Abies jaliscana (Martínez) Mantilla, Shalisko & A. Vázquez, Mantilla, Shalisko & A. Vazquez, 2014

Vázquez-García, J. Antonio, Shalisko, Viacheslav, Cuevas-Guzmán, Ramón, Muñiz-Castro, Miguel A. & Mantilla-Blandón, Mauricio R., 2014, Abies jaliscana (Pinaceae): A new combination in section Grandis and a key to the species of Abies in western Mexico, Phytotaxa 183 (1), pp. 27-36: 28-30

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.11646/phytotaxa.183.1.3

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/0397879B-FFFE-FFD7-4890-FD93FED5A9D4

treatment provided by

Felipe

scientific name

Abies jaliscana (Martínez) Mantilla, Shalisko & A. Vázquez
status

comb. nov.

Abies jaliscana (Martínez) Mantilla, Shalisko & A. Vázquez   , comb. nov.

Basionym:— Abies guatemalensis Rehder var. jaliscana Martínez (1948: 73)   . Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 . Type:— Lectotype (here designated):— MEXICO. Jalisco. Mun. Talpa [de Allende, Rincon de] La Mesa, cerca de Cuale [5–9 km, 1800 m], Nov 1947, M. Martínez [& A. Q. G onzález] 28500 [numbered by Maximino Martínez]. Lectotype: MEXU (no. 545019); isolectotype: MEXU (no. 2707).— Abies guatemalensis subsp. jaliscana (Martínez) Silba (2008: 41)   .

= Abies flinckii Rushforth.   Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 46: 101, fig. 1. 1989. pro parte, excl. type.

Description: —Large trees, 20–30 m in height, up to 1 m dbh; bark grayish brown, at great age divided into irregular plates; twigs reddish brown, hirtellous, sometimes densely so; leaves subdistichous or distichous, pectinate, sometimes dispersed on the shoot, lax, bright-green, glaucous beneath, (20–) 35–78 (–80) × 0.8–1.5 mm, in vigorous shoots up to 90 mm long, more than two times longer than shortest ones in the same shoot, emarginate or obtuse apically, rarely acute, with strongly twisted leaf bases; stomata on lower surface of 10–12 rows in 2 bands, on upper surface near the tips in 3–4 discontinuous rows; leaf vascular bundles 2, slightly separated by a zone of thick cells; resins ducts 2 and nearly marginal on lower surface; male cones light brown 9–17 × 4.4–6.1 mm; immature female cones 3.5–5 × 1.5 cm, with exserted bract scales, green; mature female cones subcylindrical or ellipsoid, blunt apically, on a short peduncle up to 1 cm of length, green or purplish to dark brown, (5–) 6–10 (–12) × 2.5–4 (–4.4) cm with a length/width ratio of (2.3–) 2.4–2.8 (–2.9); ovuliferous scales thin, at great age (according to Martínez) with reflexed distal margin, transversely oblong (“reniform”), concave proximally, 18–25 mm wide, 14–17 mm long, with subentire or somewhat irregularly erose lateral margins; bracts appearing almost included in mature cones (northern populations), two-thirds as long as the scales or about equaling them, to exserted in mature cones with the exposed part up to 4 mm long, denticulate marginally, bearing a minute, acute cusp, terminating in a short point 0.5–1.2 mm long; cone rachis conical, 7–10 cm long, 4.2–5.4 mm in diameter at base; wing 14–15 mm long, light brown; seeds cuneate 6–8 × 9–10 mm.

Additional specimens examined:— MEXICO. Jalisco. Ayutla: El Bordo, 5 km al E de San Miguel de la Sierra , 2300 m, 26 Jun 1980 (vegetative), C   . L   . Díaz Luna 11673 ( GUADA); al W de Las Iglesias , campo experimental de la Universidad Autónoma de Chapingo, 2200 m, 10 Mar 1980 (vegetative), L   . M   . González Villarreal 1803 ( IBUG); Cacoma, Las Iglesias , 2028 m, 19°54′’54″ N   , 104°32′15.4″W, 31 Dec 2005 (vegetative), M   . Mantilla & D. Jimeno S   . 6 ( IBUG); near La Cañada , 5 May 2005 (vegetative), M   . Mantilla & Pérez de la Rosa 10 ( IBUG); near Santa Mónica , ca. 20°N, long. ca. 104°30′W, 1950–2050 m, 12–13 Nov 1952 (vegetative), R GoogleMaps   . McVaugh 14113 ( MEXU, MICH); Km 46 camino Autlán—Los Valles , 2140 m, 23 Feb 1982 (vegetative), J   . A   . Pérez de la Rosa 84 ( IBUG, MEXU); parte sur de Las Tasajeras, Ejido Las Cañadas , 2460 m, 20°00′21″N 104°34′18″W, 5 May 2005 (mature female cones), J GoogleMaps   . A GoogleMaps   . Pérez de la Rosa et al. 1916 ( IBUG); parte norte de Las Tasajeras, Ejido Las Cañadas , 2327 m, 20°0′29″N 104°34′51″W, 5 May 2005 (mature female cones), J GoogleMaps   . A GoogleMaps   . Pérez de la Rosa et al. 1917 ( IBUG); La Leona, Ejido Las Cañadas , 2328 m, 20°01′06″ N 104°36′30″ W, 5 May 2005 (female cones), J GoogleMaps   . A GoogleMaps   . Pérez de la Rosa et al. 1918 ( IBUG)   . Cuautla: Al W de El Llanito, Sierra de Cacoma, 2220 m, Nov 1986 (male cones), E   . Hernández García s. n. ( IBUG)   . Mascota: Paraje El Pedregal, Ixtolo, 2400 m, 9 Aug 1999 (vegetative), M   . Cházaro Basáñez & O   . Montes O   . 7999 ( IBUG, IEB); Rancho Amulco , 1700 m, 13 Jun 1974 (vegetative), C   . L   . Díaz Luna 5141 ( GUADA); Histololo , May 2006 (mature female cones), M   . Mantilla 12 ( IBUG); 3 km E   del Rancho “El Galope”, 1800 m, 17 Oct 1987 (male cones), J   . A   . Pérez de la Rosa et al. 1466 ( IBUG); ibid., 1850 m, 8 Nov 1989 (vegetative), J   . A   . Pérez de la Rosa 1738 ( IBUG)   . San Sebastián del Oeste: Camino San Sebastián — Real Alto cerca a Sta. Ana, 28 Dec 1994 (male cones), J   . Curiel s. n. ( IBUG); Km 3 del camino a la Cima del Cerro de la Bufa , 2100 m, 30 Oct 1982 (vegetative), L   . M   . González Villarreal & J   . A   . Pérez de la Rosa 1592 ( IBUG); Cerro La Bufa , 2455 m, 20°43′8″N, 104°49′31″W, 4 May 2003 (mature cones), M GoogleMaps   . Mantilla et al. 3 ( IBUG); 8 km al E de San Sebastián , faldas del cerro La Bufa, 1920 m, 25 Feb 1984 (female cones), J   . A   . Pérez de la Rosa 606 ( IBUG, NY); Km 4 del camino San Sebastián—Santa Ana , 2300 m, 17 May 1986 (mature female cones), J   . A   . Pérez de la Rosa 1110 ( IBUG); ibid., 1900 m, 17 May 1986 (mature female cones), J   . A   . Pérez de la Rosa 1118 ( IBUG, IEB); Km 9 de la brecha San Sebastián del Oeste—Sta. Rosa , 1800 m, 17 May 1986 (vegetative), O   . Reina Bustos 219, 227 ( IBUG)   . Talpa de Allende: El Cuale, 1800 m, 24 Jun 1976 (vegetative), C   . L   . Díaz Luna 1961 ( GUADA); La Cumbre de Santa María , camino a El Desmoronado, 1750 m, 11 Jul 1994 (vegetative), J   . A   . Lomelí S   . et al. 2299 ( GUADA, MEXU); Monte Grande , 1636 m, 20°14′41.3″N, 104°50′01″W, 1 Oct 2002 (vegetative), M GoogleMaps   . Mantilla & D. Jimeno S   . 9 ( IBUG); Puerto Vallarta–Talpa , 2 Jan 2003 (vegetative), M   . Mantilla & D. Jimeno S   . s. n. ( IBUG); Sierra de Cuale, camino de Cuale a Talpa de Allende , 2400 m, 20°22′’01.1″ N   , 105°01′39″W, 2 Jan 2005 (immature female cones), M   . Mantilla & D. Jimeno S   . 7 ( IBUG); Cumbre de Guadalupe , May 2006 (mature female cones), M   . Mantilla et al. s. n. ( IBUG); Sierra de Cuale, SW of Talpa de Allende, SW of prominent peak called Piedra Rajada , 1800–2250 m, 19–21 Nov 1952 (vegetative), R   . McVaugh 14298 ( MEXU, MICH); on the divide above headwaters of Río Mascota (25–30 km, airline, southeast of Talpa de Allende), steep mountainsides and barrancas 1–2 miles north of the sawmill “La Cumbre”, and 11–12 road miles south of El Rincón , 2000–2250 m, 29 Nov 1960 (vegetative), R   . McVaugh 21509 ( MEXU, MICH); 11 km del camino Cuale–Talpa , 2000 m, 1 Nov 1983 (immature female cones), J   . A   . Pérez de la Rosa 324 ( IBUG, IEB, MEXU); 30 km al S de Talpa, La Cumbre, 2400 m, 17 Nov 1989 (vegetative, old cones attached), J   . A   . Pérez de la Rosa 1730 ( IBUG); Sierra del Cuale, 1200 m, 28 Jan 1976 (female cones), Solorzano de la Soto s. n. ( IBUG); Cuale, 2000 m, 1 Feb 1976 (female cones), Soto Esquivel et al. s. n. ( IEB, MEXU); Sierra del Cuale entre Cuale y Talpa, 1950 m, 1 Feb 1976 (female cones), J   . de la Torre V   . 8622 ( IBUG, MEXU, NY); Arroyo El Portero Nuevo 1 km al SO   de la Cañada, 1580 m, 26 Apr 1993 (vegetative), I   . Torres, J   . Esquivel, R   . Aguirre 635 ( IBUG); on lumber road from Talpa de Allende to La Cumbre, 14.1 km SE from Talpa — La Cuesta road junction, 2120 m, 21 Nov 2001 (vegetative), T   . Yahara et al. 2531 ( MEXU)   . Tomatlán: Cumbre de Guadalupe ancient sawmill ground, May 2006 (mature cones), M   . Mantilla 11 ( IBUG); Cumbre de Guadalupe , 2179 m, 20°12′48.7″N, 104°43′47.8″W, 10 Apr 2003 (mature female cones), M GoogleMaps   . Mantilla et al. 2 ( IBUG)   . Villa Purificación: Camino de Pabelo hacia Autlán, 1764 m, 19°54′15.6″N, 104°32′53.6″W, 31 Dec 2004 (immature female cones, male cones), M GoogleMaps   . Mantilla et al. 8 ( IBUG); en la Sierra Cacoma, 28 Feb 1984 (vegetative), A   . Rodríguez Contreras s. n. ( IBUG)   .

Eponimy: —The specific epithet refers to the western Mexican State of Jalisco, where this species is endemic.

Habitat and distribution:— Steep mountainsides and humid ravines, on seaward and north facing slopes (1580–) 1800–2400 m. Known only from western Jalisco where restricted to a few sites ( Fig. 5 View FIGURE 5 : solid circles). No mixed populations of Abies jaliscana   with other Abies species   have been found. Cuevas-Guzmán et al. (2008) observed that A. jaliscana   has a preference for rocky substrates.

Phenology:— Anthesis in winter, beginning late November and finishing January; cones ripening in late spring (April–May). Seeds do not need to be exposed to freezing temperatures to germinate and eventually germinate inside the cones. Seed dispersal is from late spring to early summer (May–June).

Conservation status:— Currently Abies flinckii   is protected by the Mexican Endangered Species Act NOM-059- SEMARNAT-2010 ( SEMARNAT, 2010); as it is circumscribed, it includes the previously recognized A. religiosa var. emarginata   and A. guatemalensis var. jaliscana   (the basionym of the new combination, here proposed). Thus, in the light of these new results, a study of the conservation status of A. jaliscana   is required in order to include this species in the species protection programs. In the meantime, in view of its taxonomic derivation, all populations of Abies   in western México (here considered as A. jaliscana   , namely “oyamel de Jalisco ”) must continue under current protection. This species could be vulnerable to extinction due to its limited distribution ( Cuevas-Guzmán et al., 2008). Currently, illegal logging activities are reducing the populations of A. jaliscana   , especially at Altamina, Sierra de Cuale. Data obtained by Kollmann et al. (2008) on the natural reproduction of A. guatemalensis   show that this closely related species is endangered at lower altitudes due to less-favorable climate and anthropogenic disturbance. A similar vulnerability may be assumed to exist for populations of A. jaliscana   in the Sierra de Cuale, though that aspect requires additional study.

M

Botanische Staatssammlung München

A

Harvard University - Arnold Arboretum

Q

Universidad Central

G

Conservatoire et Jardin botaniques de la Ville de Genève

MEXU

Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México

E

Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh

C

University of Copenhagen

L

Nationaal Herbarium Nederland, Leiden University branch

GUADA

Universidad Autónoma de Guadalajara

W

Naturhistorisches Museum Wien

IBUG

Universidad de Guadalajara

N

Nanjing University

S

Department of Botany, Swedish Museum of Natural History

R

Departamento de Geologia, Universidad de Chile

MICH

University of Michigan

J

University of the Witwatersrand

O

Botanical Museum - University of Oslo

IEB

Instituto de Ecología, A.C.

NY

William and Lynda Steere Herbarium of the New York Botanical Garden

V

Royal British Columbia Museum - Herbarium

SO

Sofia University

I

"Alexandru Ioan Cuza" University

T

Tavera, Department of Geology and Geophysics

Kingdom

Plantae

Phylum

Tracheophyta

Class

Pinopsida

Order

Pinales

Family

Pinaceae

Genus

Abies