Pholcus kakum, Huber, 2009

Huber, Bernhard A., 2009, Life on leaves: leaf-dwelling pholcids of Guinea, with emphasis on Crossopriza cylindrogaster Simon, a spider with inverted resting position, pseudo-eyes, lampshade web, and tetrahedral egg-sac (Araneae: Pholcidae), Journal of Natural History 43 (39 - 40), pp. 2491-2523: 2510-2514

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.1080/00222930903207876

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/0396E66E-FFFF-BB07-FE37-D7F7FE007D37

treatment provided by

Felipe

scientific name

Pholcus kakum
status

n. sp.

Pholcus kakum   n. sp.

( Figures 10, 11 View Figures 7–14 , 32–35 View Figures 32–44 , 101–123 View Figures 101–105 View Figures 106–114 View Figures 115–123 , 150 View Figures 150–151 )

Type

Male holotype from Kakum forest (5°20′N, 1°23′W), Ghana; primary forest, 21.xi.2005 ( R. Jocqué, D. de Bakker, L. Baert), in MRAC (separated from 217714) GoogleMaps   .

Etymology

The species name is taken from the type locality and used as a noun in apposition.

Diagnosis

Distinguished from known congeners by the shapes of procursus ( Figures 101, 102 View Figures 101–105 ), uncus and appendix ( Figures 101 View Figures 101–105 , 109 View Figures 106–114 ), and epigynum ( Figures 34 View Figures 32–44 , 104 View Figures 101–105 , 119 View Figures 115–123 ).

Male (holotype)

Total body length 3.7, carapace width 1.0. Leg 1: 32.0 (7.8 + 0.4 + 7.8 + 14.3 + 1.7), tibia 2: 5.0, tibia 3: 2.8, tibia 4: 4.4, tibia 1 L/d: 77. Habitus as in Figures 32 and 33 View Figures 32–44 ; carapace mostly pale ochre-yellow, ocular area and clypeus dark brown, sternum and legs pale ochre-yellow, patellae and tibia–metatarsus joints dark brown, abdomen pale ochre-grey with indistinct dark spots dorsally, ventrally monochromous. Distance PME–PME 425 µm, diameter PME 125 µm, distance PME–ALE 25 µm, distance AME–AME 30 µm, diameter AME 20 µm. Ocular area elevated, with long hairs on posterior side, each triad on short stalk directed towards lateral ( Figure 106 View Figures 106–114 ). No thoracic furrow, clypeus unmodified. Chelicerae as in Figure 103 View Figures 101–105 , distal frontal apophyses with two modified hairs each ( Figure 107 View Figures 106–114 ), with lateral and frontal proximal apophyses. Sternum wider than long (0.70/0.50), unmodified. Palps as in Figures 101 and 102 View Figures 101–105 , coxa unmodified, trochanter with short retrolatero-ventral projection, femur with distinctive ventral modification, tarsal organ capsulate ( Figure 108 View Figures 106–114 ), procursus large, distally complex, with two prolatero-dorsal spines ( Figures 101 View Figures 101–105 , 110 View Figures 106–114 ) and distinctive spiny and possibly extensible area ( Figure 111 View Figures 106–114 ), bulb with large uncus with scaly edge ( Figures 109, 113 View Figures 106–114 ), T-shaped appendix, weakly sclerotized embolus with many transparent projections ( Figures 109, 112 View Figures 106–114 ). Legs without spines and curved hairs, few vertical hairs; retrolateral trichobothrium on tibia 1 at 4%; prolateral trichobothrium missing on tibia 1, present on other tibiae; tarsal pseudosegments indistinct, distally ∼10 visible in dissecting microscope. ALS with one widened, one pointed, and five cylindrically shaped spigots ( Figure 115 View Figures 115–123 ); PMS with two small spigots ( Figure 116 View Figures 115–123 ). Gonopore of scanned male with five epiandrous spigots ( Figure 114 View Figures 106–114 ).

Variation

Tibia 1 in nine other males: 7.0–8.0 (mean 7.5).

Female

In general similar to male but triads closer together (distance PME–PME 220 µm), not on stalks ( Figure 118 View Figures 115–123 ), clypeus not darkened except upper part, carapace often with pair of posterior dark marks, dorsal spots on abdomen variably distinct. Tibia 1 in 11 females: 5.5–6.3 (mean 5.9). Epigynum with distinctive orange-brown plate with light median section traversed by darker line, with frontal “knob” ( Figures 34 View Figures 32–44 , 119 View Figures 115–123 ); internal genitalia as in Figures 35 View Figures 32–44 , 105 View Figures 101–105 , and 120. Tip of palpal tarsus ending in sclerotized cone accompanied be several strong bristles ( Figure 121 View Figures 115–123 ). Tarsus 4 with ventral row of comb-hairs ( Figure 123 View Figures 115–123 ). Spinnerets and spigots as in male ( Figure 117 View Figures 115–123 ).

Distribution

Known from Ghana, Côte d’Ivoire, and Guinea ( Figure 150 View Figures 150–151 ).

Material examined

GHANA: Kakum forest : 13 holotype above; same data, 24319 ♀ in MRAC (217714)   ; same data but 16./18./23./ 25.xi.2005 (4 vials), 5310 ♀ in MRAC (217685, 217706, 217707, 217740)   ; same data but secondary forest, 15./17./18./ 19.xi.2005 (4 vials), 436♀ in MRAC   (217683, 217719, 217723, 217732).

CÔTE D’IVOIRE: Moyen-Comoé: FC Songan, near Comoé river [∼ 6°07′N, 3°13′W], hand catch in forest, 8.iii.1997 ( T. Steyn), 1♀ in MRAC (207396) GoogleMaps   . Apouesso, FC Bossematié (6°35′N, 3°28′W), rain forest, 18.xi.1994 ( R. Jocqué), 1♀ in MRAC GoogleMaps   (201011).

GUINEA: Guinée Forestière : Forêt Classée de Diéké (7°32.0′N, 8°49.9′W), 430 m a.s.l., 1.xii.2008 (B.A. Huber), 1♀ in ZFMK GoogleMaps   ; Forêt Classée de Ziama (8°24.2′N, 9°19.3′W), 640 m a.s.l., 2.xii.2008 (B.A. Huber), 131♀ in ZFMK GoogleMaps   ; same data, 2♀ in pure ethanol, in ZFMK GoogleMaps   .

R

Departamento de Geologia, Universidad de Chile

MRAC

Musée Royal de l’Afrique Centrale

T

Tavera, Department of Geology and Geophysics

ZFMK

Zoologisches Forschungsmuseum Alexander Koenig

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Arachnida

Order

Araneae

Family

Pholcidae

Genus

Pholcus