Disholandricus chrysolepidis ( Ashmead, 1896 ) Melika & Pujade-Villar & Nicholls & Cuesta-Porta & Stone, 2021

Melika, George, Pujade-Villar, Juli, Nicholls, James A., Cuesta-Porta, Victor & Stone, Graham N., 2021, Three new Nearctic genera of oak cynipid gall wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae: Cynipini): Burnettweldia Pujade-Villar, Melika & Nicholls, Nichollsiella Melika, Pujade-Villar & Stone, Disholandricus Melika, Pujade-Villar & Nicholls; and re-establishment of the genus Paracraspis Weld, Zootaxa 4993 (1), pp. 1-81 : 50-53

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Disholandricus chrysolepidis ( Ashmead, 1896 )

comb. nov.

Disholandricus chrysolepidis ( Ashmead, 1896) , comb. nov.

Figs 142–153 View FIGURES 142–147 View FIGURES 148–151 View FIGURES 152–153 , 182 View FIGURES 179–182

Andricus chrysolepidis Ashmead, 1896: 119 , female, gall (http://n 53a5f46ffb0e).

Disholcaspis chrysolepidis ( Beutenmueller, 1911) : Weld, 1951: 639, erroneously changed the author and the year of the species description; this error has subsequently been propogated. Here we clarify the correct author and year of description, Ashmead, 1896.

Types examined. Holotype female labeled as „3798”, „Nov. 20.85”, „Colfax”, „ Placer Co. ”, „ A.Koebele Collector ”, handwritten label „ Holcaspis chrysolepidis Beutenm. ”, red label „Type No 13715 USNM ”, deposited in the USNM (http://n, examined by GM. One paratype female labelled as „ Placer Co. , Cal.”, „Beut. Coll.”, „ Q. chrysolepis ”, red label „Cotype”, Weld handwritten label „ Disholcaspis chrysolepis Beut ”, deposited in the USNM, examined by GM.

Material examined. Ten females: 8 females labelled as „ USA, California, Round Valley, CA1182 , galltype 120, Q. chrysolepis , leg. J.D. deMartini, 2002.10.01 ”; one female „ USA, California, Lassen Volcanic National Park, CA1178 , galltype 120, Q. chrysolepis , leg. J.D. deMartini, 2005.09.25 ”, one female „ USA, California, Highway 33, Los Padres National Forest, CA1165 , galltype 120, Q. chrysolepis , leg. J.D. deMartini, 2005.09.25 ”. Specimens are deposited at the collection of PHDNRL .

Diagnosis. The entire body is yellowish brown to yellow; mesoscutellar foveae are smooth, divided by a narrow central elevated carina. In Disholcaspis chrysolepidis the notaulus is incomplete, extending to the half length of the mesoscutum or slightly longer ( Figs 149–150 View FIGURES 148–151 ); the prominent part of the ventral spine of the hypopygium around 3.0x as long as broad ( Figs 152–153 View FIGURES 152–153 ), while in D.lasius and D. truckeensis the notaulus is complete, always reaching the pronotum ( Figs 161–162 View FIGURES 160–163 , 173–174 View FIGURES 172–175 ); the prominent part of the ventral spine of the hypopygium as long as broad ( Figs 164–165 View FIGURES 164–165 , 176–178 View FIGURES 176–178 ).

Description. Asexual female ( Figs 142–153 View FIGURES 142–147 View FIGURES 148–151 View FIGURES 152–153 ). Head, mesosoma, metasoma antenna, legs uniformly light brown to whitish-yellow.

Head alutaceous, transverse, with sparse white setae, denser posteriorly and in interocellar area, 1.8x as broad as long in dorsal view; 1.3x as broad as high in frontal view and narrower than mesosoma. Gena alutaceous, broadened behind eye in frontal view; in lateral view distinctly broader than transverse diameter of eye in ventral part and as broad as transverse diameter of eye in dorsal part. Malar space alutaceous, without striae and sulcus; eye 2.1x as high as length of malar space. Inner margins of eyes parallel. Ocelli elevated above vertex in frontal view; POL 1.3x as long as OOL; OOL 2.0x as long as diameter of lateral ocellus, 1.5x as long as LOL; ocelli ovate, all equal in size. Transfacial distance 1.3x as long as height of eye and 1.6x as long as height of lower face (distance between antennal rim and ventral margin of clypeus); toruli level with upper half of eye; diameter of antennal torulus 1.25x as long as distance between them, distance between torulus and eye margin slightly longer than diameter of torulus. Lower face alutaceous, glabrous, without striae, with slightly elevated alutaceous median area, with few setae. Clypeus trapezoid, ventrally broader, flat, broader than high, alutaceous, ventrally rounded, emarginate, not incised medially; anterior tentorial pit deep, epistomal sulcus and clypeo-pleurostomal line distinct. Frons, interocellar area, area between toruli alutaceous to delicately reticulate; vertex, occiput, postgena and postocciput uniformly alutaceous; postocciput around occipital foramen impressed, smooth, glabrous, with delicate parallel striae above occipital foramen; posterior tentorial pit large, deep, elongate; height of oral foramen slightly shorter than height of postgenal bridge+occipital foramen; occipital foramen as high as height of postgenal bridge; hypostomal carina emarginate, continuing into postgenal sulcus; postgenal sulci V-shaped, gradually bent outwards; postgenal bridge smooth, glabrous, anteriorly as broad as width of occipital foramen. Antenna longer than head+mesosoma, with 13 flagellomeres (in some specimens suture between F13 and F12 indistinct), pedicel 1.7x as long as broad, F1 slightly longer than length of scape+pedicel, 1.2x as long as F2, F2 slightly longer than F3, F3=F4, F4 slightly longer than F5, F5=F6, subsequent flagellomeres nearly equal in length; suture between F13 and F12 indistinct; placodeal sensilla on F4–F13.

Mesosoma longer than high in lateral view. Pronotum alutaceous, with white setae, without striae laterally, emarginate along lateral edge; propleuron alutaceous, with dense white setae. Mesoscutum reticulate with white setae, denser in anterior half and along notauli, with visible piliferous points; nearly as long as broad (width measured across base of tegulae); notaulus incomplete, extending to 2/3 of mesoscutum length, uniformly impressed along full length, with smooth, glabrous bottom; median mesoscutal line absent; anterior parallel line indistinct, impressed, extending to 1/3 length of mesoscutum; parapsidal line not impressed, indicated by smooth broad stripe, extending along half the length of mesoscutum; parascutal carina narrow, anteriorly reaching pronotum. Transscutal articulation deep, distinct. Mesoscutellum slightly longer than broad, shorter than mesoscutum; disk nearly rounded, uniformly coriaceous, overhanging metanotum; mesoscutellar foveae rounded, slightly broader than high, with smooth, glabrous bottom, divided by narrow central elevated carina. Mesopleuron, including speculum, uniformly microreticulate, with dense setae; mesopleural triangle smooth, glabrous, with dense white setae, without rugae. Metapleural sulcus reaching mesopleuron in the upper 1/3 of its height; lower part of sulcus delimiting smooth, glabrous triangular area, with few setae; upper part of sulcus distinct; dorsal and lateral axillar areas delicately coriaceous, with white setae; axillar carina broad, with longitudinal striae; subaxillular bar triangular, smooth, glabrous, at its most posterior end slightly higher than height of metanotal trough. Metascutellum delicately coriaceous, slightly shorter than height of smooth, glabrous ventral impressed area; metanotal trough smooth, glabrous, with a few white setae. Lateral propodeal carinae distinct, complete, strongly bent outwards in posterior third, central propodeal area smooth, glabrous, without setae, with central longitudinal carina starting anteriorly and extending to half length of propodeum; lateral propodeal area coriaceous, with dense white setae; nucha short, glabrous with delicate longitudinal sulci dorsally and laterally. Tarsal claws with acute basal lobe.

Forewing longer than body, narrower than usual for cynipids, with yellowish veins (M+Cu1, Cu1 and M inconspicuous, not pigmented), margin with short dense cilia; radial cell opened, 4.8x as long as broad, R1 and Rs not reaching wing margin; areolet triangular, well-delimited by distinct veins; Rs+M indistinct, not pigmented.

Metasoma longer than head+mesosoma, longer than high in lateral view, smooth, glabrous; second metasomal tergum extending to 1/3 of metasoma length in dorsal view, with dense white setae anterolaterally; all subsequent terga and hypopygium smooth, glabrous, without setae; prominent part of ventral spine of hypopygium 2.8x as long as broad in ventral view, needle-like, gradually narrowing until apex, with dense white setae, extending beyond apex of spine, forming a distinct tuft. Body length 3.5–3.7 mm (n = 10).

Gall. ( Fig 182 View FIGURES 179–182 ). Hard detachable, multilocular galls that burst out of the twigs and are usually clustered in rows. When young, galls are greenish, later they turn rusty brown on the top with light brown sides. A single gall up to 15 mm wide and 20 mm long; the gall cluster can exceed 60 mm in length. ( Ashmead 1896, Russo 2006). Galls produce honeydew ( Nicholls et al. 2017).

Biology. Only the asexual generation is known, inducing galls on Q. chrysolepis . Galls develop in autumn, mature in October-November; adults emerge in mid-winter.

Distribution. USA: California ( Burks 1979).


Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History














Disholandricus chrysolepidis ( Ashmead, 1896 )

Melika, George, Pujade-Villar, Juli, Nicholls, James A., Cuesta-Porta, Victor & Stone, Graham N. 2021

Disholcaspis chrysolepidis ( Beutenmueller, 1911 )

Weld, L. H. 1951: 639

Andricus chrysolepidis

Ashmead, W. H. 1896: 119