Conostigmus lepus Trietsch

Trietsch, Carolyn, Mikó, István, Ezray, Briana & Deans, Andrew R., 2020, A Taxonomic Revision of Nearctic Conostigmus (Hymenoptera: Ceraphronoidea: Megaspilidae), Zootaxa 4792 (1), pp. 1-155: 112-117

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Conostigmus lepus Trietsch

sp. nov.

Conostigmus lepus Trietsch   sp. nov.

Figs. 62 View FIGURE 62 , 63 View FIGURE 63 , 64 View FIGURE 64

Diagnosis. Conostigmus lepus   is the only known Conostigmus   with transverse striations present and extending across the entire ventral metapleural area, a character that can be used to match males and females. Male Conostigmus lepus   can also be distinguished from all other species by the presence of submedial projections on the proximal margin of S9 and dense setae evenly distributed across the entire lateral surface of the harpe.

This species is Dendrocerus   -like in that it has a transverse/triangular head shape, ocelli in an obtuse triangle on males and females, and no sternaulus. It is also Dendrocerus   -like in that the male flagellomeres can appear asymmetrical or trapezoidal, and some specimens have an arched metapleural sulcus. However, this species is a Conostigmus   and not a Dendrocerus   because the male genitalia have independent parossiculi, a character state that is never present in Dendrocerus   .

This species is similar to C. triangularis   , another Dendrocerus   -like Conostigmus   species, in that they both have the occipital carina not complete, ventral margin of the antennal rim adjacent to the dorsal margin of the clypeus, preoccipital furrow ending at the anterior ocellus, postocellar furrow absent, anteromedian projection present, and sternaulus absent. Conostigmus lepus   and C. triangularis   also share the presence of transverse striations on the ventral metapleural area, though in C. triangularis   these striations only occur on the distal half of the ventral metapleural area, whereas on C. lepus   they occur across the entire surface of the ventral metapleural area. Conostigmus triangularis   also has a blunt median projection on the intertorular area, whereas C. lepus   lacks the median process on the intertorular carina.

In addition to the characters mentioned above, C. lepus   females can be distinguished from C. triangularis   females in that the longest female flagellomere is F 9 in C. lepus   and F 1 in C. triangularis   . Conostigmus triangularis   and C. lepus   males can easily be distinguished from each other by the vast differences in genitalia morphology, as well as the differences in the male flagellomere ratios.

Variability. Some specimens have the metapleural sulcus straight (PSUC_ FEM 32888 View Materials , PSUC_ FEM 34292 View Materials ), whereas others have it arched (PSUC_ FEM 34295 View Materials , PSUC_ FEM 32971 View Materials ). Other than slight intraspecific variations in color and size between specimens, we did not note any substantial variations between specimens or between males and females.

Description. Body length: 1.70–2.15 mm. Color hue pattern in male: legs light brown to brown; antennae brown to dark brown; cranium, mesosoma dark brown to black. Color intensity pattern in male: metasoma and mandible lighter than mesosoma; metasoma lighter than mesosoma and cranium; scape darker than pedicel and flagellomeres. Color hue pattern female: legs, mandibles ochre to brown; cranium and mesosoma dark brown to black; flagellomeres brown to dark brown; scape and pedicel ochre to dark brown. Color intensity pattern female: metasoma lighter than mesosoma and cranium; scape and pedicel lighter than flagellomeres. Color intensity dorsal and ventral to the site of the sternaulus: concolorous. Color intensity pattern of syntergite: petiole neck and anterior region of syntergite concolorus with the posterior region of the syntergite. Foveolate sculpture on body count: absent. Rugose sculpturing count: absent. Rugose region on upper face count: absent.

Antennae: Male scape length vs. pedicel length: 2.7–3.8. Male scape length vs. F1 length: 1.6–1.9. Male F1 length vs. pedicel length: 1.5–2.0. Male F1 length vs. male F2 length: 1.0–1.2. Longest male flagellomere: F9, though all flagellomeres similar in length. Female scape length vs. pedicel length: 2.6–3.4. Female scape length vs. F1 length: 2.4–3.3. Female F1 length vs. F2 length: 1.2–1.6. Female F1 length vs. pedicel length: 0.9–1.4. Longest female flagellomere: F9. Length of setae on male flagellomere vs. male flagellomere width: setae shorter than width of flagellomeres. Sensillar patch of the male flagellomere pattern: F6–F9.

Head: Head width, dorsal view: equal to or only slightly wider than mesosoma (less than 1.3× wider than mesosoma). Head height (HH, lateral view) vs. eye height (EHf, anterior view): male HH:EHf=1.3–1.9; female HH:EHf=1.3–1.4. Head height (HH) vs. head length (HL): HH:HL=1.1–1.3. Head width (HW) vs. interorbital space (IOS): male HW:IOS=1.7–1.9; female HW:IOS=1.8–2.2. Head width (HW) vs. head height (HH): male HW: HH=1.3–1.6; female HW:IOS=1.1–1.6. Cephalic size (csb): Mean: 375–565 μm. Maximum eye diameter vs. mini- mum eye diameter: 1.1–1.6. POL:OOL: POL longer than OOL and ocellar triangle with wide base. Male ocular ocellar line (OOL) vs. lateral ocellar line (LOL): OOL:LOL=1.8–3.7. Male ocular ocellar line (OOL) vs. posterior ocellar line (POL): OOL:POL=0.9–1.4. Male ocular ocellar line (OOL): posterior ocellar line (POL): lateral ocellar line (LOL): 1.8–3.7:2.0–2.7:1.0. Female ocular ocellar line (OOL) vs. lateral ocellar line (LOL): OOL 1.7–2.5× as long as LOL. Female ocular ocellar line (OOL): posterior ocellar line (POL): lateral ocellar line (LOL): 1.7– 2.5:2.0–2.3:1.0. Head shape (anterior view): circular or triangular. Preoccipital lunula count: present. Preoccipital carina count: absent. Occipital carina structure: occipital carina not complete. Occipital carina sculpture: crenulate. Preoccipital furrow count: present. Preoccipital furrow anterior end: preoccipital furrow ends at anterior ocellus. Preoccipital furrow sculpture: crenulate. Postocellar carina count: absent. Dorsal margin of occipital carina vs. dorsal margin of lateral ocellus in lateral view: occipital carina ventral to lateral ocellus in lateral view. Transverse scutes on upper face count: absent. Transverse frontal carina count: absent. Randomly sized areolae around setal pits on upper face count: absent. Setal pit on vertex size: smaller than diameter of scutes. Ventromedian setiferous patch and ventrolateral setiferous patch count: absent. White, thick setae on upper face count: absent. Antennal scrobe count: absent. Facial structure count: facial pit present, sometimes with the impression of a facial sulcus between the facial pit and the anterior ocellus. Facial pit count: present. Facial sulcus count: absent but some specimens with the impression of a facial sulcus between the facial pit and the anterior ocellus. Median facial keel count: absent. Supraclypeal depression count: present. Supraclypeal depression structure: absent medially, represented by two grooves laterally of facial pit. Intertorular area count: present. Intertorular carina count: present. Median process on intertorular carina count: absent. Median region of intertorular area shape: flat; convex. Ventral margin of antennal rim vs. dorsal margin of clypeus: adjacent. Torulo–clypeal carina count: absent. Subtorular carina count: absent. Mandibular tooth count: 2. Mandibular lancea count: absent.

Mesosoma: Weber length: WL=550–850 μm. Anterior mesoscutal width (AscW) vs. posterior mesoscutal width (PscW): AscW/PscW=0.7–0.9. Mesoscutal length (MscL) vs. anterior mesoscutal width (AscW): MscL/ AscW=1.4–2.0. Mesoscutal length (MscL) vs. mesoscutellar length (MscIL): MscL:MscIL= 1.0–1.1. Wing count: present. Fore wing size: wings present and macropterous with apex extending past petiole. Pronotum median length: less than longest median anatomical line of the mesoscutum. Notaulus count: present. Crenulae of notaulus width: width of the crenulae does not increase more than 2× anteriorly. Notaulus posterior end location: adjacent to transscutal articulation. Posterior region of notaulus orientation: posterior end of notaulus curves and is adjacent to median mesoscutal sulcus. Median mesoscutal sulcus count: present. Median mesoscutal sulcus posterior end: adjacent to transscutal articulation. Scutoscutellar sulcus vs. transscutal articulation location: adjacent. Axillular carinae count: absent. Speculum ventral limit: not extending ventrally of pleural pit line. Metapleural sulcus shape: straight or arched. Mesometapleural sulcus count: present. Ventrolateral invagination of the pronotum count: present. Sternaulus count: absent. Sternaulus length: sternaulus absent. Epicnemial carina count: complete. Epicnemium posterior margin shape: anterior discrimenal pit absent; epicnemial carina curved. Transverse striations on the ventral metapleural area count: present. Transverse striations on the ventral metapleural area ventral limit: transverse striations occurring across entire ventral metapleural area. Scutes on posterior region of mesoscutum and dorsal region of mesoscutellum convexity: flat. Ventral projection of the metapleural carina count: absent. Lateral propodeal carina count: present. Lateral propodeal carina shape: inverted “Y” (left and right lateral propodeal are adjacent medially posterior to antecostal sulcus of the first abdominal tergum, and connected to the antecostal sulcus by a median carina representing the median branch of the inverted “Y”). Mesopostscutellum count: absent (scutellum flat). Anteromedian projection of the metanoto–propodeo–metapecto–mesopectal complex count: present. Posterior margin of nucha in dorsal view shape: concave.

Metasoma: Paired blue iridescent ovoid patches on the syntergite count: absent. Shortest width of petiole neck vs. syntergal translucent patch maximum width: 3.0 (UCRC_ENT 00227058). Shortest width of petiole neck vs. synsternal translucent patch maximum width: 2.5 (UCRC_ENT 00227058). Syntergal translucent patch maximum width vs. minimum width: 1.6–1.8. Synsternal translucent patch maximum width vs. minimum width: 2.0. Syntergal translucent patch maximum width orientation: anterolaterally. Synsternal translucent patch maximum width orientation: anterolaterally. Synsternal setiferous patch shape: linear. Synsternal setiferous patch structure: patch of equal width anterior and posterior to the synsternal translucent patch, comprised of 2 or more rows of setae. Synsternal setiferous patch anterior end: synsternal setiferous patch begins anterior to the synsternal translucent patch anterior margin. Synsternal setiferous patch posterior end: synsternal setiferous patch ends posterior to the synsternal translucent patch posterior margin. Synsternal setiferous patch length vs. synsternal translucent patch maximum width: synsternal setiferous patch at least 2× as long as the maximum width of the synsternal translucent patch. S1 length vs. shortest width: S1 wider than long.

Male Genitalia: Distal margin of male S9 shape: concave. Proximolateral corner of male S9 shape: acute. Male S9 distal setal line/setal patch count: distal setae composing transverse setiferous line or lines. Male S9 distal setal line / setal patch structure: 3 or more transverse rows of setae with additional setae scattered between them. Distomedian hairless area interrupting transverse row of setae or patch on male S9 count: absent with distal setiferous patch/line continuous medially. Submedial projections on proximal margin of S9 count: present. Cupula length vs. gonostyle–volsella complex length: cupula less than 1/2 the length of gonostyle–volsella complex in lateral view. Proximodorsal notch of cupula count: present. Proximodorsal notch of cupula shape: arched (inverted U-shape). Proximodorsal notch of cupula width vs length: wider than long; longer than wide. Proximolateral projection of the cupula shape: blunt. Gonocondyle count: present. Gonocondyle shape: blunt. Distodorsal margin of cupula shape: concave. Distoventral submedian corner of the cupula count: absent. Dorsomedian projection of the gonostyle–volsella complex count: absent. Dorsomedian conjunctiva of the gonostyle–volsella complex count: present. Dorsomedian conjunctiva of the gonostyle–volsella complex length relative to length of gonostyle–volsella complex: dorsomedian conjunctiva extending equal to or less than 1/3 of length of gonostyle–volsella complex in dorsal view. Dorsomedial margin of gonostyle–volsella complex shape: V-shaped. Proximal end of dorsomedian conjunctiva of the gonostyle–volsella complex shape: acute or V-shaped. Parossiculus count or parossiculus and gonostipes fusion: present and parossiculi not fused with the gonostipes. Medioventral conjunctiva of the gonostyle–volsella complex count or fusion of parossiculi: medioventral conjunctiva present and parossiculi independent or fused proximally. Apical parossicular setae count: one. Distal projection of the parossiculus count: absent. Distal projection of the penisvalva count: absent. Gonossiculus spine count: 3. Gonossiculus spine length: one spine not more than 2× as long as the other(s) (spines of similar lengths). Harpe length: harpe shorter than gonostipes in lateral view. Harpe shape: simple and not bilobed. Harpe orientation: medial. Lateral margin of harpe shape: widest point of harpe is in its distal 1/3rd. Distal margin of harpe in lateral view: blunt or straight. Lateral setae of harpe count: present. Lateral setae of harpe orientation: oriented distally. Lateral setae on harpe density: setae dense, evenly distributed across entire lateral surface of harpe. Dense patch of setae on the distoventral edge of the harpe count: present. Distal setae on harpe length: setae not of equal length, longer setae present on distoventral edge of harpe. Distodorsal setae of sensillar ring of harpe length vs. harpe width in lateral view: setae as long as or shorter than harpe width. Distodorsal setae of sensillar ring of harpe orientation: distoventrally. Sensillar ring area of harpe orientation: distoventrally. Sensillar ring shape: elongate. Distoventral margin of harpe in lateral view: convex.

Distribution. Nearctic.

Etymology. The name lepus   refers to the setaceous harpe, which resemble rabbit ears.

Material Examined. Holotype male: USA: Arizona: PSUC _ FEM 32888 View Materials , UCFC 0208171 View Materials ( UCFC)   . Paratypes (3 males, 18 females): USA: Arizona: 2 males, 18 females. PSUC _ FEM 32603 View Materials , 32912 View Materials , 32971 View Materials , 33132 View Materials , 33146 View Materials , 33985 View Materials , 33986 View Materials , 33988 View Materials , 34033 View Materials , 34061 View Materials , 34080 View Materials , 34104 View Materials , 34115 View Materials , 34242 View Materials , 34248 View Materials , 34283 View Materials , 34285 View Materials , 34292 View Materials , 34295 View Materials , 34297 View Materials ( UCFC)   . USA: California: 1 male. UCRC _ ENT 00227058 View Materials ( UCRC)   .


Frost Entomological Museum, Penn State University


University of Central Florida


University of California, Riverside