmarek 2006 b, Michalczyk et al. 2006, Pilato et al. 2006). In the light of these reports, and given P. richtersi  was originally described from Europe, we suggest all species records from South America should be treated with caution until the original slides are re-examined or the species is otherwise verified from the region.

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Tardigrada

Class

Heterotardigrada

Order

Parachela

Family

Macrobiotidae

Genus

Paramacrobiotus

Loc

Paramacrobiotus richtersi ( Murray, 1911 ) sensu

Kaczmarek, Łukasz, Michalczyk, Łukasz & Mcinnes, Sandra J. 2015
2015
Loc

richtersi

Montoya et al. 2010
2010
Loc

M. richtersi Murray ( Claps & Rossi 1997 )

Murray (Claps & Rossi 1997
1997
Loc

M. richtersi J. Murr., 1911 ( Rossi & Claps 1989 )

J. Murr., 1911 (Rossi & Claps 1989
1989
Loc

Macrobiotus richtersi J. Murray, 1911 ( Iharos 1982 )

J. Murray, 1911 (Iharos 1982
1982
Loc

Macrobiotus richtersi Murray, 1911 ( Rossi & Claps 1980 )

Murray, 1911 (Rossi & Claps 1980
1980
Loc

Macrobiotus richtersi Murr. ( Iharos 1969 )

Murr. (Iharos 1969
1969
Loc

Macrobiotus richtersii J. Murr. ( Iharos 1963 )

J. Murr. (Iharos 1963
1963
Loc

M. richtersii J. Murr. ( Marcus 1939 )

J. Murr. (Marcus 1939
1939
Loc

M. richtersi

J. Murray 1911
1911
Loc

M. richtersi

Murray 1911
1911
Loc

Macrobiotus richtersi

Murray 1911
1911
Loc

Macrobiotus richtersii

J. Murr. 1908
1908