Epicnemis flavidula (Brues)

Gonzalez, Lisa & Häggqvist, Sibylle, 2020, Revision of the Oriental Region genus Epicnemis Borgmeier (Diptera: Phoridae), Zootaxa 4803 (1), pp. 103-124 : 109-110

publication ID

https://doi.org/ 10.11646/zootaxa.4803.1.6

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scientific name

Epicnemis flavidula (Brues)


Epicnemis flavidula (Brues) View in CoL

Figures 8 View FIGURES 3–11 , 23 View FIGURES 18–23 , 33 View FIGURES 30–35 .

Hypocera flavidula Brues 1915: 184–185 View in CoL , fig. 4.

Plethysmochaeta flavidula: Beyer 1958: 25–26 .

Epicnemis flavidula: Borgmeier 1962: 172–173 View in CoL , figs. 1–4..

Other references: Borgmeier 1967, 1968, Disney 1991.

Diagnosis. This species can be recognized by the shape of the epandrium, with a small lobe at midlength of ventral margin, along with the elongate, narrow, straight phallus. A similar species with a straight, narrow phallus is E. namkyensis , but it lacks the small lobe at midlength of the ventral margin, has a broader at the apex of the phallus, and the frons is narrower.

Borgmeier (1962: fig. 3) illustrated the frons of E. flavidula , but included the presence of dorsal fronto-orbital setae (noting that they were “probably broken off”). He used the presence or absence of these setae to differentiate E. flavidula from his new species, E. testis , but later ( Borgmeier 1967) noted that all specimens lacked the “mediolaterals” (=dorsal fronto-orbital setae). We examined the lectotype specimen of this species, however, and were able to see the sockets of these setae ( Fig. 33 View FIGURES 30–35 ), which are indeed present in most specimens. As in other Epicnemis , the frontal setae are varied, with some specimens having extra setae. In general, the frons of this species is particularly wide and the frontal setae relatively small.

Description. Body 2.2–2.7 mm long. Frons brown and relatively wide; mean frontal width 0.47 head width, range 0.44–0.52. Frontal ratio 0.95–1.06. Twelve large frontal setae present, including one pair of supra-antennal setae. Ventral interfrontal setae same width apart as dorsal interfrontal setae. Ocellar triangle dark brown, large and strongly separated from rest of frons, with rounded posterior margin. Lateroventral part of frons with white triangular region with thin black line. Scutum yellowish-brown. Scutellum light brown, short, broad, with 4 subequal setae. Pleuron yellowish-brown dorsally to whitish ventrally. Foretibia with anterodorsal row of several short setae, decreasing in size apically. Midtibia with one posterodorsal seta near base, one slightly more apical anterodorsal seta present, and one anterodorsal seta at midlength; dorsally with setal palisade extending from base to midlength, more apically with transverse rows of fine setulae; few posterodorsal setae slightly enlarged apically. Hind tibia with several scattered medium-sized anterodorsal setae; dorsally with complete setal palisade, with row of small posterodorsal setulae closely parallel, followed more posteriorly by bare space before regular setulation. Wing large; mean costal length 0.50 wing length; range 0.48–0.52. Costal sector ratios 2.71–3.33:1. Halter knob light brown. Abdominal tergite 1 yellow except brown laterally, large, and extending laterally on segment. Tergites 2–6 similar in coloration except more brown laterally. Epandrium ovoid in shape except flattened posteriorly, with large triangular process anteroventrally. Length of epandrium greater than depth. Small posteroventral crest mid-depth; ventral margin of epandrium concave. Large setae, about twice as long as setae on cercus, present on posterior margin of epandrium, ending mid-depth. Apically curved process present ventral to base of phallus. Phallus elongate, longer than length of epandrium; basally curved, then straight and narrow with slight downward curvature apically.

Distribution. Widespread throughout the range of the genus.

HOLOTYPE: ♂. INDONESIA: Java: Batavia (= Jakarta), 1♂, xii.1908, E.Jacobson ( MCZC) ( LACM ENT 383623 View Materials ; examined).

Other Material examined. CAMBODIA: Siem Reap: Angkor, Praeh Khan Temple , 2♂, 18–25.ix.2005, Mal- aise trap, D.R. Jump ( LACM) ,, 2♂, 7–21.xi.2005, Malaise trap, O. Yothin ( LACM) , 3♂, 21–28.xi.2005, Malaise trap, O. Yothin ( LACM) , 16–23.x.2005, Malaise trap, D.R. Jump ( LACM), ( LACM) , Siem Reap, 7–21.xi.2005, Malaise trap, Yothin Oul ( LACM) . INDONESIA: Java: Diatos Padang , 1♂, 8–12.vii.1992, K. Snyder ( LACM) . THAILAND: Chaiyaphum: Pa Hin Ngam NP, Tung Dok Grajeaw, 15.64°N, 101.39°E, 720m GoogleMaps , 1♂, 24–30.vii.2006, Malaise trap T-340, K.Sanog, B. Adnafai ( LACM) , Phu hang sing, Tat Tone NP , 5–12.vii.2006, Malaise trap T-220, T. Jaruphan ( LACM), () , 4♂, 12–19.vii.2006, Malaise trap T-223, T.Jaruphan,O. Budsawong ( LACM) , Tat Tone NP, dry dipterocarp forest, 15.98°N, 102.04°E, 250m GoogleMaps , 3♂, 28.vi.2006, Malaise trap T-20, K. Jaidee ( LACM) , Tat Tone NP, near stream , 1♂, 10.vii.2006, yellow pan traps T-215, T. Jaruphan ( LACM) , 3♂, 12–19.vii.2006, Mal- aise trap T-221, T. Jaruphan ( LACM) ; Chiang Mai: Doi Inthanon NP, Vachiratharn Falls , 18.54°N, 98.6°E, 700m GoogleMaps , 11♂, 22.vii–2.viii.2006, Malaise trap T-116, Y. Areeluck ( LACM) , 2♂, 28.vi–7.v.1990, Malaise trap #4, B.V. Brown ( LACM) , 5♂, 8–15.vii.2006, Malaise trap T-62, Y. Areeluck ( LACM) ; Khonkaen: Nam Pong NP, office , 2♂, 5– 12.vii.2006, Malaise trap T-115, K. Jaidee ( LACM) , 1♂, 26.vii–2.viii.2006, Malaise trap T-108, K. Jaidee ( LACM) , 4♂, 19–26.vii.2006, Malaise trap T-113, K. Jaidee ( LACM) , 15♂, 26.vii–2.viii.2006, Malaise trap T-114, K. Jaidee ( LACM) , 1♂, 5–6.vii.2006, Malaise trap T-101, K. Jaidee ( LACM) , 4♂, 5–12.vii.2006, Malaise trap T-107, K. Jaidee ( LACM) , 3♂, 11–18.vii.2006, Malaise trap T-105, K. Jaidee ( LACM) , Phu Pha Man NP, dry dipterocarp forest, 16.71°N, 101.98°E, 293m GoogleMaps , 5♂, 13–20.vi.2006, Malaise trap T-10, R. Phatai ( LACM) , 4♂, 6–13.vi.2006, Malaise trap T-5, V. Boonma ( LACM) ; Nong Bua Lampoo: Phu Khao-Phu Phan Kham NP , 1♂, 12.vii.2006, yellow pan traps T-80, R. Singhatip ( LACM) , Phu Khao-Phu Phan Kham NP, far from old house , 1♂, 27.vii–2.viii.2006, Mal- aise trap T-85, R. Singhatip ( LACM) , 1♂, 13–19.vii.2006, Malaise trap T-86, R. Singhatip ( LACM) , Phu Khao-Phu Phan Kham NP, Mt checkpoint, 2♂, 13–19.vii.2006, Malaise trap T-94, R. Singhatip ( LACM) , Phu Khao-Phu Phan Kham NP, road inside park , 3♂, 5–12.vii.2006, Malaise trap T-88, R. Singhatip ( LACM) , Phu Khao-Phu Phan Kham NP, tank, 16.8°N, 102.6°E, 100m GoogleMaps , 3♂, 5–12.vii.2006, Malaise trap T-90, R. Singhatip ( LACM) ; Phang Nga: Koh Ra , 9.17°N, 98.27°E, 30m GoogleMaps , 8♂, 6.ii.2001, Malaise trap, G. Ballmer ( LACM) ; Phetchabun: Khao Kho NP, office, 16.66°N, 101.13°E, 1m GoogleMaps , 3♂, 19–26.vii.2006, Malaise trap T-170, S. Chatchumnan ( LACM) ; Sakon Nakhon: Phu Pan NP, behind office , 1♂, 27.vii–2.viii.2006, Malaise trap T-208, W. Kongnara ( LACM) , 6♂, 8–14.vii.2006, Malaise trap T-199, S. Tongboonchai ( LACM) , 1♂, 8–14.vii.2006, Malaise trap T-198, W. Kongnara ( LACM) , 1♂, 21–27.vii.2006, Malaise trap T-205, W. Kongnara ( LACM) , 2♂, 27.vii–2.viii.2006, Malaise trap T-207, W. Kongnara ( LACM) ; Trang: Khao Chong Forest Research Station , 7.55°N, 99.78°E, 75m GoogleMaps , 1♂, 2–4.ii.2005, Malaise trap, D. Lohman ( LACM) , 5♂, 15–18.vii.2005, Malaise trap #2, M. Sharkey ( LACM) , 1♂, 23–29.i.2005, yellow pan traps, D. Lohman ( LACM) , 5♂, 20–21.i.2005, Malaise trap, D. Lohman ( LACM) , 1♂, 5–7.ii.2005, Malaise trap, D. Lohman ( LACM) , Khao Chong Forest Research Stn, ridgetop, 7.55°N, 99.78°E, 140m GoogleMaps , 1♂, 20–27.i.2005, Mal- aise trap, ridgetop, D. Lohman ( LACM) , Khao Pu-Khao Ya NP, 7.5505°N, 99.7893°E, 75m GoogleMaps , 2♂, 12–17.iv.2006, MT T-1964, M. Sharkey ( QSBG) .


Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County














Epicnemis flavidula (Brues)

Gonzalez, Lisa & Häggqvist, Sibylle 2020

Epicnemis flavidula: Borgmeier 1962: 172–173

Borgmeier, T. 1962: 173

Plethysmochaeta flavidula:

Beyer, E. M. 1958: 26

Hypocera flavidula

Brues, C. T. 1915: 185
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