Characidium travassosi, Melo & Buckup & Oyakawa, 2016

Melo, Marcelo R. S., Buckup, Paulo A. & Oyakawa, Osvaldo T., 2016, A new species of Characidium Reinhardt, 1867 (Characiformes: Crenuchidae) endemic to the Atlantic Forest in Paraná State, southern Brazil, Neotropical Ichthyology (Neotrop. Ichthyol.) 14 (3), No. e 160014, pp. 1-11: 2-4

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.1590/1982-0224-20160014

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:66E1E083-50F2-4EF8-BD84-0C9998540D64

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/8E9458F1-8580-473A-A518-442015049C86

taxon LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:act:8E9458F1-8580-473A-A518-442015049C86

treatment provided by

Carolina

scientific name

Characidium travassosi
status

new species

Characidium travassosi   , new species

urn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:8E9458F1-8580-473A-A518-442015049C86

Characidium sp.   “iguaçu”. -Melo, 2001: 39-41, figures 5b, 12; table 6. Characidium sp. 2   . -Baumgartner et al., 2012: 71.

Characidium sp. B   . -Severi & Cordeiro, 1994: 47-48.

Holotype. MZUSP 85940 View Materials , 33.8 mm SL, Brazil, Paraná, Reserva do Iguaçu, rio das Torres, a small tributary of rio Jordão, rio Iguaçu basin, 38 km southeast of Pinhão , 25º48’28”S, 51º59’01”W, 10 Jan 2001, C. R. Moreira. GoogleMaps  

Paratypes. All from Brazil, Paraná: MCP 22605 View Materials , 11 View Materials (2 cs), 23.0- 51.4 mm SL, Guarapuava, arroio [rio Pai João] tributary of rio Jordão , rio Iguaçu basin, at Km 386 of road BR-373, towards the locality of Laranjeiras do Sul , between Guarapuava and Lagoa Seca, 25º26’24”S 51º50’08”W, 5 Jul 1998, C. A. S. Lucena et al. MCP 22606 View Materials , 1 View Materials , 44.1 View Materials mmSL,border between Candói and Guarapuava, rio Campo Real, tributary of rio Jordão , rio Iguaçu basin, at road BR-373, 25º25’07”S 51º46’55”W, 05 Jul 1998, C. A. S Lucena et al. MNRJ 36865 View Materials , 11 View Materials , 26,8 View Materials - 41,8 View Materials mm SL; and MNRJ 36866 View Materials , 50 View Materials , 18.9-27.8 mm, Garapuava, small stream tributary of rio Jordão , rio Iguaçu basin, at Km 383 of road BR-373, 25º26’03”S 51º 48’34”W, 16 Oct 2009, C. E. Lopes et al. MNRJ 21542 View Materials , 1 View Materials , 36.1 mm SL, Pinhão , rio das Torres, small tributary rio Jordão , rio Iguaçu basin, 21 Oct 1991, W. B. Wosiacki & A. C. Carrilo. MNRJ 21543 View Materials , 2 View Materials , 32.0- 57.1 mm SL, collected with MNRJ 21542 View Materials . MNRJ 40796 View Materials , 1 View Materials , 48.2 mm SL, Quatro Barras, rio Taquari , tributary of rio Capivari , rio Ribeira de Iguape basin, in front of Morada do Silêncio Chaminé da Serra da Ordem Rosa Cruz , 25º20’18”S, 48º55’41”W, 9 Oct 2012, P. A. Buckup et al., MHNCI 8601,2,25.4-46.6mmSL, Pinhão ,riodasTorres, a tributary of rio Jordão , rio Iguaçu basin, 21 Oct 1991, W. B. Wosiacki & A. C. Carrilo. MZUSP 85938 View Materials , 7 View Materials (1 cs), 29.7-33.8 mm SL, at the border between Pinhão and Reserva do Iguaçu, rio Quadrado, rio Iguaçu basin, 8 km west of Pinhão along the road PR-459, 25°41’19.3” S, 51°44’38.6” W, 9 Jan 2005, C. R. Moreira. MZUSP 68132 View Materials , 12 View Materials , 34.8-42.5 mm SL, Quatro Barras, rio Taquari , tributary of rio Capivari , rio Ribeira de Iguape basin, 2 km ahead of Morada do Silêncio Chaminé da Serra da Ordem Rosa Cruz , 25º20’20”S, 48º55’46”W, 10 Mar 2001, O. T. Oyakawa et al. MZUSP 68135 View Materials , 3 View Materials , 38.7-44.9 mm SL, Quatro Barras, rio Taquari , tributary of rio Capivari , rio Ribeira de Iguape basin, 2 km ahead of Morada do Silêncio Chaminé da Serra da Ordem Rosa Cruz , 25º20’42”S, 48º56’12”W, 10 Mar 2001, O. T. Oyakawa et al. MZUSP 68136 View Materials , 8 View Materials , 32.8-41.4 mm SL, Quatro Barras, rio Taquari , tributary of rio Capivari , rio Ribeira de Iguape basin, in front of Morada do Silêncio Chaminé da Serra da Ordem Rosa Cruz , 25º19’54” S, 48º55’36” W, 10 Mar 2001, O. T. Oyakawa et al. MZUSP 68140 View Materials , 13 View Materials , 44.0- 61.1 mm SL, Quatro Barras, rio Taquari , tributary of rio Capivari , rio Ribeira de Iguape basin, 2 km à frente do Rosa Cruz, 25º20’42” S, 48º56’14” W, 10 Mar 2001, O. T. Oyakawa et al. MZUSP 68142 View Materials , 25 View Materials (2 cs) 32.5-56.8 mm SL, Quatro Barras, rio Taquari , tributary of rio Capivari , rio Ribeira de Iguape basin, in front of Morada do Silêncio Chaminé da Serra da Ordem Rosa Cruz , 25º20’20” S, 48º55’44” W, 10 Mar 2001, O. T. Oyakawa et al. MZUSP 68144 View Materials , 16 View Materials , 33.2-55.1 mm SL, Quatro Barras, rio Taquari , tributary of rio Capivari , rio Ribeira de Iguape basin, 2 km ahead of Rosa Cruz, 25º20’42” S, 48º56’14” W, 10 Mar 2001, O. T. Oyakawa et al GoogleMaps   .

Diagnosis. Characidium travassosi   is a member of Clade C1 (Buckup, 1993b), which can be diagnosed from its congeners, except C. alipioi   , C. amaila Lujan   , Agudelo- Zamora, Taphorn, Booth & López-Fernández, 2013, C. boavistae Steindachner, 1915   , C. bolivianum Pearson, 1924   ; C. crandellii Steindachner, 1915   ; C. declivirostre Steindachner, 1915   ; C. fasciatum Reinhardt, 1867   ; C. gomesi Travassos, 1956   , C. lauroi   , C. grajahuense   , C. helmeri Zanata, Sarmento-Soares & Martins-Pinheiro, 2015   , C. japuhybense   , C. kamakan Zanata & Camelier, 2015   , C. pterostictum   , C. oiticicai   , C. purpuratum Steindachner, 1882   , C. schubarti   , C. timbuiense   , and C. vidali   by having the isthmus unscalled (vs. isthmus scaled). Characidium travassosi   differs from all species included in Clade 1, except C. helmeri   , by having 15-18 principal caudal-fin rays (vs. 19 principal caudal-fin rays), and 10-12 total pectoral-fin rays (vs. 13 or more total pectoral-fin rays), and from C. helmeri   by having the body slender (body depth at dorsal-fin origin 15.9-23.5 vs. 23.8-30.9% in SL), tip of pectoral fin not reaching origin of pelvic fin (vs. tip of pectoral fin reaching origin of pelvic fin), tip of pelvic fin not reaching beyond anus (vs. tip of pelvic fin reaching well beyond anus, to origin of anal fin), supraorbital well developed (vs. supraorbital absent or vestigial), and by basicaudal spot on base of caudal-fin middle rays absent (vs. present). Furthermore, the number of pored lateral-line scales in C. travassosi   is usually higher than in C. helmeri   (14-35 vs. 13- 22). Characidium travassosi   further differs from all species in Clade C1 except C. japuhybense   , C. helmeri   , C. lauroi   , C. oiticicai   , and C. schubarti   by the presence of spots or dashes on flank (vs. spots absent), and from C. japuhybense   , C. helmeri   , C. lauroi   , C. oiticicai   , and C. schubarti   by having spots inconspicuous ( Fig. 1a, b, c), triangular, or v-shaped ( Fig. 1d, e), sometimes connected in forming w-shaped marks (vs. spots stout, small and rounded in C. japuhybense   , C. lauroi   , C. oiticicai   and C. schubarti   ; or spots or dashes stout and vertically elongated in C. helmeri   ). Additionally, C. travassosi   differs from all species in Clade C1, except C. helmeri   and C. oiticicai   , by the absence of the adipose fin (vs. adipose fin present; in C. oiticicai   , the adipose fin can be either absent, reduced or well-developed); and from all species in Clade C1, except C. helmeri   and C. schubarti   , by having the unscaled ventral surface restricted to a small area in the isthmus (vs. unscaled area extending from the isthmus to the area between the contralateral anterior pectoral-fin rays in C. japuhybense   , C. lauroi   , and C. oiticicai   ; unscaled area extending from isthmus, to the breast and around the pectoral fins in C. alipioi   , C. amaila   , C. boavistae   , C. bolivianum   , C. fasciatum   , C. gomesi   , C. grajahuense   , C. kamakan   , C. purpuratum   , C. pterostictum   , C. timbuiense   , and C. vidali   , and unscaled area extending from the isthmus to the belly in C. crandellii   , and C. declivirostre   ).

Description. Morphometric data summarized in Table 1. Species of Characidium   reaching 55.1 mm SL. Body fusiform. Dorsal profile moderately convex between tip of snout and dorsal-fin origin, gently arched at dorsal-fin base, almost straight between dorsal and caudal-fin bases. Ventral profile gently convex between anterior tip of dentary and anal-fin origin, slightly convex at anal-fin base; almost straight between anal and caudal-fin bases. Belly more strongly arched in females with ovaries well developed. Greatest depth of body at dorsal-fin origin.

Snout short, gently rounded, its tip at level of inferior margin of eye. Mouth small, sub-terminal. Snoutmaxillary tip distance equal or slightly longer than eye diameter; maxilla reaching level of anterior margin of orbit. Orbit rounded or slightly elongated antero-dorsally; margin of orbit free. Cheek depth about one third of eye diameter. Nares distinctly separated; distance between nares shorter than distance between posterior naris and eye. Dermal flap along entire border of anterior naris, crescent-shaped and restrict to anterior margin of posterior naris. Parietal branch of supraorbital laterossensory canal absent. Fontanel limited anteriorly by frontals, posteriorly by parietals. Dentary teeth in two rows. Outer dentary teeth 5 (4), 7* (6), 8 (10), 9 (14), 10 (2), 11 (3), 12 (1), with three cusps, teeth increasing in size from lateral to medial. Inner dentary teeth in single row of several minute, conical teeth. Premaxillary teeth in single row. Premaxillary teeth 5 (3), 6* (16), 7 (20), 8 (1), with three cusps, teeth increasing in size from lateral to medial. Maxillary teeth absent. Ectopterygoid teeth conical, 9 (2), in single row. Mesopterygoid teeth absent. Branchiostegal rays 5* (41); 4 attached to anterior ceratohyal (2). Gill rakers on first arch 11 (2).

Scales cycloid; parallel radii present on posterior field of scale. Lateral line usually complete; lateral series of scales 33 (1), 34 (15), 35* (19), 36 (4), 37 (1). Perforated scales in lateral line highly variable, 21 (2), 22* (1), 29 (1), 32 (1), 33 (1), 34 (15), 35 (16), 36 (4); some specimens (e.g., MCP 22605 View Materials , 4 View Materials of 4; MHNCI 8603 View Materials , 1 View Materials of 2; MZUSP 85938 View Materials , 1 View Materials of 4) with all scales of lateral series perforated; other specimens (e.g., MCP 22606 View Materials , 1 View Materials of 1; MZUSP 85938 View Materials , 3 View Materials of 4) with only anterior scales perforated; one specimen ( MZUSP 85938 View Materials ) with lateral line discontinuous. Scales above lateral line 4 (11), 5* (30). Scales below lateral line 5* (30), 6 (10). Scales around caudal peduncle 13 (3), 14* (38). Pre-dorsal scales series irregularly distributed. Scales on pre-dorsal series 11 (14), 12* (22), 13 (5). Scales between anus and anal fin 2* (38), 3 (3). Isthmus lacking scales to anterior margin of cleithrum   .

Pectoral-fin rays ii,6,ii (1), iii,5,ii (1), iii,6,ii (2), iii,7,i (6), iii,7,ii* (13), iii,8,i (11), iii,8,ii (5), iv,7,ii (1), iii,9,i (1). Pelvic-fin rays i,5,i (1), ii,5,i (1), i,6,i* (37), i,7,i (2). Dorsal-fin rays ii,8 (1), iii,8 (3), ii,9* (31), iii,9 (5), ii,10 (1); supranumerary element on first pterygiophore of dorsal fin 1 (1). Anal-fin rays i,6 (1), i,7 (1), ii,5 (4), ii,6* (32), iii,5 (3); supranumerary element on first pterygiophore of anal fin 1 (1). Principal caudal-fin rays i,6,7,i (1), i,7,7,i* (1), i,7,8,i (33), i,8,7,i (4), i,8,8,i (2). Adipose fin absent* (41).

Precaudal vertebrae 20 (2), 21 (1); total vertebrae 35 (1), 36 (1), 37 (1). Upper procurrent rays 6 (3); lower procurrent rays 6 (3). Hypurals 5 (3). Epurals 1 (1), 2 (1), 3 (1). Uroneural 1 (3).

Coloration. Preserved specimens with ground color of head and trunk tan. Cheek, distal portion of upper jaw, and ventral part of head pale; anterior portion of upper jaw, dorsal portion of snout and head brown. Dorsal half of flank darker than ventral; belly pale. Longitudinal stripe stout, extending from tip of snout to postero-dorsal angle of opercle on head, continuing along midbody dorsally to lateral line, not reaching scales on base of caudalfin rays. Eyes entirely black or with a small light ventral area. Humeral spot oval, vertically elongated, positioned over posttemporal and supracleithrum, overlapped by longitudinal stripe. Spot on base of caudal-fin middle rays absent. Vertical bars on body eight to nine, irregular distributed, and blurry along dorsal midline; not connected ventrally on caudal peduncle and belly. Inconspicuous spots on flank present, variable in position, number and form. Spots usually associated to primary bars, often numerous and present above and below vertical stripe ( Fig. 1a, c, d, e), but in some specimens few and restricted to area below vertical stripe ( Fig. 1b). Spots inconspicuous ( Fig. 1a, b, c), triangular, or v-shaped ( Fig. 1d, e), sometimes connected forming w-shaped marks ( Fig. 1d, e).

Pelvic and anal-fins rays and interradial membranes hyaline. Pectoral-fin interradial membrane hyaline, and pectoral-fin rays with widely spaced melanophores, more concentrated on first, second, third and, sometimes, fourth, fifth and sixth rays. Dorsal-fin rays and interradial membrane mostly hyaline, except for two longitudinal dark stripes, parallel to fin base. Caudal fin with widely spaced melanophores, more concentrated on fin rays, forming inconspicuous marks. Spot at base medial caudal-fin rays absent.

Sexual dimorphism. No external dimorphism was observed.

Distribution. Characidium travassosi   is only known from Paraná State, Brazil, in small cold-water creeks of the Mata Atlântica biome. It is known from the streams draining the west side of Serra da Esperança into rio Jordão, a tributary of the right bank of rio Iguaçu, rio Paraná Basin; and from rio Taquari, a small stream at Serra da Graciosa, which runs north into the rio Capivari, in the southern-most portion of the rio Ribeira de Iguape coastal system ( Fig. 2 View Fig ).

Etymology. The specific name is dedicated to Haroldo Travassos, a deceased Brazilian ichthyologist, in recognition to the contributions he made for the taxonomy of the genus Characidium   . Travassos worked at the Brazilian Museu Nacional, and was responsible for the description of 13 species of Characidium   between 1944 and 1967, mostly from the South and Southeastern Brazil.

Conservation status. Considering that current relevant threats to the species were not detected in its distribution area, Characidium travassosi   can be classified as Least Concern (LC), according to the International Union for Conservation of Nature categories and criteria (IUCN, 2014).

R

Departamento de Geologia, Universidad de Chile

MCP

Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul

MHNCI

Museu de Historia Natural Capao de Imbuia (Brazil)

T

Tavera, Department of Geology and Geophysics