Nops MacLeay, 1839,

Sánchez-Ruiz, Alexander & Brescovit, Antonio D., 2018, A revision of the Neotropical spider genus Nops MacLeay (Araneae: Caponiidae) with the first phylogenetic hypothesis for the Nopinae genera, Zootaxa 4427 (1), pp. 1-121: 19-20

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Nops MacLeay, 1839


Genus Nops MacLeay, 1839 

Type species: Nops guanabacoae MacLeay, 1839  by monotypy.

Diagnosis. Members of Nops  can be distinguished from non ‒nopine genera by having tarsi subsegmented ( Figs 9AView FIGURE 9; 32L); and from other nopine genera by having a small arolium with a pencil eraser shape on the legs I ‒II ( Figs 5AView FIGURE 5; 22A; 35I ‒J; 71K), absent from the legs III ‒IV ( Figs 5B ‒CView FIGURE 5; 35K ‒L; 54B ‒C); an angulated ectal median margin of endites ( Figs 21BView FIGURE 21; 29F; 38E; 60E) and a finger ‒shaped labium ( Figs 21BView FIGURE 21; 38E; 60E).

Description. Medium ‒sized caponiids with two eyes. Carapace uniformly orange or yellow, elongate oval, widest at rear of coxae II, only gradually narrowed anterior of eyes ( Fig. 6A ‒HView FIGURE 6); pars cephalica not elevated; pars thoracica slightly sloping posteriorly, with slight submarginal depressions opposite intercoxal spaces ( Figs 37AView FIGURE 37; 60C); few dorsally directed strong bristles on clypeus ( Fig. 60BView FIGURE 60); thoracic groove almost obsolete or absent. AME dark, situated on slightly elevated black ocular tubercle, separated by about a half of their diameter ( Fig. 60BView FIGURE 60), set back from anterior margin of clypeus by about twice their diameter ( Fig. 38CView FIGURE 38). Females with clypeus bloated ( Fig. 6E ‒HView FIGURE 6). Chelicerae orange, with median lamina; most of distance between lamina and fang base occupied by white membranous lobe ( Figs 21FView FIGURE 21; 38G; 60J); cheliceral paturon with scattered, long, weak bristles ( Fig. 60LView FIGURE 60); ectal side with stridulatory ridges ( Figs 21GView FIGURE 21; 38H; 60K). Endites orange, except anterior tips with white membranous projection ( Figs 11FView FIGURE 11, 29FView FIGURE 29, 58FView FIGURE 58), wide, convergent along midline (but not touching), with middle part wider than the distal and proximal and forming an obtuse angle of about 120 degrees on the ectal margin ( Figs 21BView FIGURE 21; 38E; 60E), covered with scattered long setae, and with strong distal serrula consisting of single tooth row ( Figs 21CView FIGURE 21; 38F; 60F). Labium orange, broad, rounded, fused to sternum along posterior groove, reborded in apical part ( Figs 21BView FIGURE 21; 38E; 60E, H). Sternum orange, oval, surface with fine reticular lines with numerous long, stiff setae ( Figs 21AView FIGURE 21; 38D; 60D); pleural membrane with three sclerotized intercoxal extensions between coxae I and II, II and III, and III and IV, long precoxal triangles on coxae II, III and IV. Legs orange, formula 4 123, without spines; anterior femora usually enlarged ( Fig. 21IView FIGURE 21); metatarsi entire, with metatarsal dorsal stopper (MtS) ( Figs 38KView FIGURE 38; 39H), anterior legs with crista occupying almost all ventral part ( Figs 21KView FIGURE 21; 38K; 61G); gladius with the most common shape among nopine ( Figs 21LView FIGURE 21; 38J ‒L); all tarsi bi ‒segmented ( Figs 21JView FIGURE 21; 38J; 39H; 61H, 62E); pretarsus with three claws; paired claws usually with 6‒10 teeth, most distal of which are largest ( Figs 22BView FIGURE 22, 43KView FIGURE 43); unpaired claw elongated and dorsally reflexed on legs I ‒II ( Figs 22AView FIGURE 22, 35IView FIGURE 35), some species with unpaired claw elongated and reflexed on legs III ‒IV ( Figs 35KView FIGURE 35, 43LView FIGURE 43), but others with the posterior unpaired claw small, as in other three ‒clawed spiders ( Figs 62BView FIGURE 62, 68AView FIGURE 68), some few species with small teeth on posterior unpaired claw ( Figs 68CView FIGURE 68, 71FView FIGURE 71); ventral frictional setae on tarsi ( Fig. 22D, K, LView FIGURE 22) and several other setae around pretarsal claws ( Fig. 22G ‒JView FIGURE 22); unpaired claws associated with a small arolium on anterior legs ( Figs 5AView FIGURE 5; 22A; 35I ‒J;, 71K), which is absent from posterior legs ( Figs 5B ‒CView FIGURE 5; 35K ‒L; 54B ‒C). Tibiae, metatarsi, and tarsi with trichobothria in a single row ( Figs 22CView FIGURE 22; 47J), bases with semicircular rim bearing slight longitudinal ridges ( Figs 22FView FIGURE 22; 39J), tarsal organ exposed, roundish, with marginal ring slightly pronounced ( Figs 22EView FIGURE 22; 39K; 61L), slit sensillae on tibiae, metatarsi and tarsi ( Fig. 39F, LView FIGURE 39). Male and female palpal tarsus elongated, without claw, retrolateral and ventral surfaces densely covered with strong setae; with an oval pad of fine chemoreceptor setae on dorsal, distal part ( Fig. 23FView FIGURE 23), with a prolateral tibial brush (ptb) near distal end ( Figs 23BView FIGURE 23; 43E; 45H); with a pick on prolateral side of palpal femur, situated near proximal end of podomere, in most of species with a slender shape ( Figs 27GView FIGURE 27; 43F; 45I). Abdomen gray dorsally, lighter ventrally, with only slightly sclerotized epigastric and postepigastric scutum; three abdominal patterns among species ( Fig. 6I ‒KView FIGURE 6), a few species without pattern ( Fig. 6LView FIGURE 6); with two pairs of respiratory spiracles clustered around epigastric groove ( Fig. 7EView FIGURE 7); anterior spiracles leading to wide, short tracheal trunk ending in numerous long tracheoles; posterior spiracles leading to two large tracheal trunks extending anteriorly into cephalothorax (inner trunks connected), plus one or two much narrower trunks extending posteriorly for most of abdominal length and several short, small tracheoles extending posteriorly ( Fig. 7FView FIGURE 7). Six spinnerets in typical caponiid arrangement ( Fig. 7A ‒DView FIGURE 7), ALS with only one major ampullate gland spigot in males ( Figs 23HView FIGURE 23; 61C), plus two or three piriform gland spigots in females ( Fig. 23LView FIGURE 23). PMS with one minor ampullate gland spigot (major gland in females), plus six ‒eleven aciniform gland spigots ( Figs 23GView FIGURE 23; 61C), and PLS with multiple aciniform gland spigots ( Figs 23I ‒KView FIGURE 23; 61A) of variable number among species; a group of species with PLS two times longer than the PMS ( Fig. 7A ‒BView FIGURE 7) and another group with PLS of equal size as PMS ( Fig. 7C ‒DView FIGURE 7). Male palpal patella and tibia short, tibia excavated ventrally ( Fig. 54HView FIGURE 54); cymbium elongated, not swollen, ventral surface densely covered with strong setae ( Figs 23CView FIGURE 23; 57A); pear ‒shape bulb, globose, originating near base of cymbium; embolus with small extensions on tip ( Fig. 4A ‒BView FIGURE 4), a few species with differentiate texture on median part ( Figs 18BView FIGURE 18; 27E ‒F; 30B) and/or a sclerotized margin on embolar tip ( Fig. 18BView FIGURE 18). External female genitalia with a weakly sclerotized anterior plate in most species, sclerotization around spiracles and on outer ends of posterior receptaculum (noticeable by transparency); posterior plate with two lateral extension (lep) between spiracles ( Fig. 3AView FIGURE 3); external sclerotization around spiracles (ess), pointed anteriorly on anterior spiracles and tear ‒shaped under posterior spiracles ( Fig. 3AView FIGURE 3). Internal female genitalia consisting of transverse, wide, anteriorly directed, weakly sclerotized receptaculum (r), and a membranous uterus externus which usually extends anteriorly over the distal margin of receptaculum ( Figs 2A ‒IView FIGURE 2; 3A ‒B).

Distribution. Neotropics

Other species included. N. agnarssoni Sánchez  ‒Ruiz, Brescovit & Alayόn, N. alexenriquei  n. sp., N. amazonas  n. sp., N. bahia  n. sp., N. blandus (Bryant)  , N. campeche  n. sp., N. coccineus Simon  , N. enae Sánchez  ‒Ruiz, N. ernestoi Sánchez  ‒Ruiz, N. farhati Prosen  , N. finisfurvus Sánchez  ‒Ruiz, Brescovit & Alayόn, N. flutillus Chickering  , N. jaragua  n. sp., N. gertschi Chickering  , N. hispaniola Sánchez  ‒Ruiz, Brescovit & Alayόn, N. ipojuca  n. sp., N. itapetinga  n. sp., N. largus Chickering  , N. maculatus Simon  , N. mathani Simon  , N. meridionalis Keyserling  , N. minas  n. sp., N. navassa  n. sp., N. nitidus Simon  , N. pallidus  n. sp., N. pocone  n. sp., N. quito Dupérré  , N. siboney Sánchez  ‒Ruiz, N. sublaevis Simon  , N. tico  n. sp., N. toballus Chickering  ; N. ursumus Chickering  , N. variabilis Keyserling. 

Species inquerenda. N. anisitsi Strand  , N. bellulus Chamberlin  , N. branicki (Taczanowski)  , N. glaucus Hasselt. 


Prirodonamen Muzej Skopje