Conostigmus, Dahlbom, 1858

Trietsch, Carolyn, Mikó, István, Ezray, Briana & Deans, Andrew R., 2020, A Taxonomic Revision of Nearctic Conostigmus (Hymenoptera: Ceraphronoidea: Megaspilidae), Zootaxa 4792 (1), pp. 1-155: 14-16

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4792.1.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:326F6A15-216E-439A-AD59-3CDF7551D3F6

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/039687D1-FF8F-6501-9FA4-FA0B41D9C5A1

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Conostigmus
status

 

Key to Male Conostigmus   from the Nearctic Region

Distribution Maps of Nearctic species: Figures 5 View FIGURE 5 , 6 View FIGURE 6 , 7 View FIGURE 7 , 8 View FIGURE 8

1. Pronotum elongate, pronotum longer than mesoscutum along midline (prn; Figs. 31A, B View FIGURE 31 ).................................................................................... C. muesebecki   ( Ecnomothorax   ) Dessart & Masner, 1965

- Pronotum not elongate, pronotum shorter than mesoscutum along midline (prn; Figs. 9A View FIGURE 9 ; 14A, C View FIGURE 14 ; 19B View FIGURE 19 ).................2.

2. Median mesoscutal sulcus absent or terminating anterior to the transscutal articulation ( Fig. 21B View FIGURE 21 ).................................................................................................. C. dimidiatus ( Thomson, 1858)  

- Median mesoscutal sulcus present and complete, terminating adjacent to the transscutal articulation (mms; Figs. 14A, C View FIGURE 14 ; 25A, B View FIGURE 25 ).................................................................................................3.

3. Ventral metapleural area with transverse striations (trs; Figs. 47B View FIGURE 47 ; 63B, C View FIGURE 63 )........................................4.

- Ventral metapleural area without transverse striations ( Figs. 9C View FIGURE 9 ; 39A View FIGURE 39 ; 57 View FIGURE 57 ).........................................5.

4. Ventral metapleural area with transverse striations only on dorsal half (trs; Fig. 47B View FIGURE 47 ); median process on intertorular carina present and blunt (mip; Fig. 60B View FIGURE 60 ); facial sulcus impression absent ( Fig. 22 View FIGURE 22 ); proximal margin of S9 without submedial projections ( Fig. 10F View FIGURE 10 ); harpe bilobed ( Fig. 48B View FIGURE 48 ); harpe with sparse lateral setae ( Figs. 48A, C View FIGURE 48 ).... C. triangularis ( Thomson, 1858)  

- Ventral metapleural area with transverse striations on dorsal and ventral halves (trs; Figs. 63B, C View FIGURE 63 ); median process on intertorular carina absent ( Fig. 82B View FIGURE 82 ); facial sulcus impression sometimes present (for complete facial sulcus, see fs; Fig. 9B View FIGURE 9 ); proximal margin of S9 with submedial projections (sbm; Fig. 64D View FIGURE 64 ); harpe simple ( Fig. 64B View FIGURE 64 ); harpe with dense lateral setae, evenly distributed across entire lateral surface ( Figs. 64A, C View FIGURE 64 )........................................ C. lepus Trietsch   sp. nov.

5. Head shape distinctly square in anterior view (on males and females) ( Fig. 43D View FIGURE 43 ); F9 the longest male flagellomere ( Fig. 43B View FIGURE 43 )................................................................. C. quadratogenalis Dessart & Cooper, 1975  

- Head shape circular or triangular in anterior view ( Figs. 17B View FIGURE 17 ; 18B View FIGURE 18 ; 22 View FIGURE 22 ; 49B View FIGURE 49 ; 66C View FIGURE 66 ); F9 not the longest male flagellomere ( Figs. 16 View FIGURE 16 ; 51 View FIGURE 51 ; 78 View FIGURE 78 )...........................................................................................6.

6. Facial sulcus present and complete, extending from intertorular carina to anterior ocellus (fs; Figs. 9B View FIGURE 9 ; 79B View FIGURE 79 ).............7.

- Facial sulcus absent or incomplete, not connecting intertorular carina to anterior ocellus (absent in Figs. 17B View FIGURE 17 ; 18B View FIGURE 18 ; 22 View FIGURE 22 ; 49B View FIGURE 49 ; 66C View FIGURE 66 )...............................................................................................9.

7. Harpe shorter than gonostipes in lateral view ( Fig. 80B View FIGURE 80 ); harpe not spoon-shaped or spatulate ( Figs. 80A, B, C View FIGURE 80 ); gonostyle–volsella complex with dorsomedian projection (dmp; Fig. 80C View FIGURE 80 )........................... C. rosemaryae Trietsch   sp. nov.

- Harpe longer than gonostipes in lateral view ( Fig. 10C View FIGURE 10 ); harpe spoon-shaped or spatulate ( Figs. 10A, B View FIGURE 10 ; 42A, B View FIGURE 42 ); gonostylevolsella complex without dorsomedian projection ( Fig. 42B View FIGURE 42 )...................................................8.

8. Parossiculi with 1–3 apical setae (prs; Fig. 10B View FIGURE 10 ); harpe straight, oriented medially ( Figs. 10A, B, D, E View FIGURE 10 )........................................................................................... C. abdominalis ( Boheman, 1832)  

- Parossiculi with 4 or more apical setae (prs; Fig. 42A View FIGURE 42 ); harpe twisted, oriented dorsally or dorsomedially ( Fig. 42 View FIGURE 42 AB; most visible when looking at base of right harpe in Fig. 42B View FIGURE 42 )................................ C. pulchellus Whittaker, 1930  

9. Mesopostscutellum present (mpm; Figs. 47B View FIGURE 47 ; 73A View FIGURE 73 ).........................................................10.

- Mesopostscutellum absent ( Figs. 19A View FIGURE 19 ; 21A View FIGURE 21 ; 43A View FIGURE 43 ; 82A View FIGURE 82 )......................................................12.

10. Dorsomedian projection of the gonostyle–volsella complex present and bilobed (dmp; Fig. 74C View FIGURE 74 ); head 1.3× wider than mesosoma (PscW×2) ( Fig. 73B View FIGURE 73 );...................................................... C. muratorei Trietsch   sp. nov.

- Dorsomedian projection of the gonostyle–volsella complex absent ( Figs. 37C View FIGURE 37 ; 56C View FIGURE 56 ); head less than 1.3× as wide as mesosoma (PscW×2) ( Figs. 36A View FIGURE 36 ; 55B View FIGURE 55 )............................................................................11.

11. Proximodorsal notch of cupula present and U-shaped, longer than wide (pdn; Figs. 56A, C View FIGURE 56 ); parossiculi with one apical seta (prs; Fig. 56A View FIGURE 56 ); proximal end of dorsomedian conjunctiva of the gonostyle–volsella complex shape acute ( Fig. 56C View FIGURE 56 ).................................................................................... C. duncani Trietsch   sp. nov.

- Proximodorsal notch of cupula present and U-shaped, wider than long (pdn; Figs. 37A, C View FIGURE 37 ); parossiculi with 2–3 apical setae ( Figs. 37A, C View FIGURE 37 ); proximal end of dorsomedian conjunctiva of the gonostyle–volsella complex shape blunt ( Fig. 37C View FIGURE 37 )...................................................................................... C. orcasensis (Brues)   , 1909

12. Sternaulus present (ste; Figs. 9A View FIGURE 9 ; 34B View FIGURE 34 ; 70A View FIGURE 70 )...............................................................18.

- Sternaulus absent ( Figs. 24 View FIGURE 24 ; 32A View FIGURE 32 ; 60A View FIGURE 60 ; 66A View FIGURE 66 )..............................................................13.

13. Wings absent or reduced, never extending past the mesoscutellum ( Figs. 24A, B View FIGURE 24 ; 25A, B View FIGURE 25 ); OOL:POL ratio less than 0.8 ( Figs. 25A, B View FIGURE 25 ).................................................................. C. erythrothorax ( Ashmead, 1893)  

- Wings present and macropterous ( Figs. 65 View FIGURE 65 ; 78 View FIGURE 78 ; 82 View FIGURE 82 ); OOL:POL ratio greater than 0.8 ( Figs. 60B View FIGURE 60 ; 66B View FIGURE 66 ; 68B View FIGURE 68 ).............14.

14. Harpe equal to or longer than gonostipes in lateral view ( Fig. 67B View FIGURE 67 )..................... C. longiharpes Trietsch   sp. nov.

- Harpe shorter than gonostipes in lateral view ( Figs. 33D View FIGURE 33 ; 83B View FIGURE 83 )................................................15.

15. Occipital carina complete (see oc; Fig 1B View FIGURE 1 in Mikó and Deans (2009)); widest point of harpe between proximal 1/3rd and 2/3rds ( Fig. 61B View FIGURE 61 ).............................................................. C. johnsoni Trietsch & Mikó   sp. nov.

- Occipital carina incomplete; widest point of harpe at its articulation site with gonostyle-volsella complex ( Figs. 33D View FIGURE 33 ; 69B View FIGURE 69 ; 83B View FIGURE 83 )..............................................................................................16.

16. Preoccipital lunula present (pou; Fig. 47c View FIGURE 47 ); preoccipital furrow present and crenulate (pof; Fig. 66B View FIGURE 66 )..................17.

- Preoccipital lunula absent ( Fig. 68B View FIGURE 68 ); preoccipital furrow present or absent, but if present, then appearing as a faint impression, never crenulate ( Fig. 68B View FIGURE 68 )........................................................ C. michaeli Trietsch   sp. nov.

17. Median process on intertorular carina present and blunt (mip; Fig. 60B View FIGURE 60 ); head with rugose sculpture throughout ( Fig. 32B View FIGURE 32 ); anterior half of mesosoma lighter in coloration than posterior half ( Figs. 32A, B View FIGURE 32 ).............. C. nigrorufus Dessart, 1997  

- Median process on intertorular carina absent ( Fig. 82B View FIGURE 82 ); head without rugose sculpture ( Fig. 82B View FIGURE 82 ); anterior and posterior half of mesosoma concolorous ( Figs. 81 View FIGURE 81 ; 82A, B View FIGURE 82 )....................................... C. washburni Trietsch   sp. nov.

18. Sternaulus not reaching 1/2 of mesopleuron length at level of sternaulus on winged specimens (no wingless specimens known) (ste; Fig. 34A View FIGURE 34 ); medioventral conjunctiva present (parossiculi independent or fused proximally) ( Figs. 23A View FIGURE 23 ; 26A View FIGURE 26 ; 37A View FIGURE 37 ); cupula with proximodorsal notch present, arched (inverted U-shape), and longer than wide (pdn; Figs. 37A, C View FIGURE 37 ).............................................................................................. C. obscurus ( Thomson, 1858)  

- Sternaulus exceeding 3/4 of mesopleuron length at level of sternaulus in winged specimens (ste; Fig. 70A View FIGURE 70 ); medioventral conjunctiva absent (parossiculi fused) ( Figs. 29A View FIGURE 29 ; 71A View FIGURE 71 ; 77A View FIGURE 77 ); cupula with proximodorsal notch present or absent, can be arched (inverted U-shape) if present, but never longer than wide (pdn; Fig. 37A View FIGURE 37 )........................................19.

19. Proximal end of dorsomedian conjunctiva of the gonostyle–volsella complex acute ( Fig. 53C View FIGURE 53 ; see Methods for explanation of this character); scape more than 5.5× as long as the pedicel in macropterous specimens (no wingless specimens known) ( Fig. 52A View FIGURE 52 )......................................... C. dessarti Trietsch & Mikó   sp. nov. (no wingless specimens known)

- Proximal end of dorsomedian conjunctiva of the gonostyle–volsella complex blunt or straight; scape less than 5.5× as long as pedicel in macropterous specimens ( Fig. 28A View FIGURE 28 ).............................................................20.

20. Gonossiculi with one spine more than 2× as long as the others (gsn; Fig 59B View FIGURE 59 ); gonostyle–volsella complex with medioventral ridge present (mgv; Figs. 29A View FIGURE 29 ; 59A View FIGURE 59 ).....................................................................21.

- Gonossiculi not with one spine more than 2× as long as the others (spines of similar lengths) (gsn; Fig. 71B View FIGURE 71 ); gonostyle–volsella complex with medioventral ridge absent ( Fig. 71A View FIGURE 71 )............................. C. minimus Trietsch & Mikó   sp. nov.

21. Distoventral edge of harpe with dense patch of setae (dps; Fig. 59A View FIGURE 59 )............................................22.

- Distoventral edge of harpe without dense patch of setae ( Figs. 29A, B View FIGURE 29 ).................... C. laeviceps ( Ashmead, 1893)  

22. Axillular carinae present (axc; Fig. 76B View FIGURE 76 )..................................... C. musettiae Trietsch & Mikó   sp. nov.

- Axillular carinae absent ( Figs. 14A, C View FIGURE 14 )...................................................................23.

23. Harpe curved and sickle-shaped in lateral view (distoventral margin of harpe concave in lateral view) ( Figs. 15D, E, F View FIGURE 15 ); wings macropterous ( Fig. 13A View FIGURE 13 ) or brachypterous ( Figs. 13B View FIGURE 13 ; 14A, B, C View FIGURE 14 ); syntergite sometimes with paired blue iridescent ovals ( Fig. 14C View FIGURE 14 )......................................................................... C. bipunctatus Kieffer, 1907  

- Harpe simple, not curved and sickle-shaped in lateral view (distoventral margin of harpe convex in lateral view) ( Fig. 59B View FIGURE 59 ); wings always macropterous ( Fig. 57 View FIGURE 57 ); syntergite without paired blue iridescent ovals... C. franzinii Trietsch & Mikó   sp. nov.