Jaydia striatodes ( Gon 1997 ),

Yu, Zhengsen, Song, Na, Han, Zhiqiang, Gao, Tianxiang, Shui, Bonian & Gon, Ofer, 2016, The taxonomic status and sister group relationship of the cardinalfish species Jaydia striatodes (Percomorphaceae: Apogonidae), Zootaxa 4175 (1), pp. 1-9: 5-8

publication ID


publication LSID


persistent identifier


treatment provided by


scientific name

Jaydia striatodes ( Gon 1997 )


Jaydia striatodes ( Gon 1997) 

Figure 2View FIGURE 2 a; Table 2

Jaydia striatodes  Jaydia striata Beibu Gulf  Holotype (paratypes)

Apogon (Jaydia) striatodes Gon 1997: 179  , fig. 15, Thai west coast, Andaman Sea, 7°01'48"N, 99°20'24"E; holotype: USNM 213408.

Jaydia striatodes ( Gon 1997)  : Mabuchi et al. 2014: 202.

Material examined. Jaydia striatodes  : ZMNH AF0000011–17, 7: 54.1–65.2 mm SL, northwest of Hainan Island, China, 1 September 2014  ; ZMNH AF0000118–134, 17: 42.2–68.4 mm SL, near Beihai , Guangxi, China, 8 August 2015  .

Comparative material. Jaydia striata  : CAS 79651, 2: 62.3–65.3 mm SL, Gulf of Thailand  ; MCZ 88942, 17: 42.4–58.85 mm SL, Persian Gulf   ; SAIAB 51353, 7: 50.3–70.8 mm SL, Tung kang, Taiwan  ; USNM 68403, 69.7 mm SL, west coast of Luzon , Philippines, holotype of Apogon striatus    ; USNM 213246, 21: 30.0– 54.05 mm SL, Bay of Bengal   ; USNM 213407, 6: 38.55–43.8 mm SL, off Penang Island, Malaysia  .

Description. Based on Beibu Gulf specimens. Dorsal-fin rays VII + I, 9; anal-fin rays II, 8; pectoral-fin rays 15; principal caudal-fin rays 9 + 8, 15 branched, uppermost and lowermost unbranched. Lateral-line scales 24 + 3 on caudal fin base; transverse scale rows above lateral line 2; transverse scale rows below lateral line 6; median predorsal scales 4 and ctenoid. Total gill rakers 4–5 + 12–13 (usually 5+13); developed gill rakers 3 + 11–12 (usually 3 + 12); gill rakers on first ceratobranchial 9. Exposed edge of posttemporal with 6–9 weak serrations. Vertical edge of preopercle corrugate; angle of preopercle with 3–9 small, weak serrations; preopercular ridge smooth, with 3–5 small indentations at angle. Three supraneurals. One pair of uroneurals; three epurals; five free hypurals.

Proportional measurements are given as the mean followed by the range in parentheses. Body depth 2.8 (2.6– 3.0) and head length 2.4 (2.3–2.5) in SL; snout length 5.65 (5.3–6.2); eye diameter 3.4 (3.15–3.6) and interorbital width 4.8 (4.2–5.2) in head length. First dorsal-fin spine 2.5 (2.1–2.9) in second dorsal-fin spine; second dorsal-fin spine 5.3 (4.6–6.0) in head length. Pectoral-fin length 4.1 (3.8–4.3) and pelvic-fin length 4.65 (4.35–5.0) in SL; pelvic-fin spine 1.7 (1.4–1.8) in pelvic-fin length. Caudal peduncle depth 1.5 (1.3–1.7) in its length, and its length 4.3 (3.9–4.5) in SL. Caudal fin slightly rounded.

Ctenoid scales present on cheek, upper margin of operculum, end of isthmus, jugular, breast, predorsal, caudal fin base, anal fin base, and body; cycloid scales present on posterior third of isthmus (except for ctenoid scales behind them), pectoral fin base, breast, second dorsal fin base, and usually the first scales of each row of scales under lateral line. Lateral line scales somewhat larger than most scales in other region and the last one tapered to a point.

Colour in alcohol. Body pale brown to brown; dorsal side of head darker; cheek stripe present, sometimes inconspicuous; both jaws with well-spaced melanophores, thicker at tip. Gill chamber and gills pale. Interorbital space with minute dark brown dots. Slightly bigger dark brown dots present on symphysis of lower jaw and chin. Large blackish dots on isthmus concentrated along median ridge, extending to jugular and breast. Body usually with 8–10 narrow, dark brown vertical bars; width of bars equal to or slightly greater than space between bars. First dorsal fin pale to dark brown, darker distally. Second dorsal fin pale to dark brown, usually with darker margin; membrane of second dorsal fin sometimes with faint dark stripe on proximal fourth. Both dorsal-fin bases with brown to dark brown dots. Pectoral fin and pelvic fin pale, but some melanophores usually present on tips of third and fourth pelvic-fin rays. Anal fin pale, its distal half blackish. Caudal fin pale to dark brown, usually with darker margin. Stomach and intestine blackish. Peritoneum with sparsely to moderately distributed dark dots of various sizes.

Colour in life unknown. Colour of fresh specimens ( Fig. 2View FIGURE 2 a) similar to colour in alcohol, but short-lived pink hue may be present on body and fins when specimens arrive on deck.

Genetic analysis. Sequences of the COI gene fragment were obtained from 15 individuals of J. striatodes  , three individuals of J. striata  and a single individual of J. novaeguineae  . Ten haplotypes were found in the sequences of J. striatodes  among which nine were unique ( ZMNH AF0000012, ZMNH AF0000013, ZMNH AF0000016, ZMNH AF0000017; ZMNH AF0000118; KAUM –I. 47460, KAUM –I. 47759, KAUM –I. 80608 and KAUM –I. 80610), and the last one was shared by six individuals ( ZMNH AF0000011, ZMNH AF0000014, ZMNH AF0000015; ZMNH AF0000120, ZMNH AF00000121; KAUM –I. 77592). Two haplotypes of J. striata  were found in the three KAUM individuals. These sequences, together with five additional sequences of Jaydia  species, as well as Apogonichthyoides niger  and Nectamia fusca  , downloaded from GenBank, were aligned and used for the genetic analysis. The mean genetic distance within all 15 individuals of J. striatodes  was 0.3%. The genetic distances between J. striatodes  and seven other Jaydia  species ranged from 12.2–16.9% ( Table 3).

The phylogenetic analyses recovered identical maximum likelihood (ML), maximum parsimony (MP) and neighbor-joining (NJ) trees ( Fig. 3View FIGURE 3). Apogonichthyoides niger  and Nectamia fusca  were chosen as outgroups to root the tree. The topology retrieved eight genetically distinct Jaydia  species ( Table 3) that grouped into four distinct clades, with J. carinata  and J. queketti  as the basal lineage and sister to the rest of the species. Specimens of both J. striatodes  and J. striata  formed well-supported monophyletic clades ( Fig. 3View FIGURE 3) that were distinctly separate with mean sequence divergence of 12.2% ( Table 3). The analyses also retrieved these two species as sister taxa in a clade that was relatively well-supported (79% bootstrap) only in the neighbour-joining tree ( Fig. 3View FIGURE 3).

Remarks. The proportion of body width ( Table 2) was relatively smaller in this study because the specimens may have been compressed in the trawl. The colour pattern of the second dorsal fin varied, with a faint dark stripe on proximal fourth of the fin sometimes absent.

Gon (1997) placed Jaydia striatodes  at the J. lineata  group which also included J. striata  , and J. novaeguineae  . These four species may be confused with each other because of the small differences in colour pattern and meristic characters, causing inaccurate records of their distribution ranges. The colour pattern in photographs of Apogon striatus in Shao & Chen (1993)  and Jaydia lineata in Ng & Lim (2014)  fits J. striatodes  . Our results confirm the sister group relationship between J. striatodes  and J. striata  ( Fig. 3View FIGURE 3) proposed by Gon (1997). The two species are very similar but can be distinguished by the number of developed gill rakers on both the upper limb (3 vs. 2, respectively; Table 2) and ceratobranchial (9 vs. 8; Table 2). In addition, J. striatodes  has a blackish distal half of the anal fin, even in small fish (<35 mm), but in J. striata  the anal fin becomes pigmented distally in large fish (> 60 mm) ( Gon 1997). The former character also separates J. striatodes  from all other Jaydia  species.

Given the great similarity between J. striatodes  and J. striata  ( Fig. 2View FIGURE 2), they may be easily confused with each other. Because past authors have not been aware that small differences in the characters mentioned above distinguish species, it could be anticipated that reports of J. striata  preceding the revision of the genus by Gon (1997) may include J. striatodes  .

Jaydia striata  was first recorded from China in the coastal water of Guangdong Province and Sanya, Xincun of Hainan Island by Cheng (1959). Several years later, Cheng et al. (1962) reported this species with a more detailed description and a drawing. A recently published book used the name in a key (Sun & Chen 2013). Unfortunately, all these authors overlooked key characters, or did not provide enough details to identify the species they had, although the higher counts (5–6) of gill rakers on the upper limb of first gill arch recorded in Cheng et al. (1962) suggests J. striatodes  . Therefore we cannot determine with certainty whether only J. striatodes  is present in coastal Chinese waters. Nevertheless, the absence of J. striata  in the two surveys that netted the specimens of J. striatodes  used in this study, as well as other Jaydia  species, lead us to consider the presence of J. striata  along the southern part of the Chinese mainland coastline as questionable. Further support for this conclusion comes from the fact that in the material examined by Gon (1997) J. striata  is sympatric to J. striatodes  , except in Hong Kong, where only the latter species is present.

Jaydia striata  is known from the Persian Gulf, Gulf of Oman, Arabian Sea, Bay of Bengal   , Malaysia, Gulf of Thailand   , Indonesia, Philippines, and Taiwan ( Gon 1997). Jaydia striatodes  has a more limited range, including the west coast of Thailand, Gulf of Thailand   , Philippines, and Hong Kong ( Gon 1997; Satapoomin 2011), and possibly west coast of Taiwan and Pratas Island or Spratly Island ( Shao & Chen 1993; Shao et al. 2008). The material used in this study extends the distribution of this species further south along the coast of China’s mainland to Beibu Gulf, and to Vietnam  .

TABLE 2. Morphometric and meristic comparison of Jaydia striatodes and J. striata. Proportional measurements are expressed as percentage of the standard length.

Length of spine of second dorsal fin      
  4–5 + 12–13 5+13 (4–5 + 12–14)  
    3+12 (2–3 + 11–12)  

TABLE 3. Mean percent distance (Kimura 2 - P) between cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene of eight Jaydia species and ranges of distance within species with mean within species distance in parentheses (in bold).

  J. striatodes   J. queketti   J. smithi   J. lineata  

Zhejiang Museum of Natural History


California Academy of Sciences


Museum of Comparative Zoology


South African Institute for Aquatic Biodiversity


Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History


University of Coimbra Botany Department


Kagoshima University Museum














Jaydia striatodes ( Gon 1997 )

Yu, Zhengsen, Song, Na, Han, Zhiqiang, Gao, Tianxiang, Shui, Bonian & Gon, Ofer 2016

Jaydia striatodes (

Mabuchi 2014: 202

Apogon (Jaydia) striatodes

Gon 1997: 179