Paraphlebia esperanza Ortega-Salas & González-Soriano, 2022

Ortega-Salas, Héctor, González-Soriano, Enrique & Jocque, Merlijn, 2022, Untangling the waterfall damsels: a review of the Mesoamerican genus Paraphlebia Selys in Hagen, 1861 (Odonata: Thaumatoneuridae) with descriptions of 11 new species, Zootaxa 5089 (1), pp. 1-66 : 12-13

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Paraphlebia esperanza Ortega-Salas & González-Soriano

sp. nov.

Paraphlebia esperanza Ortega-Salas & González-Soriano sp. nov.

Figs. 6 View FIGURES 2–11 (head ♂), 18–19 (thorax ♂ ♀), 33 (abdomen ♂), 42, 56 (wings ♂), 71, 95 (appendages ♂), 108, 122 (posterior lobe of prothorax ♂ ♀), 129 (S8– 10 ♀), 149 (map), 155 (habitus ♂).

Holotype. MEXICO • 1 ♂; Oaxaca, Santiago Comáltepec, Km. 85 carretera federal 175 Tuxtepec-Oaxaca ; 17.6016°N, 96.3832°W; 1785 m; 10 May 2016; H. Ortega-Salas & C. Raieli leg.; IBUNAM; IBUNAM:CNIN: OD23010. GoogleMaps

Paratypes. MEXICO • 1 ♂; Chiapas, Ángel Albino Corzo, Reserva de la Biósfera El Triunfo. Poligono I, El Triunfo. ; [15.656°N, 92.8081°W]; 2000 m; 9 Jul 1993; E. González-Soriano leg.; IBUNAM; IBUNAM:CNIN: OD22917 • same data but GoogleMaps 2 ♂♂; Oaxaca, San Juan Bautista Valle Nacional, Km. 83.5carretera federal 175 Tuxtepec- Oaxaca; [17.61°N, 96.36°W]; 1700 m; 26 May 1990; A. Cadena & E. Barrera leg.; IBUNAM:CNIN:OD22768 to 22769 • same data but GoogleMaps 8 ♂♂; IBUNAM:CNIN:OD22790 to 22797 • same data but GoogleMaps 1 ♂; San Juan Tepeuxila, Tlacolula ; [17.7°N, 96.7901°W]; 1500 m; 7 Jul 1976; C. Cook leg.; IBUNAM:CNIN:OD22743 • same data but GoogleMaps 1 ♂; Santiago Comáltepec , La Esperanza; [17.628°N, 96.368°W]; 1630 m; 20 Aug 1984; A. Ibarra leg.; IBUNAM: CNIN:OD22757 • same data but GoogleMaps 1 ♂; 20 Aug 1985; IBUNAM:CNIN:OD22758 • same data but GoogleMaps 3 ♂♂; 17.628°N, 96.368°W; R. Mendoza leg.; IBUNAM:CNIN:OD22754 to 22756 • same data but GoogleMaps 5 ♂♂; Santiago Comáltepec, Km. 85 carretera federal 175 Tuxtepec-Oaxaca ; 17.6016°N, 96.3832°W; 1785 m; 10 May 2016; H. Ortega-Salas & C. Raieli leg.; IBUNAM:CNIN:OD23005 to 23009 • same data but GoogleMaps 1 ♀; 4 km S of La esperanza: Highway 175 ( Valle Nacional – Oaxaca) km 84; 17.6082°N, 96.3765°W, 1655 m 15 Jun 2009; K.-D. B. Dijkstra & V.J. Kalkman leg.; RMHN; RMNH.INS.504311 • same data but GoogleMaps 1 ♂; RMNH.INS.504311 • same data but 3 GoogleMaps # ♂ m • same data but GoogleMaps 4 ♂♂ 1 ♀; Totontepec Villa de Morelos, Arroyo en Km 103.2 carretera estatal Santa María Yacochi Santiago Zacatepec ; 17.189°N, 95.985°W; 2000 m; 26 Jun 2020; H. Ortega-Salas & Y.M. Vega-Sánchez leg.; IBUNAM; IBUNAM:CNIN:OD23104 to 23108 GoogleMaps .

Other material examined. MEXICO • 1 ♂; Chiapas, Angel Albino Corzo, Reserva de la Biósfera El Triunfo. Poligono I, El Triunfo. ; 15.656°N, 92.8081°W; 14 May 2005; R. Novelo-Gutiérrez leg. GoogleMaps ; INECOL • same data but GoogleMaps 12 ♂♂ 19 ♀♀; Ángel Albino Corzo ; [15.656°N, 92.8081°W]; 13 May 1985; F. Arias, H. Velasco & M. Vertiz leg.; IBUNAM; IBUNAM GoogleMaps : CNIN:OD22918 to 22928 • same data but GoogleMaps 1 ♀; 9 Jul 1993; E. González-Soriano leg.; IBUNAM : CNIN:OD22929 • same data but 2 ♂♂; Oaxaca, Santiago Comáltepec, Km. 84 carr 175 Tuxtepec- Oaxaca; [17.6052°N, 96.3828°W]; 1735 m; 13 Jun 1992; R. Novelo-Gutiérrez leg. GoogleMaps ; INECOL • same data but GoogleMaps 1 ♂; Km. 86 carr 175 Tuxtepec-Oaxaca ; [17.5961°N, 96.3856°W]; 1760 m; 12 Jun 1992 GoogleMaps .

Etymology. Named esperanza /espəˈɾɑnʈ͜sɑ/ (L. noun in apposition), for the Castilian word “esperanza” meaning hope, which is also the name of a nearby town in Oaxaca state where this species was first collected.

Description of holotype

Head. Chiefly black, labrum dark glossy blue; postclypeus pale blue; genae pale, maxillae pale, frons pale blue, vertex with two pale spots anterolateral to lateral ocelli; antennae scape with pale spots on distal margin, pedicel pale with black mesal surface, flagellum black.

Thorax. Prothorax: chiefly black, pruinose over coxae, meso and metinfraepisternum, meso and metepimeron, metepisternum, sternum and small areas on posterior margin of mesepisternum; pale spots on notopleural suture; anterior lobe with pale dorsomedial spots; see Fig. 108 View FIGURES 105–116 (paratype) for morphology. Pterothorax: chiefly black with diffuse green metallic reflections over dark colouration on mesepisternum and mesepimeron; see Fig. 18 View FIGURES 12–19 for colour pattern; sternum pale; legs: coxa with medial black spots; femora pale on flexor surfaces; claws reddish.

Wings. Hyaline, without an apical black tip, FW with the vein that descends from the subnodus distal to the second Vx by a distance of one-fifth of the third post-quadrangular cell; CuA in HW not forked, with one supplementary sector. Px: FW 42/43, HW 38/36.

Abdomen. Black with pale areas as follow: S1 covered with pruinescence; S2 with ventrolateral horizontal lines and pruinescence on dorsum; cerci covered with pruinescence.

Caudal appendages. Cerci: see Fig. 71 View FIGURES 67–72 for morphology. Paraprocts: well-developed, clearly forked at apex, armed with well-defined upper and lower branches.

Measurements. Abdomen: 50, FW: 43.3, HW: 42.3.

Variation in males. Genae pale in some individuals; length and width of second line of pterothorax variable, reduced or absent in young individuals; one individual from the type locality has the second line reduced to the anterior third and a spot at two-thirds mesepimeron length; extent of pruinescence variable, absent in young individuals; in some individuals the vein descending from the nodus is proximal to the second Vx but always closer to it than to the first. In one individual from El Triunfo upper and lower branches of paraprocts subequal.

Measurements. Abdomen: 46–51, FW: 40–44.3, HW: 39–42.5, Px: FW 35–48, Px: HW 29–41.

Description of female paratype. Head. As in male.

Thorax. Prothorax: see Fig. 122 View FIGURES 117–128 for morphology; pale above notopleural suture; middle lobe with two transverse black lines on dorsum, these lines joining at anterior fifth of the posterior lobe, thus forming a U-shaped black area; depression mesad to mesostigmal lobe in mesostigmal plate angulated. Pterothorax: see Fig. 19 View FIGURES 12–19 for colour pattern.

Wings. Hyaline, with a slight amber tint; Px: FW 39, or 41; Px: FW 35, or 37.

Abdomen. S1–7 as in male but pale markings more extensive. S8 dorsal pale spot absent. S9 pale dorsal spot mushroom shaped, widened posteriorly. Ovipositor short, not reaching tip of cerci.

Measurements. Abdomen: 47, FW: 41.7, HW: 39.

Diagnosis. This species is readily identified by the position of the vein descending from the subnodus in FW, in all cases is closer to the second Vx, usually at or posterior, rarely proximal to it ( Figs. 42 View FIGURES 35–43 , 56 View FIGURES52–61 ) while in all other Paraphlebia species is always closer to the first Vx. The shape of the posterior margin of the posterior lobe of prothorax is concave towards the lateral edges, seemingly trifoliate, and clearly armed with digitiform projections directed caudad ( Fig. 108 View FIGURES 105–116 ). In dorsal view, the posterior lobe in P. hunnal have some resemblance to that of P. esperanza in being apparently trifoliate ( Fig. 107 View FIGURES 105–116 ), but it is clearly distinguishable when positioned in lateral view. In P. hunnal the lateral edges are erect ( Fig. 98 View FIGURES 95–104 ), while in P. esperanza they are directed caudally.

Natural history. This species is found in completely shaded seepages and small streams in cloud mountain forest.

Distribution. Southeast Mexico: It is known from the Sierra de Juárez in Oaxaca and from the El Triunfo Biosphere Reserve in the Chiapas Sierra Madre, from 1500–2000 m.a.s.l.


Instituto de BiIología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México


National Museum of Natural History, Naturalis