Grumichella, MULLER, 1879, Muller, 1879

Calor, Adolfo R., Holzenthal, Ralph W. & Froehlich, Claudio G., 2016, Phylogeny and revision of the Neotropical genus Grumichella Müller (Trichoptera: Leptoceridae), including nine new species and a key, Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 176 (1), pp. 137-169: 139-140

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Grumichella Müller, 1879: 407   (Type species: Grumichella rostrata Thienemann, 1905   , first includ- ed species). – Holzenthal, 1988a:88 [male, female, larva, pupa, revision, phylogeny, distribution]. – Flint, Holzenthal & Harris, 1999: 128 [catalog]. – Morse, 1981: 259 [classification, phylogeny]. – Morse & Holzenthal, 1987: 140 [classification, phylogeny]. – Calor & Holzenthal, 2008: 255 [phylogeny]. – Malm & Johanson, 2011: 3, 7 [classification, phylogeny].

Leptocellodes Ulmer, 1911: 21   [Type species: Leptocellodes flaveola Ulmer, 1911   , original designation (the designation of G. flaveola Ulmer, 1911   as type species by Ulmer (1955) is not valid (ICZN 1985, Art. 69(a) sensu Holzenthal, 1988a)]; – Ulmer, 1955: 499 [to synonymy].

Grumichella Müller, 1879   (= Leptocellodes Ulmer, 1955   ) comprises 13 species, including the nine new species described here: G. aequiunguis Flint, 1983   ; G. blahniki   sp. nov.; G. boraceia   sp. nov.; G. cressae   sp. nov.; G. flaveola (Ulmer) Holzenthal, 1988a   , G. jureia   sp. nov.; G. leccii   sp. nov.; G. muelleri   sp. nov.; G. paprockii   sp. nov.; G. parati   sp. nov.; G. pulchella (Banks) Holzenthal, 1988a   ; G. rostrata Thienemann, 1905   ; G. trujilloi   sp. nov.

Müller (1879a, b, 1880a, b, 1888, 1921) illustrated the larvae of an unknown species and discussed its biology. Pupae and cases of two species, G. rostrata   and G. aequiunguis   , were described by Thienemann (1905). Roback (1966) described and illustrated the larvae of G. flaveola   from Peru, but included it under ‘unknown family 2’. Ulmer (1955) also described immature forms of the genus. Morse (1981) erected the tribe Grumichellini   to accommodate Grumichella   and Atanatolica   in his family classification. Holzenthal (1988a) reviewed the genus, redescribed the four valid species, and described the larvae and pupae, including those of eight probable unknown species of larvae (Holzenthal’s ‘species A–H’). He also corroborated the monophyly of Grumichella   based on 20 synapomorphies and proposed the phylogenetic relationships among two species groups: G. pulchella   and G. rostrata   groups. The first species group, composed of G. flaveola   and G. pulchella   , is characterized by nine spots on the forewings. The G. rostrata   group, comprising G. aequiunguis   and G. rostrata   , bears only two spots on forewings. Holzenthal & Pes (2004), in their description of Amazonatolica   , another Grumichellini   genus, discussed other characters and the phylogenetic position of Grumichella   . Calor & Holzenthal (2008) described another related genus, Osflintia   , and proposed a phylogeny of Grumichellini   , placing Osflintia   as sistergenus of all other grumichelline genera.

Biological remarks: Müller (1879a, b) provided the first records of the habitat of larvae, including their occurrence in small waterfalls and rock surfaces in fast flowing waters of small mountain streams. These observations were corroborated by others authors (e.g. Holzenthal, 1988a; Flint et al., 1999). In our fieldwork, the larvae (and pupae) were often collected from aggregations of more than 50 individuals positioned side by side or in a small clump (e.g. Parque Estadual de Campos do Jordão, São Paulo State, Brazil). Müller (1879a, b) also observed the use of the posterior silken projection on the larval cases to help to hold the larva in the current. The ability of larvae to maintain position in fast flow is aided by the stout legs with modified tarsal claws, as emphasized by Holzenthal (1988a) and by other authors observing larvae of other grumichelline genera (St. Clair, 1994; Ward, 2001). Müller (1879a, b) ‘speculated’ that the water current prevented the pupae from crawling out of the case, and that the anterior attachment pedicle of the case needed to be severed by the emerging pupae. The loose case then drifted to slack current, where the adult could emerge ( Holzenthal, 1988a). In laboratory rearings and rarely in natural habitats (e.g. G. boraceia   sp. nov.), a behaviour of flotation and drift was observed in the fifth instar larvae, with air bubbles inside the anterior portions of cases (our pers. observ.).

The use of abandoned larval cases by other genera of caddisflies is not uncommon, especially in Triplectides   ( Holzenthal, 1988b; Flint et al., 1999; Crisci-Bispo, Bispo & Froehlich, 2004; Calor & Froehlich, 2008), and includes observations by A.R.C. and by P.A. Rueda- Martín (pers. commun.) in Brazil and Argentina, respectively, of Marilia   ( Odontoceridae   ) occupying Grumichella   cases.













Calor, Adolfo R., Holzenthal, Ralph W. & Froehlich, Claudio G. 2016

Grumichella Müller, 1879: 407

Malm T & Johanson KA 2011: 3
Calor AR & Holzenthal RW 2008: 255
Flint OS Jr & Holzenthal RW & Harris SC 1999: 128
Holzenthal RW 1988: 88
Morse JC & Holzenthal RW 1987: 140
Morse JC 1981: 259


Ulmer G 1955: 499
Ulmer G 1911: 21