Paracraspis patelloides ( Trotter, 1910 )

Melika, George, Pujade-Villar, Juli, Nicholls, James A., Cuesta-Porta, Victor & Stone, Graham N., 2021, Three new Nearctic genera of oak cynipid gall wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae: Cynipini): Burnettweldia Pujade-Villar, Melika & Nicholls, Nichollsiella Melika, Pujade-Villar & Stone, Disholandricus Melika, Pujade-Villar & Nicholls; and re-establishment of the genus Paracraspis Weld, Zootaxa 4993 (1), pp. 1-81 : 70-75

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Paracraspis patelloides ( Trotter, 1910 )


Paracraspis patelloides ( Trotter, 1910) , comb. rev.

Figs 210–223 View FIGURES 210–215 View FIGURES 216–219 View FIGURES 220–222 View FIGURE 223

Andricus ? patelloides Trotter, 1910: 106 , gall.

Acraspis patelloides (Weld) : Weld, 1926: 60, treated Acraspis patelloides as a new species, providing a description of the asexual female and the gall. He mentioned that Trotter (1911) described the galls.

Paracraspis patelloides (Trotter, 1911) : Burks 1979: author of the species has been changed.

Acraspis patelloides (Weld) : Melika & Abrahamson, 2002.

Types examined. Holotype female and 1 gall labeled as „ Sequoia Nat. P. Cal. ”, „ Q. chrysolepis ”, red label „Type No 27204, USNM ”, „ Acraspis patelloides Weld ”, deposited in the USNM (http://n 8953-4b9f-8c1f-f6378fcc48db), examined by GM.

Material examined. One female labelled as „ USA, Arizona, Oak Creek Canyon, S of Flagstaff, galltype 101, AZ233, Q. chrysolepis ; leg. J.A. Nicholls , 2007.11.01 ”, deposited in the collection of PHDNRL. Two galls labelled as „Idyllwild Cal.”, „1739”, „ Quercus chrysolepis ”, red label „ Paratype ”, „ Acraspis patelloides Weld .

Diagnosis. Paracraspis patteloides most closely resembles P. insolens , in both species the mesoscutellum and mesopleuron are delicately coriaceous ( Figs 206–207 View FIGURES 206–207 , 216–218 View FIGURES 216–219 ); the second metasomal tergum extending to more than 1/2 of the metasoma length. In P. patteloides the body is dark brown, with some lighter parts on the head and mesosoma, with very dense white setae hiding the surface sculpture, especially on the mesosoma where the notaulus is obscured and extending to 2/3 of the mesoscutum length; the head is trapezoid in frontal view ( Fig. 210 View FIGURES 210–215 ); OOL 1.9x as long as the diameter of lateral ocellus ( Fig. 211 View FIGURES 210–215 ); F2 1.3x as long as F3 ( Fig. 214 View FIGURES 210–215 ) while in P. insolens the body is uniformly brown; with less dense white setae, surface sculpture under setae clearly visible; the head is rounded ( Fig. 196 View FIGURES 196–201 ); the notaulus extending to 1/2 of the mesoscutum length ( Figs 203–204 View FIGURES 202–205 ); OOL 2.8x as long as the diameter of lateral ocellus ( Fig. 197 View FIGURES 196–201 ); F2=F3 ( Fig. 200 View FIGURES 196–201 ).

Description. Asexual female ( Figs 210–222 View FIGURES 210–215 View FIGURES 216–219 View FIGURES 220–222 ). Body, antenna, legs uniformly dark brown with some lighter parts on head and mesosoma; legs with long, dense setae.

Head microreticulate to alutaceous, with white setae, denser on lower face, vertex, occiput, postocciput; 1.9x as broad as long in dorsal view; 1.2x as broad as high in frontal view and broader than mesosoma. Gena alutaceous, slightly broadened behind eye in frontal view, narrower than transverse diameter of eye in lateral view. Malar space alutaceous, without malar sulcus, with numerous delicate striae radiating from clypeus, some striae reaching eye margin; eye 1.9x as high as length of malar space. Inner margins of eyes parallel. POL 2.0x as long as OOL; OOL 1.9x as long as diameter of lateral ocellus, subequal than LOL; ocelli ovate, all three equal in size. Transfacial distance 1.25x as long as height of eye and 1.3x as long as height of lower face (distance between antennal rim and ventral margin of clypeus); antennal toruli level with upper half of eye, diameter of antennal torulus 2.0x as long as distance between them, distance between torulus and eye margin as long as diameter of torulus. Lower face alutaceous to microreticulate, without striae, with dense setae; slightly elevated median area coriaceous, with delicate transverse striae and dense setae. Clypeus rectangular, flat, broader than high, coriaceous, ventrally rounded, emarginate, not incised medially; anterior tentorial pit deep, epistomal sulcus and clypeo-pleurostomal line distinct. Frons, interocellar area, vertex, occiput, postocciput and postgena microreticulate to alutaceous; postocciput around occipital foramen impressed, alutaceous, with delicate parallel striae; posterior tentorial pits large, deep, elongate; height of oral foramen slightly longer than height of postgenal bridge+occipital foramen; occipital foramen as high as height of postgenal bridge; hypostomal carina emarginate, continuing into postgenal sulcus; postgenal sulci V-shaped, gradually bent outwards; postgenal bridge alutaceous, glabrous, anteriorly broader than width of occipital foramen. Antenna slightly shorter than body, with 13 flagellomeres (suture between F13 and F12 indistinct but present), all flagellomeres with long dense setae; pedicel slightly longer than broad, F1 longer than length of scape+pedicel, slightly longer than F2, F2 1.3x as long as F3, F3=F4, F4 slightly longer than F5, F5 longer than F6, subsequent flagellomeres nearly equal in length, F13 shorter than F12; placodeal sensilla on F5–F13.

Mesosoma slightly longer than high in lateral view. Pronotum alutaceous to reticulate, with dense white setae, without striae laterally, emarginate along lateral edge; propleuron reticulate along sides, smooth, glabrous centrally, with dense white setae. Mesoscutum reticulate with dense white setae; longer than broad (width measured across base of tegulae); notaulus indistinct under dense setae, incomplete, extending to 1/3–2/3 of mesoscutum length; median mesoscutal line absent; anterior parallel line indistinct, extending to 2/3 of mesoscutum length; parapsidal line not impressed, indicated by less setose or asetose stripe, reaching to half the length of mesoscutum; parascutal carina narrow, reaching anterior edge of tegula. Transscutal articulation deep, distinct; mesoscutum posteriorly emarginate. Mesoscutellum longer than broad, with subparallel sides laterally, pointed posteriorly, shorter than mesoscutum, uniformly coriaceous, overhanging metanotum, with dense long white setae. Mesoscutellar foveae absent, anterior part of mesoscutellum delicately coriaceous like rest of mesoscutellar disk, without median elevated carina, in the same plane as mescutellar disk, not impressed. Mesopleuron, including speculum, uniformly delicately coriaceous, with dense white setae; mesopleural triangle delicately coriaceous, with dense white setae. Metapleural sulcus reaching mesopleuron slightly above 1/2–2/3 of its height, lower part delimiting broad triangular area with dense setae; upper part of sulcus indistinct; dorsal and lateral axillar areas delicately coriaceous, with dense setae; axillar carina broad, with longitudinal striae; subaxillular bar triangular, at most posterior end as high as height of metanotal trough. Metascutellum with numerous delicate parallel longitudinal striae, slightly higher than height of smooth, glabrous ventral impressed area; metanotal trough smooth, glabrous, with white setae. Lateral propodeal carinae distinct, strong, slightly bent outwards in posterior third, with few short rugae going from carina into lateral propodeal area; central propodeal area smooth, glabrous, with strong irregular rugae in posterior half and with incomplete carina medially; lateral propodeal area delicately coriaceous, with dense white setae; nucha short, glabrous, with net of strong irregular rugae dorsally and laterally. Tarsal claws with acute basal lobe.

Forewing shortened, slightly shorter than body, with dark brown veins, margin with cilia; radial cell incomplete, R+Sc, R1+Sc, M, M+Cu1, Cu1, Cu1a, 2r dark brown; R1 indistinct but visible, not reaching wing margin; Rs starting from 2r and visible for 1/4 of the distance between 2r and wing margin; areolet absent; M invisible; Rs+M indistinct, visible for half the distance between areolet and basalis, its projection reaching basalis at its lower-most point.

Metasoma greater than 2.0x as long as head+mesosoma, longer than high in lateral view, smooth, glabrous; second metasomal tergum extending to nearly 1/2 of metasoma length in dorsal view, smooth, glabrous, with dense setae anterolaterally; subsequent terga and hypopygium smooth, glabrous; prominent part of ventral spine of hypopygium as long as broad, spine gradually narrowing till apex, with long setae extending far beyond apex of spine, forming a tuft. Body length 3.5 mm (n = 1).

Gall. ( Fig 223 View FIGURE 223 ). Detachable, monolocular concave leaf galls with flared rims on the underside of leaves on midrib or lateral veins; solitary or in clusters of 2–3 galls. The young fleshy galls are flat to slightly concave; as they mature the sides of the gall grow higher, creating a deep central depression and forming a bowl shape. The mature galls are 12 mm in diameter and 5 mm high. When fresh, the galls are a faint pea green to ivory color with pink red margins. By fall, the galls turn beige with hints of pink or red along the margins of the top, with small dark spots on some specimens. The sides of the galls are ridged and nonglossy. The larval chamber lies transversely under the central depression and the exit hole is made through the thin roof into the bottom of this depression. Under the larval chamber a central cavity reaches to the point of attachment ( Weld 1926, Russo 2006).

Biology. Only the asexual generation is known, inducing galls on Q. chrysolepis . Galls start to develop in April on the previous year’s leaves; adults can be found in galls in November-December; emerge in early spring; adults continue to emerge until late May.

Distribution. USA: Arizona (authors), California ( Burks 1979).


Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History














Paracraspis patelloides ( Trotter, 1910 )

Melika, George, Pujade-Villar, Juli, Nicholls, James A., Cuesta-Porta, Victor & Stone, Graham N. 2021

Acraspis patelloides (Weld)

Weld, L. H. 1926: 60


Trotter, A. 1910: 106