Disholandricus Melika, Pujade-Villar & Nicholls, 2021
Melika, George, Pujade-Villar, Juli, Nicholls, James A., Cuesta-Porta, Victor & Stone, Graham N., 2021, Three new Nearctic genera of oak cynipid gall wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae: Cynipini): Burnettweldia Pujade-Villar, Melika & Nicholls, Nichollsiella Melika, Pujade-Villar & Stone, Disholandricus Melika, Pujade-Villar & Nicholls; and re-establishment of the genus Paracraspis Weld, Zootaxa 4993 (1), pp. 1-81 : 48-49
treatment provided by
|Disholandricus Melika, Pujade-Villar & Nicholls|
Disholandricus Melika, Pujade-Villar & Nicholls , gen. nov.
Figs 142–195 View FIGURES 142–147 View FIGURES 148–151 View FIGURES 152–153 View FIGURES 154–159 View FIGURES 160–163 View FIGURES 164–165 View FIGURES 166–171 View FIGURES 172–175 View FIGURES 176–178 View FIGURES 179–182 View FIGURES 183–188 View FIGURES 189–192 View FIGURES 193–195
Type species. Holcaspis truckeensis Ashmead, 1896 .
Etymology. Named after the two genera Disholcapsis and Andricus , as it presents a mix of characters similar to both.
Diagnosis. Only the asexual generations are known. Head transverse, gena broadened behind eye in frontal view; malar space without malar sulcus; antenna with 12 or 13 flagellomeres, all flagellomeres with long dense setae, F1 the longest one; mesoscutum delicately coriaceous to uniformly reticulate, with piliferous points; notaulus present, median mesoscutal line absent; transscutal articulation distinct; mesoscutellar foveae present, sometimes in the form of semilunar depression; mesopleuron, including speculum, delicately microreticulate to alutaceous; lateral propodeal carina distinct, bent slightly outwards in posterior third; tarsal claws with acute basal lobe; forewing of normal length, longer than the body; radial cell opened, 3.75–5.0x as long as broad; only the second metasomal tergum with setae anterolaterally, all subsequent terga smooth, glabrous, without setae or micropunctures; the prominent part of the ventral spine of the hypopygium with parallel sides, broad distally, as long as or only slightly longer than broad from ventral view, with long dense setae extending far beyond the apex of the spine and forming a distinct tuft. See also the key to genera.
Description. Asexual female ( Figs 142–178 View FIGURES 142–147 View FIGURES 148–151 View FIGURES 152–153 View FIGURES 154–159 View FIGURES 160–163 View FIGURES 164–165 View FIGURES 166–171 View FIGURES 172–175 View FIGURES 176–178 , 183–192 View FIGURES 183–188 View FIGURES 189–192 ). Body yellow, yellowish brown to brown, with or without black marks on mesoscutum, propodeum, metasoma.
Head alutaceous to microreticulate, transverse, with white setae, denser on vertex, interocellar area; 1.8–2.9x as broad as long in dorsal view; 1.2–1.4x as broad as high in frontal view and broader than mesosoma. Gena alutaceous to reticulate, broadened behind eye in frontal view; laterally uniformly broadened behind eye, as broad as transverse diameter of eye or distinctly broader than transverse diameter of eye in ventral part and as broad as transverse diameter of eye in dorsal part of gena. Malar space reticulate, without malar sulcus, without striae or with delicate striae radiating from clypeus and extending to half length of malar space; height of eye 1.8–2.1x as long as length of malar space. Inner margins of eyes parallel. POL slightly to 1.2–1.7x as long as OOL; OOL 1.9–2.5x as long as diameter of lateral ocellus, 1.2–1.9x as long as LOL; ocelli ovate, all three equal in size. Transfacial distance 1.3–1.4x as long as height of eye and 1.5–1.6x as long as height of lower face (distance between antennal rim and ventral margin of clypeus); toruli level with upper half of eye; diameter of antennal torulus 1.2–1.6x as long as distance between them, distance between torulus and eye margin 1.1–1.4x as long as diameter of torulus. Lower face and median, slightly elevated area microreticulate, without striae, with white setae. Clypeus ovate or rectangular, flat, slightly broader than high, delicately coriaceous, ventrally rounded, emarginate, not incised medially; anterior tentorial pit deep, epistomal sulcus and clypeo-pleurostomal line distinct, broad. Frons, interocellar area, area between toruli alutaceous to microreticulate; vertex, occiput, postgena, postocciput alutaceous, delicately coriaceous to microreticulate; postocciput around occipital foramen impressed, smooth, glabrous, with delicate parallel striae above occipital foramen; posterior tentorial pit large, deep, elongate; height of oral foramen slightly shorter than height of postgenal bridge+occipital foramen; occipital foramen as high as height of postgenal bridge; hypostomal carina emarginate, continuing into postgenal sulcus; postgenal sulci V-shaped, gradually bent outwards; postgenal bridge smooth, glabrous, anteriorly broader than width of occipital foramen. Antenna longer than head+mesosoma and slightly shorter than length of body, with 12 or 13 flagellomeres (in some specimens suture between F13 and F12 indistinct), all flagellomeres with long dense setae; F1 the longest flagellomere, subsequent flagellomeres gradually shorter; placodeal sensilla on F3–F13.
Mesosoma longer than high in lateral view. Pronotum alutaceous, delicately coriaceous to reticulate, without striae laterally, with dense white setae, denser in lateroventral part, emarginate and foveolate along lateral edge. Propleuron delicately coriaceous to reticulate in ventral and lateral parts, smooth, glabrous in central part, with sparse white setae. Mesoscutum delicately coriaceous to uniformly reticulate, with piliferous points; with uniformly distributed white sparse setae, denser in anterior half of mesoscutum and along notauli; longer than broad (width measured across base of tegulae). Notauli either complete and reaching pronotum or incomplete, extending to half length of mesoscutum or slightly longer; converging posteriorly. Anterior parallel line indistinct, slightly impressed, marked by smooth narrow stripe, extending to 1/4 of mesoscutum length. Parapsidal line not impressed, indicated by smooth stripe, extending to 1/3–1/2 of mesoscutum length; median mesoscutal line absent; parascutal carina narrow, extending to anterior edge of tegula. Transscutal articulation deep, distinct. Mesoscutellum longer than broad, with subparallel sides, trapezoid, posteriorly rounded; shorter than mesoscutum, uniformly coriaceous, overhanging metanotum; mesoscutellar foveae rounded or ellongated, with smooth, glabrous bottom or in form of semilunar depression, with smooth, glabrous bottom, sometimes with few parallel delicate longitudinal rugae, not always divided by narrow median elevated carina. Mesopleuron, including speculum, delicately microreticulate to alutaceous, glabrous, with sparse setae; mesopleural triangle smooth, with white setae and sometimes with delicate irregular short rugae. Metapleural sulcus reaching mesopleuron around half of its height, lower part of sulcus delimiting triangular coriaceous area without or with dense setae, upper part of sulcus visible or not, delimiting narrow area; dorsal and lateral axillar areas delicately coriaceous, with dense setae; axillar carina broad, with longitudinal striae; subaxillular bar triangular, smooth, glabrous, at most posterior end nearly as high as height of metanotal trough. Metascutellum delicately coriaceous, as high as height of smooth, glabrous ventral impressed area; metanotal trough smooth, glabrous, with white setae and indistinct longitudinal parallel rugae. Lateral propodeal carinae distinct, bent slightly outwards in posterior third, reaching anterior edge of propodeum; central propodeal area smooth, glabrous, without or with few short delicate rugae, sometime with central longitudinal carina starting anteriorly and extending to half length of propodeum; lateral propodeal area coriaceous, with dense white setae and piliferous points; nucha short, with or without sulci dorsally, always with longitudinal sulci laterally. Tarsal claws with acute basal lobe.
Forewing longer than body, with light brown veins, margin with dense cilia; radial cell opened, 3.75–5.0x as long as broad, R1 and Rs not reaching wing margin; areolet triangular, delimited by indistinct veins; Rs+M indistinct, visible in 1/3–2/3 of distance between areolet and basalis, its projection reaching basalis slightly above its half height.
Metasoma longer than head+mesosoma, slightly longer than high in lateral view; second metasomal tergum smooth, glabrous with a few white setae anterolaterally, reaching to 1/3–1/2 of metasoma length dorsally; subsequent terga and hypopygium smooth, glabrous, without setae; prominent part of ventral spine of hypopygium as long as broad to 2.8x as long as broad, spine gradually narrowing until apex, with long setae extending far beyond apex of spine. Body length 2.8–3.8 mm.
Based on molecular phylogenetic analyses four species are herein transferred to Disholandricus , gen. nov.: D. chrysolepidis (Ashmead) , comb. nov. (from Disholcaspis ); D. lasius (Ashmead) , comb. nov. (from Disholcaspis ), D. reniformis (McCracken & Egbert) , comb. nov. (from Disholcaspis ), and D. truckeensis (Ashmead) , comb. nov. (from Andricus ). All species in Disholandricus are associated exclusively with section Protobalanus oaks ( Q. chrysolepis , Q. vacciniifolia ). Below we re-describe the four Disholandricus species according to current morphological criteria and terminology.
Key to Disholandricus species
1. Body brown, with large black marks on mesoscutum, propodeum, metasoma ( Figs 172–175 View FIGURES 172–175 ); mesoscutellar foveae in the form of a semilunar depression with a few parallel delicate longitudinal rugae, without central elevated carina ( Figs 173–175 View FIGURES 172–175 )................................................................................... D. reniformis comb. nov.
- Entire body yellowish brown to yellow; mesoscutellar foveae smooth, divided by narrow central elevated carina......... 2
2. Notaulus incomplete, extending to half the length of mesoscutum or slightly longer ( Figs 149–150 View FIGURES 148–151 ); prominent part of ventral spine of hypopygium around 3.0x as long as broad ( Figs 152–153 View FIGURES 152–153 )........................ D. chrysolepidis comb. nov.
- Notaulus complete, always reaching pronotum ( Figs 161–162 View FIGURES 160–163 , 173–174 View FIGURES 172–175 ); prominent part of ventral spine of hypopygium short- er, as long as broad ( Figs 164–165 View FIGURES 164–165 , 176–178 View FIGURES 176–178 )............................................................... 3
3. Head rounded in frontal view, gena slightly broadened behind eye and ocelli not above vertex in frontal view; 2.0x as broad as long in dorsal view; LOL 2.0x as long as diameter of lateral ocellus ( Figs 154–1 57 View FIGURES 154–159 View FIGURES 1–10 View FIGURES 11–16 View FIGURES 17–22 View FIGURES 23–26 View FIGURES 27–28 View FIGURES 29–34 View FIGURES 35–38 View FIGURES 39–42 View FIGURES 43–47 View FIGURES 48–51 View FIGURES 52–57 ); mesoscutellar foveae transverse, at least 2.0x as broad as high ( Fig. 162 View FIGURES 160–163 ); metasoma longer than high in lateral view ( Fig. 164 View FIGURES 164–165 ); radial cell short, less than 4.0x as long as broad............................................................................ D. lasius comb. nov.
- Head transverse in frontal view, gena strongly broadened behind eye and ocelli above vertex in frontal view; around 3.0x as broad as long in dorsal view; LOL only slightly longer than diameter of lateral ocellus ( Figs 183–186 View FIGURES 183–188 ); mesoscutellar foveae rounded, as broad as high ( Fig. 191 View FIGURES 189–192 ); metasoma shorter than high in lateral view ( Fig. 192 View FIGURES 189–192 ); radial cell 4.8x as long as broad............................................................................... D. truckeensis comb. nov.
No known copyright restrictions apply. See Agosti, D., Egloff, W., 2009. Taxonomic information exchange and copyright: the Plazi approach. BMC Research Notes 2009, 2:53 for further explanation.