Conostigmus longiharpes Trietsch

Trietsch, Carolyn, Mikó, István, Ezray, Briana & Deans, Andrew R., 2020, A Taxonomic Revision of Nearctic Conostigmus (Hymenoptera: Ceraphronoidea: Megaspilidae), Zootaxa 4792 (1), pp. 1-155: 117-122

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Conostigmus longiharpes Trietsch

sp. nov.

Conostigmus longiharpes Trietsch   sp. nov.

Figs. 65 View FIGURE 65 , 66 View FIGURE 66 , 67 View FIGURE 67

Diagnosis. Males of this species are distinguished by the following combination of characters: facial sulcus absent; preoccipital furrow absent; sternaulus absent; shortest width of petiole neck vs. syntergal translucent patch maximum width: 3.0–4.0; shortest width of petiole neck vs. synsternal translucent patch maximum width: 3.0–4.5; parossiculi not fused; and length of the harpe equal to or longer than the length of the gonostipes in lateral view.

The female of this species is unknown.

This species is unique in that it has very small syntergal and synsternal translucent patches; the ratios of the shortest width of the petiole neck vs. the syntergal and the synsternal translucent patch maximum widths are both greater than 3.0. The only other species with these two ratios greater than 3.0 is C. orcasensis   , which differs from C. longiharpes   in that the mesopostscutellum is present and the width of the crenulae of the notauli increases more than 2× anteriorly.

This species is also one of the few Conostigmus   with the length of the harpe equal to or longer than the length of the gonostipes in lateral view. The male genitalia are very similar to a Palearctic species, C. difformis (Boheman)   , 1832, which Dessart (1993) redescribed and illustrated after viewing the types in Lund (this information missing from Johnson and Musetti, 2004). However, these are not the same species because C. difformis   has a facial suture, whereas C. longiharpes   does not. Conostigmus difformis   is also only known from the Palearctic, whereas C. longiharpes   is only known from the Nearctic. The only other two species that occur in the Nearctic and have long harpe are C. abdominalis   and C. pulchellus   , but both of these species also have a facial suture, postocellar carina, and elongate sternaulus, which are all absent in C. longiharpes   .

The Nearctic species most similar to C. longiharpes   is C. nigrorufus   , which shares the absence of the sternaulus. However, the syntergal and synsternal translucent patches are much smaller in C. longiharpes   than in C. nigrorufus   . There are also similarities in the male genitalia of both species, including the following characters: one apical parossicular seta; proximodorsal notch of the cupula present and arched (inverted U-shape); medioventral conjunctiva of the gonostyle–volsella complex present (parossiculi not fused); harpe simple (not bilobed); and the dorsomedial margin of gonostyle–volsella complex V-shaped. However, upon looking laterally, it is easy to distinguish the male genitalia by the length of the harpe, which are shorter than the length of the gonostipes in C. nigrorufus   but equal to or longer than the length of the gonostipes in C. longiharpes   .

Variability. There is variability in the preoccipital lunula based on specimen size. The preoccipital lunula is present on larger specimens (PSUC_ FEM 36108 View Materials , PSUC_ FEM 36092 View Materials ) and small or absent on smaller specimens (PSUC_ FEM 88192 View Materials , PSUC_ FEM 36051 View Materials , UCRC_ENT 00457092). There are also slight variations in color between specimens, with some specimens having lighter brown or yellow coloration on the petiole or pronotum.

Description. Body length: 1.275 –1.550 mm. Color hue pattern in male: cranium, mesosoma and metasoma brown to dark brown; mandible, legs, pedicel and scape ochre to light brown; F1–F9 light brown to brown. Color intensity pattern in male: cranium darker than mesosoma, flagellomeres darker than legs; mandible lighter than cranium; pronotum sometimes lighter than rest of mesosoma; petiole neck sometimes lighter than rest of metasoma. Color intensity dorsal and ventral to the site of the sternaulus: concolorous. Color intensity pattern of syntergite: petiole neck and anterior region of syntergite concolorus with the posterior region of the syntergite; petiole neck and anterior region of syntergite lighter in coloration than the posterior region of the syntergite. Foveolate sculpture on body count: absent. Rugose sculpturing count: absent. Rugose region on upper face count: absent.

Antennae: Male scape length vs. pedicel length: 3.2–5.0. Male scape length vs. F1 length: 1.4–1.9. Male F1 length vs. pedicel length: 2.2–3.0. Male F1 length vs. male F2 length: 1.2–1.4. Longest male flagellomere: F1. Length of setae on male flagellomere vs. male flagellomere width: setae shorter than width of flagellomeres. Sensillar patch of the male flagellomere pattern: F6–F9.

Head: Head width, dorsal view: equal to or only slightly wider than mesosoma (less than 1.3× wider than mesosoma). Head height (HH, lateral view) vs. eye height (EHf, anterior view): HH:EHf=1.3–1.7. Head height (HH) vs. head length (HL): HH:HL=1.1–1.3. Head width (HW) vs. interorbital space (IOS): HW:IOS=1.8–2.0. Head width (HW) vs. head height (HH): HW:HH=1.2–1.4. Cephalic size (csb): Mean: 300–450 μm. Maximum eye diameter vs. minimum eye diameter: 1.2–1.5. POL:OOL: POL equal to or shorter than OOL and ocellar triangle with short base. Male ocular ocellar line (OOL) vs. lateral ocellar line (LOL): OOL:LOL=2.0–2.7. Male ocular ocellar line (OOL) vs. posterior ocellar line (POL): OOL:POL=1.1–1.4. Male ocular ocellar line (OOL): posterior ocellar line (POL): lateral ocellar line (LOL): 2.0–2.7:1.6–2.4:1.0. Head shape (anterior view): circular or triangular. Preoccipital lunula count: absent; present. Preoccipital carina count: absent. Occipital carina structure: occipital carina not complete. Occipital carina sculpture: crenulate. Preoccipital furrow count: present. Preoccipital furrow anterior end: preoccipital furrow ends posterior to ocellar triangle. Preoccipital furrow sculpture: crenulate. Postocellar carina count: absent. Dorsal margin of occipital carina vs. dorsal margin of lateral ocellus in lateral view: occipital carina ventral to lateral ocellus in lateral view. Transverse scutes on upper face count: absent. Transverse frontal carina count: absent. Randomly sized areolae around setal pits on upper face count: absent. Setal pit on vertex size: smaller than diameter of scutes. Ventromedian setiferous patch and ventrolateral setiferous patch count: absent. White, thick setae on upper face count: absent. Antennal scrobe count: absent. Facial structure count: facial pit present. Facial pit count: present. Facial sulcus count: absent. Median facial keel count: absent. Supraclypeal depression count: present. Supraclypeal depression structure: present medially, inverted U-shaped. Intertorular area count: present. Intertorular carina count: present. Median process on intertorular carina count: present. Median process on intertorular carina shape: blunt. Median region of intertorular area shape: convex. Ventral margin of antennal rim vs. dorsal margin of clypeus: not adjacent. Torulo–clypeal carina count: present. Subtorular carina count: absent. Mandibular tooth count: 2. Mandibular lancea count: absent.

Mesosoma: Weber length: WL=400–650 μm. Anterior mesoscutal width (AscW) vs. posterior mesoscutal width (PscW): AscW/PscW=0.7–0.8. Mesoscutal length (MscL) vs. anterior mesoscutal width (AscW): MscL/ AscW=1.2–1.6. Mesoscutal length (MscL) vs. mesoscutellar length (MscIL): MscL:MscIL= 0.8–1.0. Wing count: present. Fore wing size: wings present and macropterous with apex extending past petiole. Pronotum median length: less than longest median anatomical line of the mesoscutum. Notaulus count: present. Crenulae of notaulus width: width of the crenulae does not increase more than 2× anteriorly. Notaulus posterior end location: adjacent to transscutal articulation. Posterior region of notaulus orientation: posterior end of notaulus curves and is adjacent to median mesoscutal sulcus. Median mesoscutal sulcus count: present. Median mesoscutal sulcus posterior end: adjacent to transscutal articulation. Scutoscutellar sulcus vs. transscutal articulation location: adjacent. Axillular carinae count: absent. Speculum ventral limit: not extending ventrally of pleural pit line. Metapleural sulcus shape: straight. Mesometapleural sulcus count: present. Ventrolateral invagination of the pronotum count: present. Sternaulus count: absent. Sternaulus length: sternaulus absent. Epicnemial carina count: complete. Epicnemium posterior margin shape: anterior discrimenal pit present; epicnemial carina curved. Transverse striations on the ventral metapleural area count: absent. Scutes on posterior region of mesoscutum and dorsal region of mesoscutellum convexity: flat. Ventral projection of the metapleural carina count: absent. Lateral propodeal carina count: present. Lateral propodeal carina shape: inverted “V” (left and right lateral propodeal carinae are adjacent medially at their intersection with antecostal sulcus of the first abdominal tergum). Mesopostscutellum count: absent (scutellum flat). Anteromedian projection of the metanoto–propodeo–metapecto–mesopectal complex count: absent. Posterior margin of nucha in dorsal view shape: concave.

Metasoma: Transverse carina on petiole shape: straight. Paired blue iridescent ovoid patches on the syntergite count: absent. Shortest width of petiole neck vs. syntergal translucent patch maximum width: 3.0–4.0. Shortest width of petiole neck vs. synsternal translucent patch maximum width: 3.0–4.5. Syntergal translucent patch maximum width vs. minimum width: 1.1–1.7. Synsternal translucent patch maximum width vs. minimum width: 1.3–2.5. Syntergal translucent patch maximum width orientation: anterolaterally. Synsternal translucent patch maximum width orientation: anterior–posteriorly. Synsternal setiferous patch shape: linear. Synsternal setiferous patch structure: comprised of a single row of setae anterior and posterior to the synsternal translucent patch. Synsternal setiferous patch anterior end: synsternal setiferous patch begins anterior to the synsternal translucent patch anterior margin. Synsternal setiferous patch posterior end: synsternal setiferous patch ends lateral to the synsternal translucent patch posterior margin; synsternal setiferous patch ends posterior to the synsternal translucent patch posterior margin. Synsternal setiferous patch length vs. synsternal translucent patch maximum width: synsternal setiferous patch at least 2× as long as the maximum width of the synsternal translucent patch. S1 length vs. shortest width: S1 wider than long.

Male Genitalia: Distal margin of male S9 shape: convex. Proximolateral corner of male S9 shape: blunt. Male S9 distal setal line/setal patch count: distal setae composing transverse setiferous line or lines. Male S9 distal setal line / setal patch structure: 2 or more transverse rows of setae with additional setae scattered between them. Distomedian hairless area interrupting transverse row of setae or patch on male S9 count: absent with distal setiferous patch/line continuous medially. Submedial projections on proximal margin of S9 count: absent. Cupula length vs. gonostyle–volsella complex length: cupula less than 1/2 the length of gonostyle–volsella complex in lateral view. Proximodorsal notch of cupula count: present. Proximodorsal notch of cupula shape: arched (inverted U-shape). Proximodorsal notch of cupula width vs length: wider than long. Proximolateral projection of the cupula shape: blunt. Gonocondyle count: present. Gonocondyle shape: blunt. Distodorsal margin of cupula shape: concave. Distoventral submedian corner of the cupula count: absent. Dorsomedian projection of the gonostyle–volsella complex count: absent. Dorsomedian conjunctiva of the gonostyle–volsella complex count: present. Dorsomedian conjunctiva of the gonostyle–volsella complex length relative to length of gonostyle–volsella complex: dorsomedian conjunctiva extending more than or equal to 2/3 of length of gonostyle–volsella complex in dorsal view. Dorsomedial margin of gonostyle–volsella complex shape: V-shaped. Proximal end of dorsomedian conjunctiva of the gonostyle–volsella complex shape: acute or V-shaped. Parossiculus count or parossiculus and gonostipes fusion: present and parossiculi not fused with the gonostipes. Medioventral conjunctiva of the gonostyle–volsella complex count or fusion of parossiculi: medioventral conjunctiva present and parossiculi independent or fused proximally. Apical parossicular setae count: one. Distal projection of the parossiculus count: absent. Distal projection of the penisvalva count: absent. Gonossiculus spine count: 3. Gonossiculus spine length: one spine not more than 2× as long as the other(s) (spines of similar lengths). Harpe length: harpe equal to or longer than gonostipes in lateral view. Harpe shape: simple and not bilobed. Harpe orientation: medial. Lateral margin of harpe shape: widest point of harpe is at its articulation site with gonostyle–volsella complex. Distal margin of harpe in lateral view: acute or pointed. Lateral setae of harpe count: present. Lateral setae of harpe orientation: oriented distally. Lateral setae on harpe density: setae sparse. Dense patch of setae on the distoventral edge of the harpe count: absent. Distal setae on harpe length: setae of equal length across distal end of harpe. Distodorsal setae of sensillar ring of harpe length vs. harpe width in lateral view: setae longer than harpe width. Distodorsal setae of sensillar ring of harpe orientation: distomedially. Sensillar ring area of harpe orientation: medially. Sensillar ring shape: circular. Distoventral margin of harpe in lateral view: convex.

Distribution. Nearctic.

Etymology. This species is named longiharpes   after the harpe, which are longer than the gonostipes in lateral view. This is a character that is only shared by three other species, C. abdominalis   , C. difformis   and C. pulchellus   , which are all easily differentiated from this species by the presence of the facial sulcus (absent in C. longiharpes   ).

Material Examined. Holotype male: USA: California: PSUC _ FEM 88145 View Materials , UCRC _ ENT 00103685 View Materials ( UCRC)   . Paratypes (15 males): USA: California   : 15 males. PSUC _ FEM 26681 View Materials , 26707 View Materials , 26709 View Materials , 26848 View Materials , 27056 View Materials , 27198 View Materials ( OSUC); PSUC _ FEM 36051 View Materials , 36092 View Materials , 36108 View Materials , 36113 View Materials , 88187 View Materials , 88188 View Materials , 88192 View Materials , 92182 View Materials ; UCRC _ ENT 00457092 View Materials ( UCRC)   .


Frost Entomological Museum, Penn State University


University of California, Riverside


Oregon State University