Propeamussium de Gregorio, 1884

Dijkstra, Henk H. & Beu, Alan G., 2018, Living Scallops of Australia and Adjacent Waters (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Pectinoidea: Propeamussiidae, Cyclochlamydidae and Pectinidae), Records of the Australian Museum (Rec. Aust. Mus.) 70 (2), pp. 113-330: 121

publication ID 10.3853/j.2201-4349.70.2018.1670

publication LSID

persistent identifier

treatment provided by


scientific name

Propeamussium de Gregorio, 1884


Propeamussium de Gregorio, 1884  

Propeamussium de Gregorio, 1884: 119   (proposed as a subgenus of Pecten   ). Type species (by original designation): Pecten (Propeamussium) ceciliae de Gregorio, 1884   ; Miocene, Sicily, Italy.

Paramusium Verrill, 1897: 72   . Type species (by original designation): Amussium dalli   E. A. Smith (1885: 308); Recent, off Bermuda, W Atlantic, 796 m.

Occultamussium Korobkov, 1937: 56   (proposed as a subgenus of Amusium   ). Type species (by original designation): Pecten semiradiatus Mayer, 1861   ; upper Eocene, Tyrol, Austria.

Pseudopalliorum Oyama, 1944: 244   (proposed as a subgenus of Propeamussium   ). Type species (by original designation): Pecten interradiatus Gabb   (1869: 199, 251); Eocene, E of New Idria, San Bernardino County, California, U.S.A.

Bathyamussium Oyama, 1951: 79   (proposed as a subgenus of Ctenamusium   ). Type species (by original designation): Amussium jeffreysii   E. A. Smith (1885: 310); Recent, N Sulu Sea, Philippine Islands   , 686 m.

Micramussium Oyama, 1951: 80 (proposed as a subgenus of Ctenamusium   ). Type species (by original designation): Ctenamusium (Micramussium) siratama Oyama (1951: 80)   ; Recent, Sagami Bay, Japan, 234– 291 m.

Flavamussium Oyama, 1951: 81 (proposed as a subgenus of Parvamussium   ). Type species (by original designation): Amussium caducum   E. A. Smith (1885: 309); Recent, W of Luzon, Philippine Islands   , 1280 m.

Luteamussium Oyama, 1951: 82   . Type species (by original designation): Amussium sibogai Dautzenberg & Bavay (1904: 207)   ; Recent , Bali Sea, Indonesia, 289 m.

Diagnosis. Shell almost equivalve, fragile, rather small in most species, translucent in most species, laterally compressed, gaping along lateral margins; left valve smooth or sculptured with fine radial and/or commarginal riblets or striae, right valve with commarginal lines or lirae; auricles almost equal to equal; byssal notch moderately slight; ctenolium lacking; internal riblets commence in early ontogeny and extend to near the central region or to the pallial line.

Distribution. Eocene?–Recent. Cosmopolitan, 275–2740 m ( Waller, 1971). Waller (2006a) thought that Jurassic species previously included in Propeamussium   would be better assigned to Parvamussium   . Schneider et al. (2013: 221) also stated that “All Jurassic to Oligocene propeamussiids that have been studied thoroughly to date belong to Parvamussium   Propeamussium   did not evolve earlier than the Miocene.” D. Jablonski (pers. comm. 27 Jun 2017) pointed out that P. interradiatium (Gabb 1869)   , occurring in the Lutetian– Bartonian (Eocene) Tejon Formation, California, USA ( Stewart, 1930: 123; Addicott, 1971; Moore, 1984: 7) “seems a potential species of Propeamussium   given the equal auricles and nature of the internal ribs”. Further study is required of pre-Miocene records of these subtly distinct genera before the range of Propeamussium   is certain, but a range from at least Eocene onwards seems likely.

Discussion. Grau (1959) restated the original diagnosis of Propeamussium de Gregorio, 1884   , and of the type species P. ceciliae   , with a translation into English. The type specimen subsequently was figured by de Gregorio (1898: pl. 4, figs 10–12). Gregorio’s figures 13 and 14, also mentioned by Grau (1959: 9), do not show the type species. Hertlein (1969: N350) supposedly refigured the right [sic] valve of the holotype, although North (1951b: 123) reported that he could not trace the holotype.

Grau (1959: 9) placed Paramussium, Pseudopalliorum   , Flavamussium and Luteamussium   in the synonymy of Propeamussium   , and Hertlein (1969: N350) subsequently added also Occultamussium   and Actinopecten Bonarelli, 1951   with a question mark. Hayami (1988a) enumerated also Parvamussium Sacco, 1897a   (type species: Pecten duodecimlamellatus Bronn, 1832: 624   ), Ctenamussium   [sic] Iredale, 1929 (type species: Amusium thetidis Hedley, 1902: 304   ), Glyptamusium Oyama, 1944   [sic] (= Glyptamusium Iredale, 1939   ) (type species: Amussium torresi   E. A. Smith, 1885: 311), Bathyamussium Oyama, 1951   (type species: Amussium jeffreysii   E. A. Smith, 1885: 310) and Micramussium Oyama, 1951 (type species: Ctenamusium (Micramussium) siratama Oyama, 1951: 80   ) as synonyms of Propeamussium   . The type species of Ctenamusium   and Glyptamusium   are morphologically inseparable from Parvamussium   , whereas the type species of Bathyamussium   and Micramussium are more nearly similar to the morphological characters of Propeamussium   .

For the distinctive shell microstructure of Propeamussiidae   see Waller (1972b) and Schein (1989).












Propeamussium de Gregorio, 1884

Dijkstra, Henk H. & Beu, Alan G. 2018


Oyama, K 1951: 79
Smith, E 1885: 310


Oyama, K 1951: 82


Oyama, K 1944: 244


Korobkov, I. A 1937: 56


Verrill, A 1897: 72
Smith, E 1885: 308